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MANUAL OF HYDROLOGY: 



CONTAINING 



I.-HYDKAULIC AND OTHER TABLES. 



II.-RIVERS, FLOW OF WATER. SPRINGS, WELLS, 

AND PERCOLATION. 

IIL-TIDES. ESTUARIES, ANI) TIDAL RIVERS. 



IV.-RAINFALL AND EVAPORATION. 



BY 



NATHANIEL BEAEDMORE, 

CIVIL ENGINEER. 



HonHon : 
E. & F. N. RPON, Limited, 67 HAYMARKET. 

Bftu ^ort : 

SPON & ( HAMBERLAIN, 123 LIBERTY STREET, 

1906. 



« 



» • 



ERRATA. 



Page 5, line 40-1, for " The mean veloeUy " read ** The tnean ntr/aee velocity.' 
90, line 64, /or " 7." read "7.047." 
129, line 20, /or " bend " read " bed." 
186, line 87, /or " formations" read " formation." 
160, line 14, for " 308 " read " 308." 

160, line 19, for "649,500, and 216.5" i^^<*d "640.500, and 213.5." 

161, line 7, omit the word " greatest" 
161, line 8, for " .009 and 4,762 " read " 0-09 and 4.75." 
167, line 41, /or "Bogoforte" read "Borgoforte." 
181, line 8, for " XIII." read " XV." 

216, line 83, for " Hague " read " Hogue." 

217, line 24, for " Hague " read " Hogue." 
237, line 16, /or " at Guyhim " read " up to Quyhim." 
267, lines 24 and 88, for " Polnte " read " Point." 
267, line 86, for " bifercates " read " bifurcates." 
269, lines 27 and 39, for " Candebeck " read " Caudebeck." 
274, line 28, /or Eailway Dock "6" read "si | ao.o I 680 | 130.0 | 30.0." 
274, line 27, for " 99^ " read " 98I." 
315, line 6, for " in " read " days." 



i 



/4 



PREFACE. 



The work now laid before the public has arisen out of a 
small treatise called ''Hydratilic Tables/' published in Mayf 
18dO ; of which a second edition, in a very much extended 
form, was issued in September, 1851. The prevailing idea 
of these works is described in the following extracts. 

First Edition, May^ 1850. — ''^In the computation of 
hydrauHc questions daily required by an Engineer much 
labour is saved by the systematic use of Tables; the means of 
detecting errors are far greater than in isolated calculations ; 
and the results, when tabulated, are more useful than any 
mere formula : the one shows the object attained* — the other 
giveff the means only. 

** In the following treatise the author has endeavoured to 
extend the basis of hydraulic calculations, on which there 
ahoiild not be much difference of opinion, to systematic 
results ; the Tables are reduced to imiform measurements 
throughout, and the range of computations for slopes, velo- 
cities, &c., is such as will be required in practice; the 
whole being expressed in decimal measures. 

''To theseare added the general qualities of materials, with 
compiifations for the strength of iron beams of approved 
proportions, concluding with Tables of Numbers, &c., gene- 
rally required in a treatise intended for ordinary use of the 
Practical Engineer. The powers, roots, and logarithms of 
numbers are appended in a simple and legible form,' to save 
the labour of searching them from different works in the 
numerous requirements of the profession. 



■H 



303100 



IV 



" The computations of all the principal Tables areoriginal; 
and have taken much time and labour. It would be scarcely 
possible to enumerate all the authorities ; among others con- 
sulted are — Du Buat, Bobison, LesHe, Bossut, D'Aubuisson, 
Bennie^ &c. ; without previous researches, it would be useless 
to attempt a treatise of this kind, and therefore, probably, 
the suggestions of many have been useful, although not 
specifically acknowledged. 

'* The leading object has been to induce a more general 
and systematic application of hydraulic formulee to practice : 
for the principles, being subject to the laws of gravity, must 
be uniform ; therefore, however varying the meails and cir- 
cumstances, the results should be consistent. 

'' The remarks upon rainfall and the produce of springs 
have been made rather to give examples than to propound 
any particular theory." 



From Prefdce to Second Edition^ September, 1851. — **The 
First Edition of this work was received with much greater 
favour than the author had at all expected ; and, by the 
kindness of his friends, the sale was large for so technical 
a work. This will be the best excuse^for the new form in 
which the book is offered. To extend the use of this edition 
as a handbook for the Engineer, in matters relating to 
Hydraulics and Hydrodynamics, manynewTableshavebeen 
constructed, and the Table of Constants for time and height 
of high water and mean spring range has been inscribed 
from the Admiralty Tables and various other sources. 

'^ The introductoiy remarks on the use of the Tables have 
beeil dmended, and more information is interwoven, chiefly 
on OUT English rivers. The original remarks on tides and 
rivers are limited, or otherwise we should have been travel- 
ling out of the scope of this treatise; experience and practice 
are the g^eat guide ; and, therefore, to obtain the best data 
for practical results, we have carefully collated all the well- 
authenticated data within our reach or personal experience, 
and had them condensed into tabular forms. The author has 
to thank seveiralprofessionalMends — Messrs. Cubitt, Itondel, 



Bennie, Simpson, &c. — for their kind assistance in permit- 
ting the use of, and communicating original papers. He has 
also to acknowledge accessible information at the disposal of 
Admiral Sir F. Beaufort, F.B.S., Captain Drinkwater 
Bethime, and Captain Vetch, of the Admiralty Harbour 
department, whose published reports contain good data — 
not omitting to mention Captain Beechey's very yaluable 
published papers : others to whom we are indebted are 
named especially when the information is due to them. 

'' Considering the small extent of engineering literature, 
and the immense stores of knowledge constantly accumu- 
lating in the office of an Engineer, it is to be wished that 
more of these data were placed at the public disposal, for it 
is on such alone that any true theories can be constructed.'' 

The work here referred to was soon out of print. During 
the long interval which has elapsed it would haye been 
easy to reprint, but the author was anxious to improve the 
work, and extend matter which was compiled originally 
rather in the form of notes than as an exact treatise, and 
with considerable hesitation whether such dry figures wotdd 
secure a reader. The practice of Engineering has now be- 
come so wide that the projection and advising in London 
on works situated in every part of the globe is a matter of 
daily occurrence ; it has, therefore, been apparent, during 
the eleven years occupied more or less in collecting the data 
for this work, that it would be impossible to take too wide 
a range for the ulformation to be contained in a Manual of 
Hydrology. 

Thirty years since, the young Engineer requiring informa- 
tion and experience was compelled to search desultory 
reports, or the few works and essays published by mathe- 
matical professors;' but, with rare exceptions, hydro- 
dynamics formed the only subject then treated as part of the 
science of engineering. The refined but practical questions 
of surface slope and velocity of water, and, above all, of 
the volume accompanying given fall and velocity, or certain 
known rainfall, were subjects almost untouched ; the source 



Yl 



or supply of water in reference to the ainonnt of ram was 
a subject which only a few canal and water-works' engineers 
had investigated ; and they were not much disposed in olden 
times to communicate the practical experience acquired by 
the hard labour of years. 

Hydrological science embraces the widest conditions : 
not only has the climate to be considered, but the elevation, 
inclination, and geological formation of the sub-stratum. 
Practical construction requires great previous experience, 
when the science has to be applied ; for instance, in drainage 
and'waterworks the theoretical size of pipes and drains is 
not always sufficient, owing to the margin reqtured for 
deterioration or foreign deposits ; and, above all, the ques- 
tion of velocity is one contingent on the materials of the 
sides and on the slope, within the limits of the outlay 
applicable to the given locality and requirement. 

This work may probably fall into the hands of the yoimger 
members of the profession ; the author would, therefore, 
venture to impress a few considerations upon those who have 
the future before them. No one can be competent to advise 
upon the legal quedions arising out of floods — alterations of 
water-courses and weirs — or the critical refinements which 
occur in cases of contiguous millowners^^the service of water 
where more than one party is interested — ^the consequential 
effect of new works, either speculative, as when before 
Parliament, or alleged, when works have been carried out — 
unless he be thoroughly conversant with theory and practice ; 
that is^ unless there be a knowledge of results in previous 
cases. 

The treatise being designed strictly to form a practical 
manual for every-day use, it would be out of place to have 
entered at any length upon theory; fortunately, at the 
present time this is not absolutely required, as of late years 
several valuable treatises have been published in our own 
language. Without wishing to particularise any one work 
as better than another, when aU are excellent, mention may 
be made of Bennett's translation of D'Aubuisson's Treatise ; 
of Dwyer's Practical Hydraulics (Dublin) ; and of the cffm- 



.wr* 



yu 



pendiouB ** Manual of Hydratilips," hy Professor Downing, 
of Trinity CollegOi Dublin. " Hydraulic Formulse,*' by Mr. 
John NeyUle, C.E., giyes yeiy dearly the leading mathe- 
matical principles of Hydraulics, "with the gist of Du Buaf s 
Treatise. 

Haying now written his apology, the author has to state 
that the calculationB h^aye been generaUy made an,d super- 
intended by Mr. B. C. Despard, C.E., to whom the design 
is due of seyeral of the yaluable tables in the first diyision. 
Mr. Septimus Beardmore, C.E., imdertook the collatiop and 
reyision of a considerable portion of the tables in the fourth 
diyision ; this, and other parts of the work, could not haye 
been carried to so great an extent if it had not been for the 
indefatigable researches of Mr. H. S. Eaton, M.A.^ to wboia 
the author is indebted for great assistance. It is superfluous 
to mention that the writings, personal communications and 
labours of James Glaisher, E.B.8., the pioneer of systematic 
meteorological obseryations in this country, haye formed 
the basis of the tables in Diyision lY. Messrs. G. K. 
OUiyer, C.E., and B. Twigg, C.E., haye giyen their care^ 
assistance to the tables and explanatory drawings. 

It must be weU-known that the author's time is entirely 
occupied by practical ayocations: although this has yery 
much increased the personal l^>boi;r of a kind of work that 
suffers so much from interruption, he has neyertheless felt 
pleasure in endeayouring, with the kind assistance already 
referred to, to lay before the profession a handbook on a 
group of subjects not hitherto collected into one treatise. 

In compiling this woik the following authorities Jiaye 
been consulted; many of them are professional friends, whose 
priyate communications, manuscripts, notes^ and poUe^stipns 
of facts haye been freely placed at the author's disposal ; 
these resources would haye been more extensiyely used, if 
time, and the reasonable Umit of a yolume of figures, had 
permitted. The yarious authorities haye been named in the 



VUl 



body of the work, when quoted ; if there has been any 
omission in this respect, it has been firom-inadvertence. 

Alas I the hand of death will remind many what hayoc 
the oyerworking spirit of the age has made in our ranks. 

Weaimruter, March 19, 1862. 



AUTHORITIES :- 

The Astronomer-Boyal ; J. F. Bateman, C.E. ; J. W. 
Bazalgette, C.E. ; G. P. Bidder, C.E. ; George Bumell, C.E. ; 
John Coode, C.E. ; A. Duncan, C.E. ; Adm. Evans, B.N. ; 
Admiral Fitzroy, B.N. ; B. B. Grantham, C.E. ; Thomas 
Hawksley, C.E. ; J. B. Hartley, C.E. ; W. Haywood, C.E. 
the late Manuel Johnson, Oxford ; James Leslie, C.E. 
Elia Lombardini, of Milan, C.E. ; G. F. Lyster, C.E. 
E. W. Mylne, C.E. ; I. Page, C.E. ; W. Pole, C.E. 
George Bennie, C.E. ; Secchi, Bome ; James Simpson, C.E. 
A. D. and T. Steyenson, C.E.; John Taylor, C.E.; <kc„ &c. 



In issuing a New Edition, the work haying partially run 
out of print, the author begs to remark that there is no 
alteration in the matter. It is gratifying to be able to 
state that the demand for this work is still good — better 
than the author had oyer yentured to anticipate. 

Westminiter, March I9th, 1872. 



I 



IX 



DIVISION I-HIDRAULIC AND OTHER TABLES. 



•;in:4: 



TO TABLES. 



of Tftbl0. 



L 

2 

Sa 

S 
41k 4a 

4bft4c 


§ 

7 

8 

8a 

8b 

9 

Oa 

10-lOa 

U 

18 



BemarkB oa the use of the T&bles and Ex- 
planatory Descriptions will be found from 
page 1 to 31. 

The Tables, from page 3a to 96. 

Sluices, Tanks, Beeervoirs, and Tertical Pipes, Dis- 
ohai^e at Heads of .02 to 260 feet 

Weirs, or OverfUIs. Discharge fbr 1 foot in length, at 
depthsfttim.Ol tottfoet. 

Do. Ditoliarge when water approodhes, with vBirioiui 
Initial velodtiea 

Bivers. Velooities, Borfboe, Mewi aad Bottom^ from 6 
to 960 feet per minnte 

Arterial Drains, New Cats, Ac. Discharge and 

T 6 J OC 1 vl^Stt •*« ••• ••■ >•• ••• ■•■ 

Circular and £gg-shaped Culyerts, Do. do. ... 

Arterial Drains. Table of Constants applicable to 
any Fall and Section 

Circular Pipes. Table of Area, CironmflBrence, and 
Square Boots of 6th powers 

Qas Pipes under Pressure. Table of Oonstants, 
applicable to any length and pressure 

Water Pipes under Pressure. Table of Constants, 
applicable to any length and head 

Water Pipes under Pressure. Table of Discharge, 

and Velocities for Pipes numing flili with a 
constant head 

Water Pipes under Pressure. Table of Discharge, 

and required head, for Pipes running foil 
at stated Velocities 

Friction of Bends. Theoretio heat required, 0^ to 90° 

Friction of Bridges and Pipes 

Motion and Besistance of Water and Air, bvtheony, 
to one square foot at different velooties and 

WTl f IB li^Xv •■• «■■ *•• ««« ••• ••• 

Expansion of Water, steam, and Qas, wlt3i their 
density, volume and pressure, at difforent 
dep^esofheat 

Value of Water in Nominal Horse Power, and the 
effootiye value of different appUoations, with 
varying quantities of water ... 




Hyd. 

Tables. 

Page. 



1-8 82-88 



8-6 



)f 



6-8 

8 
9' 

II 

10 

II 

u-ie 



II *i 



M fl 

16-18 
18 



fl 

19 

19-20 



84-86 

8^-87 

88-89 

40-48 
44-46 

48 

47 

48 

49 

60 

61 
62 
68 

64^66 

66 

67 



INDEX TO DIYIBION I. 



Number 
of X»ble. 



18 

14 
16 

16 



17 
18 



19 
20 
81 

28A82a 



28 

24 
26 



26 
27 
28 



80 



Pressure of Mercury and Water per aqnare inch 
and per aqoare foot, with their equivalent 
oolomnfl 

Weight Of Pipes per yard, S to 48 inohes diameter, 
with safe Lead of water each will bear 

Flood Dlschargea per minute, for different amounts 
of BainfiBdl per diem, for 1 to 100 acres and 
1 to 10 square miles 

Mean Disoharge of JLnnual Bain, at from 2 to eo 

inches per Annnm if flowing uniformlv per 
minute, and per diem, for one acre ana one 
square mile 

Subsoil Drains. Leng^ of Pipes in one acre, 6 to 96 
feet apart 

Expenditure of Water; per minute, per diem, per 
annum 

Water Supply per Diem, and equivalent quantities 
per minute and per annum, with population 
supplied and drainafire area required, at 12 
inches depth, run off per annum 

Velocities. Feet per minute, miles per hour 

Gradients. Equivalent fall per chain and per mile ... 

Comparative Measures. Chains, yards and feet, 
with a table of reduction for slopes 

Useful Weights and Measures, inches in deci- 
mals of a foot. Miscellaneous n ambers and 
rules. Reduction of Foreign into English 
Measures. Areas of Segments and lengths 
of Ovrcular Arcs. Len^s of Degrees and 
Minutes of an Arc fieif^ht of apparent, 
above true level. Square yards in iJecimals 
of an Acre. Brickwork 

Thermometrio Scales. Tables for converting scalee 
of Fahrenheit, Centigrade, and Besumur 
Thermometers 

THTigHfth and French Measures. Tables for con- 
verting English and French Measures 

Tfingllsh and French Measures. Cubic Metres, 

and Hectolitres, per diem, with equivalents 
in gallons per diem, and cubic flaet per 
minute. Values of the Cubic M&tre. and 
Hectolitre, with equivalents per 1000 gallons 

Weight, Strength, ftc, of Metals, Timber, Building 
Materials, Fluids, Ac., Sto 

Weight of Iron. Round, Square, Flat, Sheet, and 
Cast Iron Balls ; Sheet, Copper, Brass, Lead 

Weight and Strength of Wire. Copper, iron and 

Bteel, in Air and Water, fipeoific Gravities. 
Ac., of different Metals; also Area and 
Weight of Angle Iron 

Suspension Bridges. Length aud Tension of Chains 
and Rules for Catenary Curves 

Boolkl and Look Gates, strain and Thrunt of 
Rooft, Beams, or Lock Gates; also Strain 
and Dimensions of Look Gates at an angle 

WA X9 40^ ••• ■•• •■■ aat ••• •■• 



BzplKDA- 

torvDe- 

■onptlon 

Psge. 



Bvd. 

Tables. 

P««e. 



20 



t* 



81 



>t 



»> 



»t 



88 



»» 



» 



» 



f> 



*i 



t» 



>» 



» 



»» 



28 



24 



08 
69 

60 

61 

t* 

62 



68 
64 

>f 

66 



66-67 



70 

71-78 

74 

75 
76 

77 



XI 



nn>BX TO .DITI8I0N I. 



Number 
of TMble. 



81 
82 



0)d,Of£ 
84 
85 



86 
87 



89a 
89b 

40 

«L 

48 

42a 

42b 

42e 



Cast Iron Beams. Baft Load for Beama, 6 to 80 
incheB deep with size of bottom flange 

Iffarlne Surveying. Anglea of the Points of the 
Compass with the Meridian. Miles in a 
degree of Longitade. Teloci^ and Pressure 
of wind. Table for flndiug Height of Tide 
after high water. Length in feet of (me 
minnte of Longirade and Latitade 

Mountain Barometer. Six Tables of Ck)rreotionB.. 

Circles. Area and Gircnmferenoe 

Powers and Roots. Squares, Cubes, Square Boots, 
Cube Boots, Fifth Powers, and Beciprooals 

X lA/ A W ■•* >»• •*• ••■ ••« 

Do. do. Squares, Cubes, Square Boots, 
and Cube Boots 100 to 1.100 

Logarithms of Numbers, loo to 990 

liOgarlthmlo Sines and Cosines, /or each lo 

minutes 

Trigonometric Ratios. Natural Bines, Tangents, 
and Secants 

Tide Tables 

Times of High Water at Twenty standard Ports of 
Beferonce 

Heights of do. for Da Do. 

Moon's Declination and Parallax. Corrections 
fbr Twenty Places— Constants for Devonport 

JLJtUW •«• ••* «•• •■■ ••• ■•• •« ■ 

Intermediate Heights of Tide 

Constants of Time^and Heights Ibr various places 

Annuities and Iieases. Value for Term certain ... 

„ „ Value for Single Life 

M f. Present value of reversion 

„ n Value by the Legacy Act.. 



Bxplana- 
tonrDe- 
■ortption 
Ps«e. 



24 



S5 
26-29 

29 



*» 



Hyd. 

Tables. 

Page. 



78-79 



80-81 
82-88 

84-8d 



88-87 



If 


88-97 


M 


98-108 


*» 


104-6 


1* 

►-81 


106 


i» 


108 


»t 


109 


M 


110 


*• 


m 


M 


112-18 


■9t 


U4 


»> 


U6 


1> 


116 


M 


fff 



H^OTICE. 



The Oontents of Divialoa IL, Biven 
Do. do. QL, Tides, 

Bo. do. IV., BainfikU 

Do. ofthePlatee 



Flow, will be ftynfidat page 
do. 
do. 
do. 



119 
SOS 
879 
868. 



Brery endeATonr has been madei&thia woxk to adherDtoiuiilbnn measnreB ; . 
except when (qpeoially ktated otherwiae^ it most be nndenteod that :— 
AH qnaotitieft of water in thia work are given in oobio fbet per ndnnte. 
VelooltieB „ „ in lineal fBet „ 

Meaaoree „ „ inftet. 

Fall or aoifkoe slope of water „ in inohea per mile. 
^A.iTifti.11 and evaporation „ in inches in depth. 

All foreign measnreB have been oonverted into Bngllah, in expreaaing fbrmoln 
aad in the reproduction or compilation of tablea from the woxka of con- 
tinental anthoritieB. 
Fractiona, or parts, are expreeaed in deoimalB. 

Volume or Flow of water (discharge) is generally refbrred to as the aniform 
qoantity of cnbic feet which would ran off per minute Ibr eadh aquare 
mile; thia quantity ia also expreaaed by the equivalent depth w» in^kM 
apread over the whole area, provided such were dlacharged in a given 
time ; thua fi3 cubio fbet per minute per square mUe flowing unifoxmly for 
oaae year ia equivalent to U inchea in depth run off in the same period. 
Bee tablea at pages <K>-61. 
Discharge of a Biver in cubic feet per minute per aquare mile : — 

•f 63.01 or X .01928 =■ depth ot inchea run off per month of 31 days, 
-t- 68.77 or x .01860 = „ ,» per month of 30 daya. 

•f 66.66 or x .01797 «= „ „ per month of 29 days, 

•f 67.62 or x .01736 = „ „ per month of 88 di^ya. 

or X .00062 = depth run off in inohea per day. 
The aummadona and meana of rainfall and other tablea herein given in 
Diviaion IV., are not always the precise resulta of the figures in the tables, owing 
to the second place of dedmala being l^uently omitted for the sake of 
conciaeneaa. 

Tablea fbr changing foreign meaaorea into Bngliah, with other uaeftd con- 
veraiona, will be Ibund between pages 62 and 70. 



V 



< 



If 



DIVISION I. 



HYDRATJUC AND OTHER TABLES: 



REMARKS ON THEIR USE. 



DI8CEAB0E OF SLUICES, BESESTOIRS, &o.-Tabl6 1. 



This Table is computed on the law that the Telocity of a body, falling 
horn a height, expressed in feet per second, is as 8.04 times the square 
root of the height. When water ftdls freely under highly fayonrable 
drcnmstanccs, its Telocity is nearly this theoretic quantity, and is repre- 
sented in column B, in feet per mmnte, opposite Tarious heights shewn 
in column A. 

The column C is calculated from a co-efficient 7.5 v^h, and should be 
UBed for finding the effectiTe Telocity of water passing through orifices 
of the form of the vend contradd, through well-constructed bridges, 
and ordinary sluices with good side walls ; Tery large and well-placed 
sluices I and through wide openines whose bottom is IctcI with that of the 
reserroir. This table also giyes me discharge through well-placed and 
large Tertical pipes, and narrow bridge openings, by deducting l-9th 
fiom the tabular Telodties. 

The column D is calculated firom a co-efficient of 5|/h, and should be 
used for the efiectiTe Telocity of water through sluices without side- walls, 
such as are used cpmmonly upon mill-streams and riTcrs, undershot 
wheel gates and canal lock or dock-gate sluices. When these are con- 
structed in a yery suitable form, an intermediate between columns C and 
D is sometimes aTailable. 



Rbmarkb on the ubb of thb Tables. 



rui.es and examples for the table. 



First. — ^Wben the area of the orifice and the head of water are given, to 

find the discharge in cabic feet per minute ; Multiply the number in 

the table of the column C or D, according to the case, by the area of 

the orifice expressed in feet and decimals. 

Examples. —The fall of water is .05 through a bridge which has 500 
feet of sectional area ; what is thedischaige P 

Tabular number of colunm C, opposite .05, is 100.8 X 600 = 50,160 
cubic feet per minute. 

The difference of level between the upper and lower ponds of a canal 
is 6 feet ; what is the discharge with a sluice having 4 feet superficial 
area of opening P 

The total height being 6 itet, and opposite 6.00 in colunm D, is 
734.7X4 = 2,938, which divided hy 2 for the mean discharge due to 
the height, gives 1,469 cubic feet per minute. If the lock be 100 feet 
long and 18 feet wide, it will hold 10,800 cubic feet of water, and conse- 
quently take 7.34 minutes to fill; this would be too long, therefore the 
lock should have two sluices, each of 4 feet area. 
Second. — When the dischai^ and the area of the opening are given, 

to find the head required ; divide the given discharge in feet per 

minute {adding I -Sth for pipes) by the area qf the orifice infect, 

find the result in column C or D, according to the case, and column 

A will show the head required. 
Third. — ^Whcn the discharge and the head of water are given, to find 

the area of opening ; divide the given discharge {or ha0 such with a 

head decreasing* to zero) by the tabular discharge opposite the given 

head {deducting X'^th qf column C for pipes) and the result wiU be 

the area qfthe orifice required. 

Examples may be worked firom the former ones, thus : — Required the 
area of lock sluices to run 2,938 imbic feet per minute, with six feet 
difference of level ; or in other words, to empty a lock 100 feet long and 
18 feet wide, in 3.67 minutes. 

The tabular number for 6 feet of head, in column D is 734.7, and the 
mean discharge for the gradually decreasing head of the emptying lock, 
will be half, or 367.3 cubic feet per minute; then S^^|= 8 feet area of 
sluice required. 

A vertical pipe is required, to discharge 138 cubic feet per minute horn. 
a reservoir with 50 feet head; required the area and consequent diameter P 

The tabular number opposite 50 feet of head is 3181.95, which re- 
duced I -9th is 2828.4. Then ,;j|, = .049 for the area of the pipe, 
which by tiie table of areas will be found to be four inches diameter. 



* Where the orifice of the sluice is covered, as in loclcs and river altdces, the 
" head of water" is the difference of level between the respective sorfaoes ; in 
other cases, the head is to be taken from the BorlE^Moe to the centre of the openinc' : 
and for bridges, or aimilar cases, the accurate difference of level between tne 
water sorfiEUse on the upper and lower side of the bridg[e. When water is 
drawn down, as out of a lock with a head gradoaJly dimuiishing to nothing, 
the discharge will be as the maximom head in half tlie time ; or in other words, 
for a head of six toot gradually diminishing to nothing, the main discharge will 
be half the tabular number (for six feet) per minute for the whole time. Other 
cases of reservoirs, &c., emptying or filling with an increasing or decreasing head, 
require intrioate calculation. 



BUCABKS OR THE USB OV THB TaBLBS. 



GENERAL RULES FOR DISCHARGE FROM SLUICES, 
TAKES, RESERVOIRS, AND YERTIOAL PIPES. 



First Cojtf.— Multiply the square root of the eiyen head in feet, by 450 
(400 or 300) times the given area in feet ; the result is the disckatye 
in eubiefe^per tninute, 

Second Case, — Divide the discharge in cubic fiset per minute hj 450 
(400 or 800) times the area in feet; the square of the result is the 
head in feet. 

Third Case, — Divide the dischaiige in cubic feet per minute by the pro- 
duct of 450 (400 or 300), multiplied by the square root of the given 
head in feet; the result is the area of the pipe or opening. 

Note,— 450 18 the multiplier for bridges, &c. 
400 „ pipes, &c« 

800 „ ordinary sluices, &c. 

The Rules and Tables above described, when carefully applied, will be 
found to meet all ordinary cases in practice. The observer will fre- 
quently find his sluices, &c., more or less favourably circumstanced, and 
he must exercise his discretion accordingly. Where there are very 
severe bends in pipes and culverts a loss of discharge is occasioned, which 
is treated of in another place. 



DI8CEAS0E OF WEIBS OB OVEBFALLS. 

Tables 2 and 8a. 



Table 8 is computed by the formula D = 214 i/EP, where D is the 
discharge in cubic feet per minute, for one fbot in width of the waste- 
board or siU of the weir, and H is the true height horn the top edge of 
such sill to the surface of water where it is at rest, or nearly so. The 
principle of the formula is, that the curve of the water falling over is a 
parabola ; consequently there can be dischmrged only two-thirds of the 
water which would pass the full section due to H ; the constant fll4 is 
two-thirds of 3fll, which has been found, by frequent trials, to represent 
the ikctor, to be multiplied by i/H for giving the mean velocity in fleet 
per minute of water passing over an obstacle such as a waste-board. 
The constant 214 is consequently liable to some variation under favour- 
able circumstances ; for instance, where the weir is formed of a number 
of short bays, divided by beuns« In these cases, the water passing the 



BbUARKS ox the USB OF THE TaBLKS. 



edges assumes the vend contractd fonn, and conseqaendy the width of 
the opening should be reduced for the true quantity of water passing. 
These and uther causes which may render the obserration liable to error, 
must be treated with judgment, according to circumstances. 

Table 2a* — When fromany cause, such as the comparative smallness 
or rapid, declivity of the channel above the weir, the water arrives with 
an appreciable velocity at the point where the still head begins to de- 
flect, the dischiu-ge calculated by Table 2 would be below the truth. 
Tabid 2a has, therefore, been calculated in order th at the true discharge 

may be obtained. The formula used is D = 214 |/ H » + .035 v * H ^ 
in which v = velocity of approach or initial velocity in feet per second, 
This formula is obtained by adding to the measured head H, a height h, 
sufficient to generate the initial velocity, and calculating the velocity 
over the weir from the total head so obtained (H + h). As h is an 
unknown quantity, its equivalent in terms of the velocity is added to H, 
in the formula above given. In a work of this nature it is, of course, im- 
possible to . enter at length into theory, those who wish to obtain fuller 
information on this and other hydraulic subjects, will find it in Professor 
Downing*8 valuable treatise referred to in the preface, and other well- 
known works, such as those of D'Aubuisson, Du Bnat, etc. 



PRACTICAL APPLICATION FOR GAUGING. 

The best way of gauging weirs is to hav^ a post with a smooth head 
level with the edge of the waste-board or sill ; to be driven firmly in 
some part of the pond above the weir which has still water. A common 
rule can then be used for ascertaining the depth, or a gauge, to shew at 
sight the depth of water passing over, may be nailed on, with its zero 
at the level of the sill of the weir. The depths in the table are given in 
feet and decimals, as used in ordinary levelling : this unit abri(^s cal- 
culation, and is altogether better than measurement by inches, which 
has been the more usual custom. Among practical engineers, gauging 
by a weir has been always justly held to afford t\^ most certain and 
efficient result, and especially for ascertaining the comparative diS" 
charges of streams, which, in cases of litigation and arbitrations, is often 
as important as ascertaining the real quantity. The plain rules for 
correct gauging and use of Table 2 should be, absence of wind and 
current, a good thin-edged waste-board, and a weir not so long in pro- 
portion to the width above it as to wire-draw the stream ; in the latter 
case, the water will arrive at the weir with an initial velocity due to a 
fall which is not estimated for ; in this case Table 2a must be used. 
The best method of ascertaining the initial velocity is by a float, passing 
over a space of 100 feet, or thereabouts, before arriving at the weir ; 
the surface velocity will thus be obtained. That given in the formula 
is the mean, but for all practical purposes these two velocities may be 
considered as equal. A weir, for correct gauging, should always have 
a free fall over ; but there are sometimes cases where measurements are 
required with drowned woirs — so called when the tail water has risen 
above the level of the sill. In this case we have two conditions to deal 
with ; first, the water passing at a depth represented by the difference of 
levels of the upper and lower may be treated by this Table as a simple 
overfall ; secondly, there is a section of water passing between the top of 



Remarks on thb ubb of thb Tables. 



the waste-board and leyd of the lower water, whose mean velocitj will 
be that dne to the difference of level or head above mentioned. The 
velocity and discharge of this portion of the weir can then be computed 
hy taking the mean of rolnmns C and D, Table 1 : the sum of the two 
will give very nearly the true discharge. 

The application of the Table in constructing weirs for relief of flooded 
lands is obvious. 

A paper was read before the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1851, by 
T. £. Blackwell, Esq., then Engineer of the Kennet and Avon Canal : it 
is published in their Minutes^ and will be found well worth study, 
as containing a condensed account of a vast number of experiments 
which must have taken great time and labour. The result of Mr. 
BlackweU's experiments seems to be, that under favourable circumstances, 
the constant by which the Table No. 2 is calculated, is substantially 
correct ; that is to say, in a good situation fi>r the flow of water approach- 
ing, and with a thin waste-board. With thick waste-boards, and nar- 
row openings, the results are generally .80 of those which would be 
given by the Table. 

One important and useful set of his experiments, is on weirs with a 
lip three feet wide, having its edge level, or with a small slope in the 
transverse section ; this is a case frequently met with in practice, and 
we find that the results of Mr. BlackweU's experiments give from .70 to 
.75 of the Tables, which is quite consistent with the allowance we have 
generally found it necessary to make, where so much friction ia 
involved. 



SUBFACE, MEAN, AND BOTTOK VELOCITIES 
Of Biven, Streams, and Estuaries.— Table 3. 



This Table is computed from the formula b =(v^s — 1) ', where the 

velocity at the surface in the middle of a river is s, and that at the bottom 

s -A- b 
b. The column of.meaa velocities is-— ; or it may be found in an easier 

way by taking the mean velocity, m = s — |/s + .5. In Du Buat*s formula, 
the velocities are expressed in inches per second, but in the Table they 
are reduced to feet per minute, which is made the unit throughout this 
work, where applicable. 

The bottom velocity obtained from ( {/ s— 1) ', is that prevailing directly 
beneath the point at* which the corresponding surface velocity has been 
ob8er>*ed ; therefore, in order to obtain a true mean, the mean surface 
velocity should first be obtained either of each special portion of the sec- 
tion of a river or of its whole section, as the case may be. The mean 
velocity of a stream is fairly represented by the maximum velocity X .8, 
as a rough rule. 

The Table shews, by inspection, the relative velocities of streams of all 
kinds, extending finom 5 to 950 feet per minute. Its most important use 
is for gauging the quantity of water passing down any river or stream. 
For tms purpose, get the surface velocity at the various parts of the stream, 
by observing, either with a current meter, or with floats barely reaching 
the surface, and offering no space to the action of the wind ; their velocity 
being noted by fixed buoys or by marks upon shore. The mean velocity 



RbMABKS on THB USB OV THB TaBLBS. 



corresponding to that of the snrfHce as then obtained, is, in faet, 
an imaginary qn&ntity, representing the mean of the yertical section 
of water passing the place of observation; therefore, when the 
dischai^ of a stream is required, take cross sections where the 
channel is straight, and divide into portions of uniform depths, and 
observe the velocitj of the surface of each portion ; the correspond- 
ing mean Telocity multiplied bj the area of each portion of the 
section will give the discharge. If a current meter is used, take 
the velocity at the place of section ; or if floats, take their time of passing 
between two sections ; in either case repeating the observations at sevend 
places, for obtaining an average, and using the greatest judgment in 
selection of places for trial, for otherwise the whole is liable to be incorrect. 

The bottom velocities are chiefly useful for shewing the permanent limit 
of the bimk, &c., of a stream which may be required to be straightened or 
made de novo. If any river pass at a greater rate than the banks wiU 
bear, it is a beautiful law of nature, and most certain in its efiects, that a 
greater sectional area is cut out ; and thus the hydraulic mean depth being 
increased, the surface slope becomes flatter, and the general velocity and 
scouring action is reduced. It is most essential to the success of artificial 
cuts that their bottom velocities should not exceed the permanent limit of 
the material through which they pass. The first action of this kind 
destrojrs the whole economy of a work, — deepening unequally is com- 
menced, — eddies and shoals must follow, and inequidi^ of water surface 
accompanies the evil, reprodncine these efiects. 

The second page of this Table is headed by a statement of the efiect of 
bottom velocities on materials through which rivers are usually cut, and 
they form a criterion for the limiting bottom velocities of new cuts. It 
will be found, however, that this statement somewhat overrates the 
effect produced by currents when applied to rivers as they exist, 
especially where there is admixture of clays, the resisting power of some 
kinds of which material is very high. There are constant occurrences 
of hiffher yelocities than those quoted, which offer no permanent damaee 
to the bed of rivers ; in point of fact, the bottom very frequenuy 
becomes covered with weed or slime, which much prevents the efiect of 
abrasion. There are, nevertheless, many rivers fiowing in channels cut 
out of their own alluvium, such as in the Delta of the Nile and (Ganges, 
where alteration of channel is perpetual. 

The most recent and complete experiments on the practical effect of 
running water, are those made by Mr. T. E. Blackwell, U.E., for the Oo- 
vemment Referees on the Metropolitan Drainage Plans, with the object of 
ascertaining what velocities are applicable to the movement of materials 
liable to be collected in sewers. But the facts are capable of much 
further extension ; for although the abstract power of running water to 
remove a given mass is a mere question of calculation, yet there are 
questions of friction and adhesion of substances to each otiier, that can 
only be solved by practical experience. 

The table on the opposite page gives the results of these experiments ; 
they were made in a rough elm trough, 60 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 3 
feet deep, set horizontally, and fed by a pond at 2 feet higher levc^, with 
sluices so placed as to direct a current uniformly down the trough, on the 
bottom of which the materials experimented upon were laid. The table is 
used thus : the strong fig^ures at top represent the velocities given to the 
current ; the smaller figures opposite each class of material shew the 
velocity at which they were moved with the current stated at top of each 
column ; thus, broken granite No. I, started with a velocity of current 
between 2.00 and 2.25 feet per second, and moved at the rate of 1.00 
foot per second, with a velocity of between 2.75 and S.OO feet per 
second, and so on. 



BiSMABES OH THB USE OF THE TABLES. 



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BbHARKB on the USB OV THB TaBLBS. 



The most nsefiil instrument for getting velocities, where a float is not 
i^plicable, and where an under current is probable, is the current meter, 
formed by a vane in the Archimedean form« canying an endless screw, 
which turns a wheel divided on the circumference. This very convenient 
instrument should be made with a secx)nd or differential wheel, worked by 
the same screw, having one tooth less than the first, and shewing in its 
revolution about 1,128 turns of the first wheel; this gives the power of 
leaving the instrument under water for a considerable time, which is 
frequently very desirable for obtaining a good mean velocity. In 
gauging by velocities, care should be taken to ascertain that the current 
does not under-run at the place of observation. This phenomenon 
frequently occurs in riven and tidal streams, where the passage is 
narrow and deep, the latter generally an effect of the under-current 
rather than a cause. At sharp bends of large rivers, and at headlands 
on sea-coasts, it generally occurs, and is detected on the surface by 
the races which are formed. Striking instances may bo seen off the 
Isle of Portland, and some of the bold headlands of Cornwall, Wales, 
and the north and west of Ireland and Scotland. 



ABTEBIAL DRADTS, SIVEBS, fto-Tables 4 and 4a. 

The rule on which these tables are constructed is — ^multiply the hydraulic 
mean depth in feet by twice the fall in feet per mile ; take the square root 
of the product and multiply it by 55 ; the result is the mean velocity of 
the stream in feet per minute ; this again multiplied by the sectional area 
in square feet, gives the discharge in cubic feet per minute. The hydraulic 
mean depth is obtained by dividing the sectional area of the stream by the 
border or wetted perimeter : in pipes this is simply one-fourth of the 
diameter. The table is arranged for falls of 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 9 inches 
per mile, but, by referring to the rule at the head of the table, 
It can be readily extended to 12 more rates of fall per mile — and 
even further extended by using the following rule, viz. : the velocity and 
discharge varying as the square root of the fall, hd^the discharge or 
velocity qf any given faU vrill be the dischai^ or velocity for one-fourth 
that fall; or vice versa, /or the discharge or velocity oj four times any 
given fall per mile, take twice the discharge or velocity of such fall. 

Table 4a » given chiefly for application to large rivers, and it vrill be 
found to include in its dimensions some of the greatest examples. As 
applied to tidal rivers it shews that enormous power of discharge is given 
to large sectional areas, however small the fall, simply because the tabular 
results are based upon uniform construction and regular beds. Having 
analysed numerous actual observations of rivers, the author has never 
found the rule for this table at fault, when the conditions were fairly 
represented in the experiments. 

The application of these tables to cuts of all kinds for straightening 
rivers, for forming mill heads and carrying off flood waters, is sufficiently 
obvious. The tables shew the slopes that rivers of various sizes will 
assume under the laws of gravity influenced by friction of the bed ; 
giving by mere inspection what would otherwise require tedious compu- 
tation. 



Bbmarks on the use of the Tables. 



dSCULAB AND EQO-SHAPED CULVEBTS. 

Tables :4b and 4o. 

Table 4b gfyes the discharge and velocity for cnlyerts from 8 feet to 
1 foot in diameter, as if half full and three-fourths full ; shewing also the 
area of water-way at such depths respectiyclj. The data given are 
with inclinations from 2 to 7 feet per mile, which will embrace the usual 
practical range. It is computed hy the formula as described for Tiable 4, 
but it does not differ materially from the results obtained from Table 8, 
although the method of computation is totally different. 

TaUe 4o gi^es the same information in every respect as Table 46, for 
oval culverts ; the vertical and transverse dimensions are given in the first 
column ; in Table 4b will be found circular culverts of the same sectional 
areas while half full and three-fourths full, so that a comparison is 
afforded of the discharge of the circular and oval form. 

Great caie should be taken in adapting the size of any culvert to the 
fall and duty expected. If too great a velocity be given, the water is 
apt to flush onwards, eo as to require control, and, as it were, to force it 
to follow the slope of a channel which is not adapted to the case. 



ABTEEIAL D&ADTS.-Table 6, 

h a universal table for obtaining velocities of new cuts, rivers, &c., 
calculated from the formula given in Leslie's <* Natural Philosophy," 

6000 y/ HP 
Art. Hydrodynamics, viz., ^/i — = mean velocity in feet per 

minute, in which HD is the hydraulic mean depth, obtained by 
dividing the sectional area by the wetted perimeter, both in feet. 

This formula is a modification of that applied to pipes in Table 8. The 
foimula used for Tables 4, 4a, 6, c. given on page 11 when reduced to 

5 652 v/ITd 
similar terms, becomes ^~ = velocity in feet per minute, and 

gives results 5.8 per cent, lower. Table 5 is applicable only to channels 
constructed with great care, and straight in direction, or nearly so; 
allowance must, therefore, be made by the engineer for bends, irregu- 
larities of bed, &c. &c. Tables 4, 4a, b, c will be found to afford more 
correct results for arterial drains, &c., as ordinarily constructed. 

In a paper *' On the flow of water through pipes, &c.,*' by Mr. Leslie, 
of Edinburgh, read before the Institution of Civil Engineers in 1855, an 
account is given of experiments made on the flow of water in the conduit 
of the Dundee Water Works. This conduit is 2 feet wide, with vertical 
sides, and a bottom of smooth stone slabs. In the first set of experiments 
the gradient was 1 in 1000, and the depth varied from 6 inches to 1 foot. 
The difference between the discharge as actually measured, and as calcu- 
lated by the formula used for this table, did not exceed 1 per cent. In a 
second set of experiments on the same conduit the gradient was 1 in 365, 
depths 4^ to 7 inches ; the measured discharge varied from 3.2 per cent, 
below, to 2.4 per cent, above, the results given by the formula. In the 
conduit of the Edinburgh Water Works, of similar dimensions, but built 
of brick and frequently obstructed by deposits of sand, the results were 
in general 10 per cent, below those of the formula. 



10 



BbMABKS on the USB OF THB TaBLBS. 



dKCULAB PIPES.— Table 6 

Contains areas, circumferences, and square roots of 5tli powers, in feet, 
for diameters, varying from \ inch to 12 feet, calculated expressly for this 
work. It will he found of great use in working out discharges, &c., hy the 
hydraulic and other formidaa of yarious authors; for example, those for 
Tables 7 and 8 below. 



GAS PIPES ITVBEK PBESSITSE.— Table 7 

Is a universal Table, calculated from the formula. 



19400 i/T*" 



Q = tzz:^ 



in which 



Q 
d 
I 

h 



discharge in cubic feet per minute. 

diameter in feet. 

length in feet. 

he^ or pressure in inches of water. 

specific gravity of gas. Air = 1. 00. .,-.,. ,. 

This formula is reduced from that given by Mr. Pole m his 
paper on the " Motion of Gaseous Fluids in Pipes," published in Clegg 
on the " Manufacture of Coal Gas." The table is applicable for air or 
any kind of gaseous fluid by using the proper specific gravity. The mode 
of using it is explained in the hewing. 



s = 



WATER PIPES ITVBEB PBESSUBE.-Table 8 

Is a universal taWe* for the discharge of water pipes and culyerts 
fix>m one inch to ten foet in diameter ; its mode of use is explained in 
the table ; the constants merely require to hie divided by the square root 
of the rate of &11 to give the discharge in cubic feet p^ minute. 
The formula used is deduced from that known as Eytelwein's, viz., 

2356 i/ d ^ 

== — = dischaxge in cubic feet per minute, 

^ k 

in which d = diameter of pipe in feet ; I = length in feet ; h »» head in 
feet ; and 2356 is a number obtained by multiplying the constant 50 for 
velocity in feet per second (derived from experimeQts), by 60 or minutes 
a nd by .7854 or area of circle. The original formula gives, as a diyisor, 

— h ^"* ^^ pipes of any considerable length, the term 50 d 

(which is added to allow for the flow of water coming into " train **) 
may be disregarded. 

If the velocity in feet per minute is required for a giyen fall and dia- 
meter of pipe, divide the discharge (as found by the table) by the area of 
the pipe, expressed in square feet. 



1 



* The doaiffn of this table is dao to Mr. James Leslie, O.E., Edinburgh, who has 
kindly permitted its use. The table is entitled " Pipes Under Pressore,*' as par- 
ticnlfo'ly adapted for such nee : but It is aJso applicable to oulyerts, ftc., of courss 
apportioning the amount filled, whether half or three-fourths, and haying due 
refbrence to the slope not creating too high a velocity and over gorging. 



II 



RkMASKS on THB USB OF THE TaBLBS. 



Jf the head is required for a giTon dischaip), lengtii, and diameter of 
pipe, divide the tabular number of the diameter by the discharge, and 
square the quotient ; then divide the length bjr this number, and the re- 
salt will be the head in feet. 

Example. — ^A pipe 2 feet in diameter and 5,000 feet in leneth, is re- 
quired to cany 300 cubic feet per minute, what should be the head P 

Tabular number for 2 feet pipe = ^ =44.4 ; then 44.4«= 1,971.3 



8000 



and j^^ = 2.54 feet, which is the head required, 

Jfthe diameter qfpipe is required for a given head, length, and dis- 
charge, then .235 /^ ^^ = diameter in feet; I and h being as before, 

and q being the qnantitj discharged in cubic feet per second. 

This last is a tedious formula, and the table gives the same result for 
a yast range of dischaiges, by following the second rule thereon. 

Where culyerts are not circular, take the diameter corresponding to a 
circle of the same sectional area, and the result will be verj^ nearly ew^ 
rect» 



WATER PIPES TJHDES PBESSTJBE.— TaUes 8a and 8b. 



Table 8a gi^cs the discharge and velocity for pipes from 3 to 60 
inches in diameter, at rates of fall from 5 to' 35 feet per mile. Tabl6 
8b gives the discharge and required head for pipes running full at stated 
velocities. 

These tables are computed from Table 8, and will be found useful for 
ready inspection, the knowledge of comparative results being highly 
desirable when designing works or computing their probable effect. 

In using these tables we must repeat a caution given elsewhere, that a 
due feed into a train of pipes, absence of inequality in slopes, of sudden 
bends, &c., are highly necessary to obtain a proper discharge. 

For pipes under pressure, 200 feet per minute is a very good working 
velocity, giving probably better proportional discharge than greater fau 
and consequent speed is likely to do ; a velocity of 150 per minute will 
generally prevent deposit in. pipes and sewers. In designing hydraulic 
works the engineer snould carefally consider the velocity proposed to be 
given, having reference to the rapid increase of resistance (vis., as 
velocity') to the flow of water at high speeds. 

Under proper conditions of inlet, outlet, stralghtness of track, &c. &c., 
the foregoing Tables 8, 8a and 86 give sufficiently accurate results for 
mpes from 3 inches to 4 fbet in diameter, at medium rates of inclination. 
This will be seen upon reference to Mr. Leslie's paper " On the flow of 
water through pipes," &c, before referred to, and the discussion which 
ensued thereupon. For very small pipes or flat rates of inclination, or 
waere a closer approximation to accuracy may be desired, somewhat 
better results may be obtained by using Du Budt*s formula, viz. : — 

^ ^ "~ — ^ 0.3 (i/r— 0.1):= Velocity in inches per second. 

r .= dia = " Mean radius ** or Hydraulic mean depth in inches. 

4 
Ii = Hyperbolic Log. of the term to which it is prefixed. 

Hyperbolic L^. = Common Log. X 2.30258. When reduced 



12 



BbMABKB on the USB OF THE TABLES. 



to terms of the diameter in feet, and to give the dischaige in cnbic 
feet per minute, this formula becomes : — 

2088.1 (t/c^ — .0.577d*) — 

=;= 1 — == 2.04 (|/<i» — .0577(l» ) = Dischai^ in 

Vj£-L(v/i^ + 1.6) 

cnbic feet per minute. 

In applying this formula, it must be observed, that in the rate of incli- 
nation or •^, A is the head or height required to overcome friction and 

other resistances. It is therefore necessary after obtaining the approxi- 
mate velocity by the formula to deduct firom the total height (11), the 
head (h^) required to prod ace this velocity, and to use the new head 
(H— A^=A) as the denominator of the fraction ^ in recalculating the 

velocity ; this operation being tentative should be repeated as often as 
may be considered desirable. To find A', look in Table 1, Col. B, for 
the nearest velocity, and opposite to it in Col. A will be found the height. 

Table 6 will save much time in giving by inspection areas and ^/d^, but 
notwithstanding these or any other tables which can be devised, compu- 
tation by this formnla is necessarily tedious, and the ultimate results do 
not materially differ from those obtained by using Table 8. 

The principles on which the formula of Du Buat is based are summed 
up by him as follows (Principes d'Hydraulique, vol. I. which should be 
consulted by those who require ftiUer information) : — 

*' 1. The molecules of water may be regarded as bodies of inconceivable 
tenuity, perfectly hard and polished. In such a system of corpuscules 
pressure can have no influence on friction. 

" 2. Hivers cannot flow without a surface inclination, and the force 
resulting from this is the sole cause of their movement. 

*' 3. When the mean velocity of a current is uniform, the accelerating 
force is in equilibrium with the resistance of the wetted border. Tubes 
or pipes in this respect are like rivers, provided there be deducted from the 
entire height (H) of the reservoirs the head (A') required to generate the 
velocity, and that the remainder (H — h}=h) be considered as giving a 
declivity to the whole length of the pipe. Thus the absolute weight 
of the column employed to overcome resistance is equal to that of the 
column of the same diameter which is moved, multiplied by ~ ; the 

rate of inclination being expressed fractionally so as to make h=l. 

*' 4. The molecules of water introduce themselves into the pores of the 
perimeter, filling all the little unevennesses of the surface. Thus they 
themselves form the surface upon which the whole volume flows, whence 
it follows that the different materials of which the perimeter may be com- 
posed do DOt sensibly affect the intensity of the resistance. 

"5. The surface of the wetted perimeter may be regarded as an assem- 
blage of globules on which the moving particles flow ; hence results a 
resistance proportional to the square of the velocity when the filling up 
of the molecnlar spaces (engrenage) is complete, viz., at low vdocities ; 
but, as this filling up diminishes in proportion as the velocity increases, 
so does the resulting resistance decrease, until it becomes nothing, when 
the velocity becomes infinite. From this principle, corrected by experi- 
ment, the relation between the velocity and the inclination in the same 

channel is expressed by V= . ^ t,(^ i TfiS 

" 6. The resistance to the molecules at the perimeter communicates 
itself to the whole mass, and the result for each molecule is in direct 
ratio to the perimeter and inverse to the sectional area ; hence it follows 



13 

BbHABKS OV THB USB OF THB TaBLES. 



that at equal inclinations the velocities woaldhe as the square roots of the 
area to the perimeter (=|/* =» y^r or mean radios) if this proportion 

were not altered hy the attraction of the perimeters on the neighbouring 
molecules : this extends to the same distance in all channels, and ex- 
periment gives i/ot « |/n (t/r — . 1), and \/ng = 307, for English 
inches. 

*' 7. As each molecule experiences a resistance in inverse proportion 
to its distance from the perimeter, it follows that the velocities of the 
various molecules vary according to these distances, and thus the mole- 
cules tend to separate continusdlj ; a part of the accelerating force is 
employed to overcome the reciprocal attraction of the molecules which 
opposes this separation. The resulting loss of velocity is equal accordhig 
to experiment to 0.3 (|/r — 0.1). 

*' 8. The velocity considered in the formula is the mean velocity of 
all the molecules." 

The foregoing tables will meet cases of pipes and culverts, under 
simple conations ; but whore bends (see Friction of Bends) and other 
complications are introduced, calculation becomes extremely intricate. 
The following experiments and facta from practice are inserted so as 
to throw light upon the loss of head in town supplies, and the effective 
value of pressure through long ranges of street main. 



SXPEBIHEKTS OK THIS HEIGHT AND DISGHARaE OF 
JETS, by the Southwark Water Company, January, 1844. 



Pressure at Battersea 120 feet, and every service pipe or other outlet 
kept shut. Stand Pipes 2) inches diameter. 



First Experiment — in Union Street, between High Street and Gravel 
Lane, Borough, through stand pipes, hose, and jets ; there being six stand 
pipeSi, each 360 feet apart, connected to a 7 -inch main 2,400 ft. in length, 
the head being carried on through a 9 „ „ 1,500 „ ., 

tt u 12 »» »» 600 ». I* 

It tf *" M »» 1»650 ,, „ 

20 „ „ 10,350 „ „ 



Making a total distance of. 16,500 feet frxnn the 

Head at Bat- 
tersea. 
Second Experiment — ^in Tooley Street, 9-inch main 4,200 ft. in length, 
Uie head being earned on through a 15 „ „ 3,000 „ „ 

20 „ „ 12,760 „ „ 



Making a total distance of 19,950 feet from the 

Head at Bat- 
tersea, 



14 



Bbmabks on thb ubb of thb Tablbs. 



Btandpipes 
used. 



Kumber. 
I 

2 

3 
4 

5 

6 

I 
I 
I 



aa 



bb 



I 

a 

4 
6 



Length of 
Hose. 



Feet. 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
So 

160 
40 



40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 
40 



Diameter 
of Jet. 

Inches. 



»i 



Height of 
Jet 



Feet. 

50 

45 
40 

35 
30 

27 
40 



Discharge 
per Minute. 

Oubic Feet. 
15-7 



16.6 
16.0 
42.1 



I 



40 

3» 
34 
23 

60 
60 

45 
40 



13.17 
10. 90 
11.98 

9.30 
17.15 

14.90 
13.80 



aa are through 600 feet of 5-iDch main, but fitted on a 4-inch main 
close to the 5 -inch main ; bb are through 600 feet of 5 -inch main and 
600 feet of 4-inch main, both in addition to the 19,950 feet of main 
before described. _^__- 

EZPEKQCBNTS OK THE HEIGHT AND DISCHABGE OF 
JETS, by the Preston Water Oompany, Maroh, 1644. 

From 6'i7ich Main. Pressure llO feet. 
Height. DiBcharge. 

With 1 jet...f-in...57 fiwt 12.5 cub. ft. per min. by day. 

„ 1 „ ... „ 64 „ 14.4 „ by night. 

„ 2 jets „ 66 „ 12.5 „ by day. 

n 2 tf t, 62 „ 14.0 „ by night. 

From 6-tncA Main. Pressure Affect, 
Height. Difloharge. 

With 1 jet...i-in...24 feet 4.8 cab. fl. per min. by day. 

„ 1 „ ..• „ ...28 „ 5.6 „ by night. 

„ 2jet« ♦, ...20 „ 4.5 „ 1^ day. 

„ 2 „ ... „ ...25 „ 4 8 „ by night. 

At Leeds, the author has seen jets thrown 60 to 70 feet high, and with 
great body and force, 40 to 50 feet high in the lower part of the town, 
where the pressnre was 180 feet, and services in ftdl draught. 

At the West Middlesex Water Worics, from experiments by W. T. 
Clarke, Esq., the friction of the pipes was found to reduce the head of 
water between one-fborth and one-fifth. 

The Grand Junction Water Company's new engme at Eew, works 
against 205 feet of head, while the gauge on the other side of the stand, 
(indicating the back pressure from London,) gives only 170 feet ; shewing 
a loss of 85 feet head, by the draft on the great 45-inch main. 

At New York the height of the water is 115 feet above high water ; 
105 feet above the lowest, and sixty feet above the highest streets. The 



16 



BbMARKS on THB USB OF THB TaBLBB. 



distance from the distribatiiig reservoir is 4 miles, by the direct 36-inch 
main. The city fountains throw from 60 to 70 feet high. At Haarlem 
Birer Yalley, on the line of the aqueduct, a 12' pipe and 6' jet throws 
the water 110 feet high» with 180 feet pressure. 

At Philadelphia the surface of water in the reservoirs is 98 feet above 
high water ; 55 feet above the highest, and 93 feet above the lowest points 
In the dty* The distance finom the reservoir to extreme point of mains 
and pipes (which are always charged), is 6 miles, by a main from 20* to 
SS* diameter. The loss of head, by friction in the pipes, is about 
25 feet while the city is drawing. The mains are from 10 to 12 inches 
in tiie principal streets, and from four to six inches in the minor ones. 

The water will rise from a hose attached to a fire plug in the streets 
at the extreme point of delivery, during the night, to the height of about 
45 or 50 feet ; during the day, when the cousumption of water is very 
great, the pressure is about 25 feet as above stated. 

Tkb rou^wiNO TABLE is from experiments by Mariotte. The first 
and second columns sive the relative height of jets and their head ; the 
third column gives the discharge by an ajutaee .53 inch diameter, and 
the fourth column contains the diameter which ought to be given to the 
service pipes for an ajutage of .53 inch, relatively to the altitudes in the 
second column. They are computed on the hypothesis that for an 
aiutage of .53 inch in diameter, and an altitude of 16 feet of water in 
the reservoir, the conduit pipes must be 2.49 inches in diameter, and 
npon the principle that the squares of the diameters of the conduit tubes 
are as die squares of the diameters of the ajutages multiplied by the 
square roots of the altitude of water in the reservoir. These experi- 
ments are considerably at variance with those made in the foregoing 
tables, in Southwark, &c., especially while water is being drawn for 
other purposes; they were probably made under circumstances con- 
siderably differing from the ordinary demands of practice. 



Heiffhtof 


Height of 
Beeervodr. 


DiB.permin. 

from ajutage 

.63-mch 


Diam.ofser- 

viceBBoitedto 

preceding 






diameter. 


oolumn. 


Feet. 


Peet 


CaUoFeet. 


Inches. 


5-3» 


5.41 


0.89 


1.87 


I0.68 


11.00 


1.25 


2.31 


15-97 


16.77 


1-55 


2.49 


21.30 


22.71 


1.80 


2.76 


%6.6% 


28.84 


2.03 


2.93 


31- 95 


35- 14 


2.25 


3.02 


37- a? 


41.62 


2.44 


3>20 


42.60 


48.27 


2.64 


3.29 


47.92 


55.11 


2.80 


3.38 


53- a5 


62. 12 


3.00 


3-47 


58-57 


69.31 


3.17 


3.56 


63.90 


76.68 


3-33 


3.65 


69.22 


84.22 


3-47 


3-74 


74-55 


91.94 


3.64 


3.83 


79.87 


99.84 


3.78 


3.91 


85.20 


107. 91 


3-94 


4.00 


90.52 


116. 17 


4.08 


4.09 


95- 85 


124.60 


4.22 


4.18 


101. 17 


133.21 


4-39 


4.27 


106. 50 


141.99 


4-53 


4.36 



16 



BeXABKS on the U8B OF THB TaBLES. 



FIBE EHGINE POWEB. 

The best form of Loudon engine has two cylinders of 7 inches dia- 
meter and 8 inches stroke, working levers being 4| to 1 ; weight 1 7^ cwt. 
+ 4 cwt. for hose and tools, which is quite as heavy as two fast horses 
can manage, for a distance under 6 miles, with five firemen and a driver. 

The rule for determining the size of the jet, is to make its diameter^ 
one-eighth of an inch for every inch diameter of the cylinder for each 8* 
inches of stroke. When it is necessary to throw the water to an nnusaal 
height or distance, a jet one-seventh less in area is used, with a branch 
about 5 feet long. 

The usual rate of working an engine this size is 40 strokes of each 
cylinder per minute, the engine throwing 14.12 cubic foet per minute, or, 
adding one-third for waste, 6,777 cubic feet required for 6 hours; this 
multiplied by the number of engines used, will give an idea of the quan- 
tity of water required at a fire. When the houses of Parliament were 
burnt down, 522,720 cubic feet of water was supplied, and 23 jets were 
playine at one time. 

With 40 feet qf leather hose, and a I'inchjet, the pressure is 30 lbs. 
on the square inch = SSfeet head of water; this gives 10.4 lbs. to each 
man to move a distance of 226 feet in one minute. The friction for 
every additional 40 feet of hose increases the labour 2\ per cent. ; hence 
the necessity of having the ensine, and of course the supply of water, 
close to the fire. — (Braidwood, £c. Min, Inst, Civ. Engrs,) 

Steam Fire Engines, capable of throwing a great volume of water, have 
recently been introduced ; it is probable that before many years have 
passed hand engines will be, to a great extent, superseded in all large 
towns. 



FBICnOV OF BEHDS.— Table 9. 



DjSSOUFTION of THB TaBLE. 

This table is computed on the formula h = v' X sine* X No. of bends 
X .0003, given in Bobison*s " Treatise on Rivers," where v is the velocity 
of water in a pipe or stream, expressed in inches per second ; or in words ; 
multiply the square of v by the sum of the squares of the sine of the 
angle of bends (of which the resistance is to be estimated) and the pro- 
duct by the constant .0003 ; the result expresses the resistance h = the 
head in inches necessary to overcome the angular friction, which varies 
as the square of the velocity and of the sine of the angle of bend with 
the straight line of direction. When the angle is reverb, or more than 
90°, the square of the sine of the complementary angle + I must be 
used. The rule was adopted by Kobison, from French experiments 
made upon pipes of small diameter, and he shews its applicability to 
riven, giving an opinion that the measure of resistance is too great, as 
" in a pipe the diameter is uniform, whereas in a properly formed river 
" the capacity of section should be increased." This, theoretically, is true ; 
but, practically, it is certain that both in natural and artificial rivers the 
efliect of bends is invariably to render the bed more or less uneven. 
Under all the considerations, we may, therefore, come safely to the 
conclusion that the friction of bends, even where a drain is kept in good 
order, is at least as high as the amount given in the table. 

The velocity for computation is of course that theoretically due to the 



17 

Bbxasks on thb use of the Tables. 



fall, and the loss by bends mnst be deducted from the head, the dischaige 
being again calculated from the redaced slope. The loss of head, how-* 
ever, manifestly yaries not only according to the size of the angle, bnt 
also to the volume to be carried. Applying the principles adopted in 
the former tables, the variable term of resistance will be best expressed 
by the square root of the hydraulic mean depth in feet, and the loss of 
head should be divided by this quantity to give the final resistance. By 
this form of the equation, when the hydraulic mean depth falls below 
nnity, the tabular numbers are increased as the square of such depth. 
With pipes, this quantity being one-fourth of the diameter, the increase 
of resistance h will be = v* x sine' x No. of bends X .0003 . This 

^^ 

modification in the formula is new, and the whole computation is highly 
theoretical ; bnt it suiBciently agrees with experiments and with obser- 
vation, to be worthy of note. The principle of the correction is well 
founded where bends are uniform ; but when they are made at sharp 
angles, the experiments of Mr. Bennie clearly show that they are out of 
the reach of calculation. 

For application, take the second example at the head of Table 9, and 
applying it to a drain having six feet depth, 18 feet bottom, and 2 to 1 
slopes, we find, by Table 4, that with a velocity of 1 10 feet per minute, 
such a cut will discharge 19,803 cubic feet per minute, and require six 
inches per mile of fall ; we have then, for the bends specified, to make a 
reduction (in round numbers) of one inch fall per mile, if they occur in 
that length ; but this quantity will have to be divided by 2, which is the 
square root of the hydraulic mean depth of the drain in question. 
Therefore, to deliver the same quantity of water, the drain must have 
6.5 inches fall in the mile ; or, vice versa, if the fall is limited, the 
effective slope will be reduced to 5.5 inches per mile, and the discharge 
to 18,915 cubic feet per minute, with a mean velocity of 105 feet per 
minute, instead of 110 feet, as originally assumed. 

Bends in the vertical plane of a pipe are subject to disturbance of 
the dischaige from two other causes, which will interfere far more than 
the dynamical effect of change of direction. The first is the great ten- 
dency to collection of air at the summit of vertical bends ; this evil can 
only be treated mechanically, by air valves, which will free themselves, 
or can be opened at the pleasure of the water officer. The second de- 
fect in vertical bends is when, from local circumstances, they occur on a 
pipe at any given distance b, from the fountain head ▲ ; this point not 
being sufficiently high above b to pass the full quantity of water which 
could otherwise pass on to a lower point c ; under these conditions it 
will be impossible for the pipe to discharge at c the amount due to its 
diameter, and to the total fall from Ato c; and neither can the fall be 
fully available from b to c, because there will not be sufficient feed at b. 
This obviously shews that under these circumstances the pipe ▲ b must 
be laiger than b o ; neglect of such a precaution has frequently produced 
serious disappointments; excellent provisions aeainst the evils above 
stated were made by Mr. Jardine, of Edinburgh, m the great main, ten 
miles in length, which he constructed in 1824 ; the diameter for the 
upper three miles, being flat, is 21 inches, but that of the lower portion 
is only 15 inches; the actual discharge at Edinburgh is not greater than 
would be given by a pipe only the smaller diameter, with a uniform fall 
for the entire distance. This main was one of the earliest works in 
iron on so great a scale, and the whole arrangement is a model of its 
kind : at the present price of iron, such a work would not cost more 
than one-third of the amount then disbursed, but the value of this kind 



2 



18 



Rbhakks on thb use of thb Tablbs. 



of constraction may be judged fixmi the fact that this main has not cost 
anything whatever in repairs, and has never ceased delivering water 
from the day it was finished np to this date. 

Other causes will arise to lessen dischaiige, unless dne precautions are 
taken in the form of inlet and oatlet of pipes, which will eridently 
adffect the final detiveiy. The preceding mles jsnd tables will meet aU 
ordinary cases of practice, if the work is well Iidd out, and care is taken 
to avoid sharp angles and vertical bends, rising near to the level of the 
original head. If the form of noszles or sluices starting from a reservcAr 
is bad, the calculated discharge will be diminished in Eytclwein*s pro- 
portion of 8 to 6 or 5, however much labour or money be spent on the 
general line of works. (For further information on this subject, see 
Leslie's paper, before quoted. Min, Inst, Civ. Eng, Vol, XIV., 1854-5, 
and other theoretic works.) 

River Bends are especially liable to banks or shoals, always occurring 
where an alteration of velocity is suddenly caused ; these shoals act as 
wdrs, in point of fact, forming separate steps in the surface fsM, and thus 
rendering a great aggregate slope of less ^ value than a very small slope, 
with uniform bed. The effect, therefore, of bends, and want of uni« 
formity, is of the highest inconvenience in rivers (like the Severn, below 
Gloucester, for instance) where there is a great fiuctuation in the quan* 
tity of water, and a shifting material in the bed of which it is composed. 
The uneven bed of a river is very analogous to the defect ftx>m bends in 
the vertical plane, in the case of pipes. 



FBICnON OF BRIDGES AND PIPES -Tables 9a. 



The first table is explained thereon, as giving an approximate idea 
oTthe rise of water caused by bridges, weirs, &c., at varying velocities; 
taking the proportions of obstruction from one-tenth to six-tenths of the 
whole section of river. 

The second table is that used by Smeaton, giving the head required 
to drive water at various velocities through 100 feet lineal of pipes ; on 
a small scale the table is useful ; but our Tables 8 and 8a will give a 
greater range of results, and agree more with the modem practice of 
laying mains, and their si^ s and material. 



HOnOV AND BESISTANCE OF WATER AND AIR. 

--Tables 10 and 10a 



Give the resistance to one square foot, moving through water or air at 
stated velocities and angles, taken from Hutton's experiments, detailed 
in his tracts. 



w 



19 



BbMARKS oh THB USB OF THB TabLBS. 



EXPAVSIOV OF WATER, STEAM AND OAS.- 

Table U 

Gives the density of water and rate of expansion of steam at varying 
degrees of heat, from the l^t authorities. The figures in the tables are 
ratios to that quantity which is expressed by 1.00 ; they may, therefore, 
be applied to any measure. The expansion for gas is applicable to air, 
or any other gaseous Quid ; the oon<Utioii8 of pressure or density bein^ 
the same in parallel cases. (rtcfoPeclet, Begnault, and the Franklin 
Institute Experiments.) 



VALVE OF WATER POWER.— Table 12. 

This table gives the nominal value in horse power for one foot of fall, 
of streams discharging from 5 to 10,000 cubic feet per minute ; t. e, the 
weight in pounds of the given number of cubic feet, per minute, divided 
by Ste constant 38,000. The effective value of the ordinary apph'cations 
of water is given according to the best authorities. In estimating the 
value of a given quantity and fall of water, the mode of application, and 
therefore the commercial effect, will vary considerably ; for in low falls 
under-shot or breast-wheels must be used, which are far more wasteful 
of water than over-shot wheels (in proportion to the power developed), 
especially when liable to be loaded with tail- water. The column headed 
" Turbine" is computed at 75 per cent, of the nominal power, or actual 
weight of water consumed. The " turbine," and some very perfectly 
constructed over-shot wheels are said to do this amount of duty ; the 
usual duty of good water-wheels is from 60 to 65 per cent, in practice. 



Thb followino Tablb of Water- Wheels, as constructed by Mr. 
Fairbaim, of Manchester, will afford a useful practical example of the 
best applications of Water Power. (Jamieson*s Practical Mechanic) 





Cabio 














Speed 


Esti- 
mated 
Horse 
Power 


Diam. 


Breadth 


FaU 


Feet of 










Depth 


Revols 


of 


of 


and 


of 


Water 


]>iain. 


Breadth 


oV 


per 


Periphy 


intenud 


Pitch 


Water 


takea 
perliin. 










Backet. 


Min. 


iSS.. 


Driving 
Sgment 


of 
Teeth. 


Ft. In. 




Ft. In. 


Ft.: 


[n. 


Ft. In. 


Ft. Dec 


Ft. Dec. 




Ft. In. 


In. 


• • 


• a • 


z8 





6 





1 


• •• 


• •• 


• • • 


6J 3 


10x31 


III 


• « • 






16 


7 



I 4 
I 10 


x.95 

• •• 


ai4.8 


a ■ • 


n 8 

... 


14x3 

• •• 


i6 6 


i'j6o 


£0 





>7 





I 8 


• •• 


229.x 


60 


18 


11X3J 


'1 ' 

i6 o 


••• 


18 





M 





I 8 


4.7* 


270.0 


• •■ 


16 I 


14x3 


1160 


18 





to 





1 6 


• • • 


a*. 


J» 


... 


• •• 


lo o 


«■• 


18 





18 





1 10 


6.15 


319.6 


• •• 


14 of 


i»X3 


l6 o 


"CO 


18 





IZ 





I 5 


••• 


•«« 


}o 


• •• 


•>• 


9 o 


6960 


16 





tl 





1 


« • ■ 


• ■• 


70 


14 of 


••• 


710 


• •• 


16 





20 





: t 


7.8 


384.6 


... 


tS 41 


8x3 


9 6 


1700 


16 





18 





• ■• 


}|0.0 


... 


14 


11x3 


• •• 


• •• 


16 





16 





% 


f •• 


••• 


••• 


14 


iax3 


8 


• •• 


16 





14 


t 


: t 


• a ■ 


175- 


... 


14 of 


9XS 


8 


• • t 


"5 


6 


'? 


■ ■• 


}J*.4 


... 


•.« 


• •• 


14 6 


480 


15 





6 





KO 


• •• 


..* 


11 


••• 


••• 



J 



20 



Brhabks ok thb use of thb Tables. 



The following Table is compiled *fix)m a tract, by Weale, of experi- 
ments by the late Mr. Bcnnie, made about sixty years since. It was 
kindly put into the author's hands by George Bennie, Esq., F.R.S., the 
author of well-known works on hydraulics, which have been highly 
useful in compiling this treatise. 'The principal value is to shew the 
actual water used by the variously-constructed wheels, as the water used 
appears to have been measured with g^eat care. 



Kame and 

Deioriptioii of 

XiU. 



Dartford, Saw 

Oasbum, Oa 

Balbirnie, Water 

Picket, Pap>er 

Tarn worth, do., 1786 

Elford, do 

West Bromwich, Forge* 

Bromvnch, Slitting 

Hunslet, do 

laleworth. Flour f , 



Fall 

of 

Water 



Ft In. 

5 o 



»5 

'I 

5 

4 
lo 

• 

8 
II 



6 
6 

I 

9?! 

O 

% 

6 



Water Wheel. 



Speed 

per 

Mln. 



Feet. 
556.1 
X70.5 
431. z 
40«kO 

5*5- J 

545 I 

io8z. 3 

8x6.5 
810.5 
361.x 



Diun. 



Ft. In 
16 o 

»5 

XX 

IS 

14 

14 
18 

IX 

»9 



Brdth 



Ft. In. 
4 6 



X 



6 
o 

7 
o 

9 
10 

44 
10 
o 



Dpth 

of 
Bcketi 



Ins. 
»J 

9 
10 
10 
16 
14 

IX 
IX? 



M«de of 
taking 
Water. 



Head. 



Ft In. 

\ t 



6 8i 

4 

o 8i 



Sluice 
open 



Ins. 



9 

>4-5l 
10. 

7 

3 

x8 



Water 

ac- 
tually 

UBOd 

per 
Min. 



C. Ft 
J, 000 

'94. 

*57. 
1x90 

M44 

5|*»99 

IJ4I 

4JO 

9J 
58 



Horse 
Power. 



Noml- 



IX. 

9.78 
>J.73 

XJ.XJ 

»4-73 
X5.48 

10.48 



Efllftc- 

tlT6. 



6.07 

6.86 
5.50 
8.90 



• Hammer 7 Cwt., 106 blows per min., 20* high, t 12.74 lbs. ground per min. 

The FOLLOWING EXPERm ENTS ou a small Hydraulic Ram were made by 
Messrs. Hunter and English, of Bow. The effective duty appears to be 
about 50 per cent. 



FaU 


Water 


Quantity 


Height 


Time 


of Rain. 


expended. 


lifted. 


lifted. 


occupied. 


Feet. 


Gallons. 


Gallons. 


Feet. 


Minutes. 


9-5^ 


5>5 


6$ 


40.93 


14 


9.41 


49? 


68 


40.84 


20 


9-33 


530 


68 


40.92 


14 


9-3« 


504 


68 


40 94 


21 


9-3* 


514 


68 


40.93 


22 



NoTB. — ^The height trota the outiet of the ram to the top of the stand pipe is 
60.25 feet ; therefore the (kU in feet deducted (W)m this will give the height to 
which the water was raised above the head. The difference in time of filling the 
cistern is owing to variations in the a^nstment of the beat of the valve,— > 
slow motion giving the best duty. 



PKESSTJBE OF MEECUEY and WATER.— Table 13, 
WEIGHT and STBENGTH OF PIPES— Table 14, 

Are sufficiently explained therein : in the latter table is given the safe 
head of water which can be borne by pipes of the several dimensions. 
It will he seen, that in smaller pipes the limit of thinness of metal is not 
strength, but the practicability of making a good casting, and its after 
durability. In large pipes, strength of metal should be thrown into the 
ends, especially the upper or socket end. 



u 



21 



Bbmamks on thb USB or thb Tables. 



FLOOD DISCHABOES.-TabIe 15 

Gircs the qiLantity of water, in cubic feet per minute, which would run 
off the ground, assuming that the several depths of rain, specified at the 
head of each column, were to be dischai^ged in twenty -four hours. The 
first table contains the quantities necessary to be provided for 1 to 100 
acres, in farm drainage and in sewage of towns, where, under favourable 
circumstances, rain will occasionally discharge an enormous amount over 
small areas. For instance, during the thunder-storm of August 1, 1846, 
there fell over a great part of London from three to four inches of rain 
in a much less time than three hours ; nearly the whole of this must have 
found its way at once into the sewers. 

The second table contains the discharge for 1 to 10 square miles, from 
one thirty-second of an inch up to 1 inch of rain in twenty -four hours. 
In the numerous cases where an engineer is called upon to discuss the 
amount of water tliat he may expect over a given area, either for the 
purposes of town supplies, for estimating the scouring effect of floods, or 
for ascertaining the size required for new drains, or improvement of river- 
channels, this table will give a key to the problem to be solved, if used 
with a due experience of the observed quantities which districts have been 
known to produce, as compared with the amount collected in rain gauges. 
In the division of this work devoted to the subject of " Bivers and Flow 
from large Districts," will be found a number of examples, the 
application of which must be taken with due caution, because the 
quanti^ running away will vary according to the general slope of the 
country, and the geological nature of the rocks of miich. it is composed. 
Years having the same actual depth of rain in the gauge, vary in their 
stream-producing powers ; one season is hot and dry, with heavy thunder 
showers ; another is moist, with rain coming down frequently in small 
faUs, supplying more for evaporation and less for streams. 



FLOW FEOH LABGE DISTBICTS -Table 16 

Gives the dischai^ from 1 acre and 1 square mile, due to stated amounts 
of rainfall, from 2 to 60 inches, supposing the whole to be run off at an 
equal average rate per minute, and per diem in one year. The second 
table gives the length of subsoil drain pipes required in 1 acre, the pipes 
being laid at intervals varying from 5 to 36 feet. 

For extended information on the subjects comprised in Tables 15 and 
16, see ** Division n., on Rivers and Flow from large Districts." 



EXPEHDITUBE OF WATER.— Table 17 

Is arranged to shew readily the relation of cubic feet per minute with the 
same quantity in gallons for a minute, day, and year of 365 days. 

The followiho Tablb gives the value of water per annum, at a 
penny per 1,000 gallons, ih>m 1 to 50 cubic feet per minute, and from 
1 ,000 to 500,000 ^Ulons per diem ; the year being taken at 313 working 
days. 



Cubic fbet 

per 

Hmnte. 



X 

% 

i 

4 
5 

lO 

JO 



Gallons 

per 
Biem. 



2/x» 
>ooo 
Z7,ooo 
|6,ooo 
45.00O 
90,000 
450,000 



Value per 
Annum, at Id. 
per 1,000 Gals. 



£ a. d. 

II 14 
aj 9 

46 19 

5« n 
117 7 
58617 



I 
i 

o 

I 

6 



Gallons 

per 
Diem. 



1,000 

a,5oo 

5,000 

10,000 

50.000 

100,000 

500,000 



Cubic feet 

jper 

Mmute. 



cm 
o.a77 

0.55s 
I. Ill 

5.555 

II. Ill 

55.555 



Value per 
ATinnm, at Id. 
per 1,000 Gals. 



£ «. d, 

1 6 I 

I 5 *t 

6 10 5 

13 o 10 

65 4 » 

130 i 4 

652 I 8 



22 



BbMARKS on the USB OF THE TaBLBS. 



WATER SUPPLY AND POPTTLATIOir.-Table 18 

Is arranged to give a readv' measare of the quantity of water required to 
supply yarioufl amounts of population at different rates of consumption ; 
with these are given the number of square miles of ground required 
at twelve inches of rain per annum. These data are given to guide, 
and not to lay down any rule upon the subject ; we have found this 
form useful in judging of the capabilities of districts where there is 
absence of special (Uta. In using these tables the information given in 
"Bemarks on flow from laige Districts" will be found useral, and 
reference may be made to the tables of " Metropolitan Water Supply," 
and of flow through " Metropolitan Sewers." — See Division II. 



VELOCITIES, GRADIENTS, AND 
MEASURES.— Tables 19, 20, and 21, 

Are arranged for ordinaiy reference, as explained thereon. Table 21 
has also the angle of various rates of slope, and the difference of length 
between the ba^ and hypotheneuse in each case. 



USEFUL WEIGHTS AITD MEASUBES.— TaUe 23, 

Contains a table shewing the decimal proportions of a foot or unity, in 
reference to a duodecim^ division or inches ; likewise the decimals which 
represent the ordinary finactions of an inch (or any other measure) from 
one-sixteenth to fifteen-sixteenths ; thus, four inches and eleven- 
sixteenths, or 4.6875 inches, is .390 of a foot ; these conversions are 
useful in computations of all kinds. The table has several other nsefiil 
numbers, and the multipliers for converting the principal foreign measures 
into English equivalents. 

Table 22a contains areas of segments of a circle, and lengths of 
their arcs ; height of apparent above true level, for rotundity of the 
earth ; square yards in decimals of an acre ; and the number of bricks 
required for a given amount of work. 



COFVEBSIOV OF THEBMOMETRIC SCALES AND 07 
ENGLISH AND FBENGH MEASXJEES.-Table8 23, 24, 26, 

Are sufficiently explained in the headings and rules there given. 



WEIGHT AND STRENGTH 07 MATEBIALS- 

Tables 26, 27 and 28. 

Tables 26 and 27 require no explanation beyond what will be found 
thereon. These tables have been collated from the best authorities, 
but rocks and earths, &c., will necessarily be found somewhat variable. 

Tablo 28 gives the weight and breaking strain of iron, steel and 
copper wire according to the Birmingham wire gauge. The sizes of the 
gauges are as determined by the late Mr. Holtzapfell, and the weights 



23 



Remarks on the use ov the Tables. 



s 



of iron and copper wire toe from the experience of Mt. Lewis Grordon, 
dyil engineer, and Mr. Johnson, of Manchester, wire drawer. The 
weights of copper wire are from Mr. Gordon, and Mr. Preece, civil engineer, 
kindly communicated by them to the author. A table is also given of 
the weights of equal sided angle and T iron, communicated by Messrs. 
Thomson and Browning, Victoria Street, Westminster; to all these 
gentlemen the author's thanks are due. 



STFSPEHSIOV BBIDOES-Table 29 



Gives the chief principles involved in catenary curves, and can be thus 
applied in all cases where the strength is required for suspended chains 
of any kind. 

The strain in lbs. a rope will bear safely = girt^ X 200 
Do cable „ = girt« X 120 



Cfhain Cable.^Take the safe strain at about 8 tons per square inch of 
the iron of which it is made — i.e, four tons for each side of the link. 

For really good chain, the proof weight should be 10 tons per square 
inch of each side of the link, and under this strain careful examination of 
the welds with the eye and hammer is necessanr for thorough safety. 

The roujOiwvuQ is ▲ Table of the size and strength of Newall's wire 
rope. 



He&p Sope. 


Wire Bope of Equifalent Strength. 


Circum- 
ference. 


Weight per 
Fathom. 


Circnm* 
ferenoe. 


Weight per 
Fathom. 


Breflkmg 
Btrsjn. 


Working 
Load. 


Ins. 


Ibe. 


Ins. 


lbs. 


Toms. 


Cwts. 


»f 


2 


I 


I 


2 


6 


3i 


4 


I* 


2 


4 


12 


4i 


5 


li 


3 


6 


18 


Si 


7 


** 


4 


8 


M 


6 


9 


2| 


5 


16 


30 


H 


10 


«i 


6 


12 


36 


7 


12 


23 


7 


H 


4a 


7* 


14 


^h 


8 


16 


43 


8 


i6 


3t 


9 


18 


54 


8* 


i8 


3^ 


10 


20 


60 


9\ 


22 


s! 


12 


*4 


74 


lO 


26 


4 


>5 


28 


48 


II 


30 


4i 


16' 


3* 


96 



24 



Bbharks on thb use op the Tables. 



BOOFS AND LOCK GATES.-Table 30 

Contains the tensile and compressive strains on the various memhcrs 
of roofs or trusses, at several angles ; giving the proportions when the 
weight is unity. Also, the strain on three feet depth of surface 
of a lock gate in tons, and the size of oak timber necessary to 
bear three times the strain at different lengths of gate. This is from a 
paper bj P. W. Barlow, Esq., C.E., in the first volume of the 
Transactions of the Institution of Civil Engineers. The strain is 
taken for gates placed at an angle of 19^.25' with the square, which 
he shews to be the angle of greatest strength, taking all thrusts into 
consideration. 



CAST nLON BEAMS.-Table 31 

Gives the safe load to be borne by beams having the specified dimensions 
of bottom flange. This is constructed on Professor Hod^kinson's rule. 

1. Multiply the area of the bottom flange by the depth of the beam, 
and divide the product by the length between supports (all in inches) ; 
the quotient multiplied by 614 will give the breaking weight at the 
centre.* 

2. When a beam is uniformly loaded and supported at both ends, it 
will bear double the first result. 

3. When a beam is fixed at one end and uniformly loaded, it will 
bear the same as the first result. 

4. When a beam is fixed at one end and loaded at the other, it will 
bear only half the first result. 

In the tables we have taken the safe load at one-third of the breaking 
weight ; but for railway girders it should not exceed one-sixth, or half 
the tabular numbers. For safe deflection, a rough rule is — ^allow one- 
fortieth of an inch for each foot of span. 

In ordinary wrought-iron beams we have found that the first rule is 
very fairly applicable, using a constant of 1,500 for the breaking weight. 
In genend use, a beam of wrought iron should not be strained beyond 
one-third of its ultimate strength, but it has the advantage of being able 
to bear on an emergency two-thirds, without any serious damage; 
whereas this would be imminent risk with cast iron, especially with 
moving weight ; hence the superiority of wrought iron where motion is 
likely to be freely communicated. No calculation of the strength of 
deep wrought-iron girders is safe, unless lateral stiffness be taken into 
the question. Within certain limits, increase of length of girder reduces 
the strength, in arithmetical proportion only, but the lateral stability of 
their sides varies as the fourth power of the efl*ective mean thickness 
afforded by the stiffening ribs. 

In long cast-iron beams, a proportion of six area of bottom fiange to 
one area of the top flange will not give sufficient stiffness to the latter ; 
with a wide bottom flange it is also necessary to have angle stays to se- 
cure it to the central web, and to insure continuity of strain through the 
vertical direction. 

The depth of a beam may decrease at any point towards the extremi- 
ties in the proportion of the multiples of the segments of its length ; 



* This rule is somewhat empirical, but it has the advantage of being below the 
mark. 



25 



' 



Bbmarics on thb use op thb Tablbb. 



thuB, if a beam is 12 inchea deep at the middle, and it is twentj feet in 
length, then at five feet from each bearing, the depth should be as 10 X 
10 : 15 X 5 : : 12 : 9 inches ss required depth ; bnt surplus strength 
and a thorough bed at the point of support are indispensable for security. 



HABIHE SUEVETING.— Table 32 

Contains various tables useful for the nautical branch of the profession, 
especially in the use, for engiueeriug purposes, of charts, which are gene- 
rally constructed on astronomical measurement. The tide table is for 
computing rise or ftdl by time from high or low water, but Table 40 is 
mons extended and accurate ; the surveyor on the British coast 
wiU find the Admiralty Tide Tables to be his best guide ; their usefulness 
is being extended every year. 

The FOLLOwnro Table gives the variation of the compass for dif- 
ferent latitudes and longitudes, for which we are indebted to Baper's 
Tables. 

APFBOXUATE YABIATIOir 07 THE COMPASS. 



Lat. 


W. 

10 


Longitode— East. 


Deg. 





10 


20 


30 

w. 


40 

w. 


60 

w. 


60 

B. 


70 

B. 


80 

B. 


90 

B. 


100 

B. 


110 




w. 


w. 


B. 


35 


22 


19 


»7 


14 


10 


7 


3 


I 


5 


5 


4 


3 




38 


22 


20 


18 


15 


10 


7 


2 


I 


5 


6 


4 


3 




4o 


43 


21 


18 


14 


10 


7 


I 


I 


5 


6 


5 


3 




4a 


24 


21 


18 


14 


8 


T 


I 


2 


5 


6 


5 


3 




44 


45 


21 


>9 


14 


8 


6 





2 


5 


6 


5 


3 




46 


26 


22 


19 


13 


8 


6 


IE 




5 


^ 


5 


3 




48 


27 


22 


»9 


13 


8 


5 


I 




5 


7 


5 


3 




50 


27 


»3 


20 


12 


8 


5 


I 




6 


7 


6 


3 




51 


28 


44 


20 


12 


8 


5 


2 




6 


7 


6 


3 




54 


29 


24 


20 


12 


8 


4 


2 




6 


8 


7 


4 




56 


30 


15 


20 


13 


8 


4 


2 




7 


8 


7 


4 




58 


21 


45 


20 


13 


8 


4 


2 




7 


8 


7 


4 


2 


60 


32 


26 


'9 


13 


8 


3 


3 




8 


8 


8 


5 


2 


62 


34 


27 


19 


13 


8 


3 


2 




8 


9 


8 


5 


3 



HOUVTAIH BABOMEIER.— Table 33. 

This is a veiy useful instrument, when properly managed, for surveys 
and other geodesic operations which occasionally have to be made in 
districts where even the level and theodolite are useless until some idea of 
the line of oountiy has been sketched out. In finding the relative summit 
levels of different gaps or passes in a mountainous country, we have used it 
with great advantage over ground which, in fact, was inaccessible to or- 
dinary instruments, which must be used step by step. 

Farjinding the height in feet, subtract the logarithm of the upper 
station from Uiat of the lower ; multiply by six, and remove the decimal 
point four places to the right ; the result is the elevation in £nglish feet, 
generally sufficiently accurate for purposes to which a mountain baro- 



26 



BbXARES ok THB USB OF THB TaBLBS. 



meter shonld be applied. If perfect acconuy be required in a fixed 
instrnmeiit, we hare to correct the mercurial column, when the scale is 
of brass, hj deducting the fractioni opposite the temperature (in degrees 
Fahrenheit) of the instrument, from the obsenrations. 

First, for the Mountain Barometer, we bare the correction in Table B, 
deducting, if the upper station be coldest, the amount opposite the differ- 
ence of temperature of the attached thermometers in degrees centigrade ; 
or adding the amount if the upper station be the wannest. 

Secondly, for the expansion of the air take the first correction and 
shift its decimal point three places to the left, and multiply it by twice 
the sum of the detached thermometer expressed in degrees centigrade ; 
the product to be deducted or added as before. 

Thirdly, for gravity the correction is to be added, as taken from Table 
C, according to the latitude and approximate height. 

When an instrument having a cistern is used, we have the correction 
for capillarity in Table F, to be added to each observation before calcula- 
tion ; when a syphon barometer is used, we have no necessity for this 
correction. 

Lastly, if fine and scientific observations are required, and accoracy is 
aimed at in hot weather and tropical countries, the observer shonld 
always have a portable diy and wet bulb thermometer; by this the 
original observations can be reduced to what they would be if the air at 
each station were perfectly dry. This is done by the rule in Table E, 
whence being obtained the temperature of the dew point, we can obtain 
the fraction to be deducted from the observation by Table D. 

Example-^StAtion A reads by Barometer 30.453 »= 1.482950 

B ,, „ 29.341 «= 1.466928 



.016022 



Then .01602 X 6 = .0961 2 and shifling the decimal point four places 
to the right the height of B above A' is given = 961.2 feet. 

But we will suppose that the temperature of the instrument at A is 27 cent. 

B is 13 



ft 



it 



it 



f» 



tt 



difference = 14 deg. 
The correction in Table B for 14 degrees is 67.58. 

The temperature of the air at A being 25 

B 14 



ft 



tt 



it 



tt 



»f 



For correcting the expansion of air ; by the second rule we have .06758 
to be multiplied by the double sum of the detached thermometers, or 

.06758 X 78 "= 5.27 feet, 
add correction = 67.58 



tt 



72.85 „ 

less 961.20 „ 

and adding for gravity... 2.80 



»i 



corrected height 891.15 feet. 

If corrections for the aqueous vapour should be reqnixed, we will assume 
that at station A the dry bulb is 77 Fah. 

wet bulb is 68 = diff. 9 deg.X 1-7=15.3^77—61.7 
degrees for the dew point, 
at station B the dry bulb is 57 

wet bulb is 53 »= diff. 4 deg. X 1 .9 »» 7 .6 — 57=-49.4 
degrees for the dew point* 



27 



BbMABKS ok TBB USB OF THE TaBLBS. 



The oorrectioii then for these observations is thus : — 

Station A Bar. reads 30.453 

Less eUstic force for 61.7 from Table D .551 



29.902 



Stations Bar. reads 29.341 

force for 49.4 from Table D 366 



28.975 



We haye then the tme barometric heights which ) 29.902 for Station A. 
may be treated as given in the example } 28.975 for Station B. 

AmoDs the many yarieties of mountain barometers, the standard one 
with leauem bag is onlj fit for observation at a fixed station, because 
continnal use and setting of a large floating surface of mercuij to an 
index renders the observations liable to error. The closed-cistern 
barometer, commonly called Englefidd's, has the disadvantage of requir- 
ing a correction for the filling of the cistern, and we have also found these 
instruments sluggish in their action . The lightest and most philosophical 
instrument is Gay Lnssac's; it requires no correction for capUlary 
attraction, and having only to be read by the difference of the two legs 
of the syphon, there is an equal chance of index error in both readings. 

A great superiori^ of this instrument is, that a magazine can always 
be carried, containing a number of spare tubes ; and on a breakage, a new 
one can be put into the frame, and the instrument rendered again fit for 
use in a few minutes. 

The Mountain Barometer is always arranged to read to l,000th part of 
an inch, but we have generally found that two successive readings cannot 
be taken nearer than the third part of this quantity ; excepting perhaps 
in the Gay Lussac, which can be inverted and read frequently, and not 
vary more than .002 in the result. No one travelling now should be 
without an aneroid or manometer, both of which are very susceptible, 
and little liable to damaee ; of course these require continual reference to 
a standard barometer, rfegretti and Zambra have recently contrived a 
standard Mountain Barometer, without a bag, and otherwise superior to 
any instrument with which we have met. 



KEAS BEADnrCHB OP TEB BASOMETEB. 

As oompnted from Greenwich Observations, by James Glaiaher, F.R.S. 

Four times daily the reading of the barometer is at its mean value ; 
these times in the several months are as follows : — 

h.. m. h. m. h. m. 

at 8 a.m. ... at 40 p.m. ... and at 6 pjm. 



In January at midnight . . 

„ Febnuiiy ... „ midnight .. 
„ March „ midnight .. 

April „ Ih. Om. ajn. 

May ,10 „ ... 

Jane „ midnight .. 

July „ lh.Om. a.m. 

August „ 1 

September „ 1 



n 



t* 
f» 
%* 
>t 
»» 

M 
» 

»» 



October 26 



November 
DecembCT 



n 



1 40 
40 



9 ••• 
» — • 
» ••• 
» ••• 



8 2 
m736 
,.6 40 
,,8 20 
„4 20 
,,6 26 
» 7 
,,7 30 
..7 60 
,.8 20 
» 7 40 



„ 
» 
„ 

„ 

»» 
*, 

„ 
„ 



„ 
„ 

„ 
„ 

„ 
*, 
„ 



1 40 
1 60 
1 40 



1 

1 40 

1 40 

1 10 

1 

1 10 
„11 40 a.m. 
„ 46 p.m. 



„ 
„ 

„ 

„ 
„ 
„ 



f, 
„ 
f, 

„ 
f, 
„ 
*, 
., 
„• 



6 20 

6 

7 20 

8 

9 20 
8 46 
736 
7 
6 
6 46 
6 6 



I, 
„ 

f» 
„ 

n 
„ 
,» 
.» 



That mean reading takes place with the greatest degree of steadiness 
which occurs between mid-day and 2 p.m. ; the actual time varies, 
however, with the season. 



28 



BbMARKS on THB USB OF THB TaBLBS. 



XEAH SEADnreS 07 THE THEBKOXETEB. 

The followiDg table shews the corrections to be applied to the Monthly 
Mean of a thermometer (placed four feet above the soil, with its bulb 
freely exposed to the air, but in other respects protected firom the influ- 
ence of radiation and rain) at any hour, to deduce the true mean 
temperature of the air for the month from the observations taken at that 
hour ; this table was compiled by Mr. Glaisher, from a long series taken 
at Greenwich. 



Local 


























mean 
time. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


March. 


ApriL 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aagusi. 


Sept 


Oct. 


Mot. 


Dec. 


Midnt 


+ l'.0 


+ 1*6 


+x'.9 


+4^8 


+5.4 

+6.0 


+^.x 


+f'.o 


-fs'.i 


+I0 


+x'.9 


+ i'7 


+0.9 


xa.in 


+0.9 


+ 1.8 


+ 3.0 


+ 5.X 


+7.1 


+ $.5 


+ 5.5 


+4.5 


+3.0 


+1.8 


+ 1.0 


a 


+ I.X 


+X.O 


+ 3.3 
+ 3.6 


+ 5.7 


+6.4 


+8.0 


+6.0 


+6.0 


+|.S 

+6.4 

+6.2 


+3.4 
+ 3.6 


+X.O 


+ 1.0 


3 


+ i.| 
+ 1.6 


+a.i 


+6.X 


+6.7 


+ 8.7 


+6.4 

+6.6 


+6.3 


+X.O 


+ 1-3 


4 


+X.3 


+ 3-9 


+6.6 


+6.7 


+ 9.3 


+6-5 


+ 3-8 


+X.I 


+ 1.4 


1 


+ 1.8 


+1.X 


+4.0 


+6.7 


+6.3 


+ 8.8 


+6.X 


+6.5 


+6.X 


+ 3-8 


+X.O 


+ 1.4 


+ 1.9 


+X.3 


+3.6 


+6.0 


+4-8 


46.4 


+4.5 


±5.5 


+5.3 


+ 3.5 


+1.9 


+ 1.4 


i 


+ 1.9 


+a.i 


+4.3 


+X.6 


+ 3.0 


+ X.S 


+ 3.3 


+4.0 


+X.8 


+1.7 


+ 1.5 


+ '•5 


+ 1.6 


+X.5 


+X.0 


+0.5 


0.0 


0.0 


i?:2 


+ X.I 


+ 1.6 


+1.0 


+ 1.3 


9 


+ 1.0 


+0.7 


+O.X 


— 0.9 


—4.0 


—x.s 


— x.o 


—0.4 


0.0 


^.i 


+0.9 


10 


+0.1 


-0.5 


-1.9 


-3X 


-4.0 


""♦•5 


-4.0 


3.5 


—3.0 


—x.o 


CO 


II 

Noon. 


—1.3 
— Z.3 


—X.I 

—3.x 


-35 

—5.0 


=1:1 


n:? 


-5.8 




=11 


^: 


-3.8 
—5.1 


— X.O 

-3.1 


—1.3 

— X.I 


ip.m 


— »-9 


—3.9 


-5.8 


JX 


-7-5 


-6.7 


7.5 


-^.i 


-5-5 


-1:1 


-X.4 


I 


—3.0 


zn 


-5.8 


-^'7 


—8.6 


-6.7 


—7-7 


"71 


—4.9 


— x.} 


3 


— X.5 


—5-5 


-7.7 


^•' 


-8.4 


■^•5 


—7.0 


—6.6 


zu 


—3.0 


-1.9 


4 


—1.9 


— X.8 


—4-5 


-6.7 


— ^.i 


4-t 


-5.8 


^'1 


-5.5 


— 1. 1 


-'•2 


i 


—I.I 


—1.6 


—3- J 


—5.4 


-4.8 


-4.9 


-3.6 


—4.x 


-1.7 


— I.X 


—0.8 


^.6 


—0.6 


—1.8 


—35 


—3.0 


-45 


—35 


— X.O 


-x.5 


—0.8 


—0.4 


-04 


7 


—0.3 


+0.3 
+0.6 


—0.4 


—I.I 


— I.O 


-^.4 


—1-5 


—0.5 


—0.6 


0.0 


+0.1 


—0.1 


8 


+0.1 


+0.9 


+0.7 


+0.9 


0.0 


+0.3 


+ 1.0 


+ 1.0 


+0.7 


+0.6 


+O.X 


9 


+0.4 
+0.6 


+ 1.0 


+ 1.7 


+ X.O 


+ X.J 


+1.8 


+ 1.9 


+X.4 


+ 1.8 


+1.3 


+1.0 


+0.4 


lO 


+ 1-3 


+x.| 


+ 3.» 


+3.5 


+3-6 


+3.3 


+ 3.3 


+».7 


+1.9 


+ t.3 


+0.5 


II 


■4-0.7 


-t-i.? 


+x 6 1+4. T 14.4.5 


J-^o 


+ 4.X 


-<-4.3 


+ ?.A 


+ X.4 


+ T.« +0.<l 



The numbers are degrees Fahrenheit, and are to be added or subtracted 
as denoted by the signs. 

To get the mean temperature truly, observations should be taken 
several times in the day, and at such times the algebraical sum of the 
corrections is a minimum. 

Table n., shewing the corrections to be applied subtractively to the 
simple arithmetical mean of the maximum and minimum thermometers, 
to deduce from their readings the true temperature of the air ; 



January ... 


.«• 




0.2 


July 





... 1.9 


February ... 


..• 


... 0.4 


August ... 




... 1.7 


March 


... 


.. 1.0 


September 




... 1.3 


April 


... 


... 1.5 


October ... , 




... x.o 


May 


... 


... 1.7 


November 




... 0.4 


June 


... 


••• 1.0 


December 




... 0.0 



We have thus two easy methods of finding the true mean temperature ; 
first, by taking observations several times a day, and applying corrections 
to iJieir means from Table I. ; and, secondly, by taking the half of the 
maximum and minimum readings and correcting it by the numbers in 
Table II. 

At all places the form of the diurnal variation is a single progression, 
having one ascending branch and one descending branch, the maximum 
occurring early in the afternoon, and the minimum occurring at about 



29 



Bemarks on the use of the Tables. 



sanrise ; bnt the amonnt of the difference of these extremes is yariable, 
depending upon latitude, eleyation, locality, and geological formation of 
the country. 

If we compare the mean temperatures of places which differ considerably 
from each other in latitude, we shall find that the mean values are lower 
as we proceed north. 

If we compare the mean temperatures of places having the same lati- 
tade, we shall find that the mean value of those situated at the higher 
level will be less than those at the lower level. 

If we compare places havine the same latitude, we shall find that tlie 
mean temperatures of those {uaces situated inland will be higher in the 
summer months, and lower in the winter months, than those situated in 
the vicinity of the sea. 

If we compare places differing only in their geological formations, we 
shall find that those places situated upon an arid, dry soil, will have a 
greater range of temperature than those situated upon a clayey, wet 
soil. 

It is therefore possible that the corrections in Table I. may not be of 
universal application, but as the form of the curve described by the 
daily march is similar at all places, with the exception of being more or 
less bold, tile taming points occurring at nearly the same local time, it 
is most probable that the amount of the correction applicable to any hour 
at any place, is the same part of the whole monthly mean daily range at 
that place, as the correction at Greenwich is of the monthly mean daily 
range at Greenwich. — Excerpt Phil. Trans, Part 1, 1848. 

^e also *' Glaisher*8 Meteorological Tables" — 2nd Edition. 



Tables 34» 36, 35a, 36, 37, 38, 

Contain the area and circumference of circles ; squares, cubes, square 
roots, cube roots, and reciprocals, 1 to 100 ; squares, square roots, and 
cube roots, 101 to 1,100; logarithms of number 1 or 100 to 1,000; 
logarithmic sines and cosines, to 90 degrees for each 10 minutes ; and 
natural sines, tangents, &c. &c. 

These tables need no explanation here ; they are inserted as collateral 
aid, in applying the tables to the various wants of the Engineer, as out- 
lined in the foregoing pages ; any further application of them will be 
obtainable firom &e ordmaiy works on the mathematical branches of the 
profession. 



TIDE TABLES, 39, 39a, 39b, 40, 41. 



These tables are chiefly based on the notes to the Admiralty tide 
tables, and information obligingly famished by their superintendent, Mr. 
Bnrdwood ; they will be found useful, not only for finding the heights and 
times of high water at the various ports mentioned, but also for tracing 
the progress of the tidal wave, and for readily ascertaining when any 
particularly high or low tide may be expected, by the rise attached to 
the different hours of the moon^s transit and declination at noon. 

Table 39 gives the constants for finding the time of high water at 
twenty-four places ; no other corrections are given, as they are too small 



L 



30 



BbHARKS on the USB OF THB TaBLBS. 



to affect the validity of the result ; a ligfat breese would occasion a greater 
variatioii than the largest correction that can be applied for time, and 
often for heights. 

Table 89a &y^ the constants for finding the heights of high water 
above the mean level of low water spring tides at the same twenty-four 
places ; for greater accuracy, the corrections for the moon's declination 
and parallax given in Table 396 must be applied. 

Table 89b gi^es the corrections of height for the moon's declination 
and par^lax for twenty places, which are to be applied to the constants 
previously found in Table 39a. 

Tables 39 and 39a give the time and heights for a London tide two 
days following the transit, to be taken as a datum ; for tides at the other 
q)ecified places, take the additions shewn in these tables. But Portland 
is an exception, the time and heights for this place must be taken for a 
preceding transit. Mean solar time is used for all these tables ; there- 
fore, for reducing all the times of the tables to common timCf correction 
must be made from an almanac according to the season. 

Example. — Required the Titne and Height qf High Water at Hull, 
on January 24th, 1852. 

]>. H. X. 

Moon's transit on January 22nd, at 1 13 

Table 32 gives for Ih. 13m. at Hull 1 19 10 

The time of high water following noon of Jan. 22nd 1 20 23 
or 8h. 23m. a.m, mean solar time on January 24th. 

Feet. 

The same transit ^ves, by Table 32a 20.63 

Correction for decimation on January 22nd, vix. , 18 deg. — .16 
„ parallax „ viz.,55min. — .63 

The height of high water, when corrected, being 19.84 

on January 24th, or 19 feet 10 ins, at 8.23 a.m. 

Table 41 gives the mean spring range, and the constants of time and 
heights of high water, for a number of places, to be added or deducted, 
in reference to the standard places designated in black letters at the 
head of each division ; the time and heights of these leading places being 
found from the tables 39, 39a, and 396, in connection with the moon*s 
transit and declination, as before described. It must be recollected that 
whatever the tide may range on the particular day required at the 
standard place, yet the constant difference at any other place, referred to 
such standard, will be the same ; the places being in fact both situate on 
co-tidal lines. 

Example. — Let it be required to find the Time and Height of High 
Water at Great Qrimsby on the same date, viz,, January 24th, 1852. 

Hull is the port of reference for Great Grimsby. The h. ic. 

time of high water there, by the former example, is 8 23 a.m. 
Constant for Great Grimsby — 53 

Givingfor the time of high water 7 30 a.m. 

Ft. In. 

Height of high water at Hull on January 24th 19 10 

Constant for Great Grimsby — 1 8 

Giving for the height of high water 18 2 



31 



RbMABKS on THB USB OP THB TaBLBS. 



THS DXVOHPOBT TIDAL C0K8TANT8, in Table 396, were 
reduced by Dr. Whewell, from obsenrationB made at Devonport ; the 
times being deduced from three, and the heights from five years* obser- 
TatiouB. 

The method of using them is very similar to that of the other tables, 
but in order to make it clearer, an exam^e is given below. 

To find the Time and Height of High Water at JOevonport, on 
January 2^th, 1853. 

Moon*s transit, January 24th 12 03 

Table 396 gives 6 33 

Time of high water, January 26th, being 18 36 

or 6h. 36m. a.m. 
To find the height, — Peet 

The above transit gives 15.37 

Collection for decimation, ^3 deg 35 

Height of water, January 26th, being 15 ,02 



To find the Height cfLow Water and the Bange of the Tide, 
The zero of tidal heights in Table 39a, is the mean height of low 
water at ^ring tides. 

The low water of any one tide is generally as much abore the mean 
low water as tiie high water of the same tide is below mean high water ; 
and if the high water be above mean high water, the low water is as 
much below the zero of the tables. 

ExAMPUB. — Bequired the Height qfLow Water and the Bange qf 
Tide at Hull, on January 24th, 1852. 

Feet. 

Height of high water as above 19 .84 

Mean height of high water at spring tides, above zero ... 20 .83 

Therefore high water on the 24th Jan., 1852, will be 0.99 below that 
of mean spring tide, and low water will be 0.99 above zero ; therefore 
the range of the day will be 20.83 — .99 X 2 = 18.85 feet. 

To find the height of the tide at say four hours from high water of the 
above day, take multiplier for four hours from Table 326, which is 
.258 X 19.84 feet = 5.12 feet above the low water of the day, which being 
.99 feet above zero of the tables, this is to be added to the above, making 
the height of the tide, at 4 hours ebb, 6.11 feet abore zero of the tables. 
In contracted places and rivers, the tide flows faster than it ebbs, as will 
be seen in oar various examples ; this was also found to occur even 
throughout the Irish Sea, by Captain Beechey. 

T&ble 40 shews the state of tide at each half-Hour of rise or fall, for 
tides ranging from 6 to 40 feet ; this will give by inspection a more 
aocnrate remit than the foregoing rule. Further notes on this subject 
are given in the division of this work devoted to the subject of Tides 
and Tidal Bivers, particularly as to the diurnal inequality. There are 
many situations where the curves are not like this table, such as 
Portsmouth, Southampton, Portland, Severn and river tides generally. — 
See AdmiraUy Tide Tables for 1860. 

Tables 42, 42a, 42bf and 42c, contain short abstracts for ascer- 
taining the value of annuities, leases or reversions, with the fixed value 
of annuities by the Legacy Act. Those who require more particular 
information on this subject should consult " Inwood's Tables." 



SLDICES, TANKS, BESERVOIKS, Sc VERTICAL PIPES.— Tabli 1 



II ''"'■ I XC I SSq^ I ^Z. I "^ I mTnuS! I SSa^ I SSn^ 



33 



SLUICES, TANKS. RESERVOIRS, & VERTICAL PIPES.— Table L 



- % 



TABT.i; OE disc: 


OAEOE 


FOE 


TABIOUS HEADS. 

Bt. 


.81 to fl50. Fe< 


A 


B 





D 


A 


B 





D 


Head of 


Natural 


Effectire 


EffiBctlTe 


Head of 


Natural 


EffectlTe 


Effectire 


1 Water. 


yeloclt7. 


Velocity. 


Velocity. 


Water. 


Velocity. 


Velocity. 


Velocity. 


Feet 


Feet per 


Feet per 


Feet per 


Ffvt 


Feet per 


Feet per 


Feet per ! 


miiiate. 


minate. 


minnte. 


X0CI1. 


minate. 


minute. 


minute. 


.81 


433.80 


405.00 


270.00 


7.»5 


1298.0a 


1211.8 


807.9 


.8x 


436.21 


407.5 


271.6 


7.50 


1320.20 


1232.5 


811.7 


.8} 


439.10 


409.9 


»75.3 


7-75 
8.00 


"541.89 
1363.09 


1252.8 


835.2 


.84 


44i-5« 


412.4 


276.6 


1272.6 


86i!6 


:& 


1^:1? 


414.9 


8.25 


1384.30 


1292.4 


417. J 


278.2 


8.50 


1405.03 


1311.7 


874.5 


:U 


449-56 


420.6 


279.8 


8.75 


14*5.75 


1331.1 


887.4 


451.11 


422.1 


281.4 


9.00 


14^6.00 


1350.0 


900.0 


:& 


^:& 


m 


282.9 
284.5 


ISi 


1465.76 


i&ali 


912.1 
024.6 


.91 


45983 
461.Z4 


419.3 


286.1 


9-75 


1S04.80 


1404.9 


936.6 


.9* 


4JI-5 


287.7 


10.00 


1524.08 


1422.9 


^i 


•9J 


ti 


455.8 


289.2 


10.25 


1545.56 
1561.68 


1440.9 


•94 


456.3 


290.8 


10.50 


1458.0 


972.0 


■.u 


469.76 


458.6 


292.3 


10.75 


1580.47 


1475.5 

149*.6 


985.7 


47i.ai 


440.8 


495 -9 


11.00 


1616.62 


995.1 
1006. a 


.97 


474.77 
477- '8 


445. a 


a95.4 
296.9 


11.25 


1509.3 


.98 


445. 5 


11.50 


1634.46 


1525.0 

Ms 


1017.3 


iM 


4^<^ 


m 


8^.'^ 


18.(£$ 


1652.29 
16^.648 


1018.4 
1089i 


1. 10 


505.6a 


472.0 


314.6 


12.25 


1687.00 


1575.0 


1050.0 


l.ZO 


5*Z-Z9 


49*.7 


328.6 


12.50 


1705.87 


1606.9 


1060.5 


I.Z5 


5J8.87 


503.1 


355.4 


12.75 


1711.22 


1071.3 


1.30 


549-58 


5x5.0 


341.0 


13.00 


1737.61 


1612.2 


1081.5 


1.40 


570.20 


551.1 


554.9 
367.4 


13.25 


1754.48 


1638.0 


1092.0 


;:£ 


590.30 


551. 1 


13.50 


1770.86 
1787.25 
1803.64 


:^:l 


1102.2 


609.73 


560.2 


379-5 


15.75 


1112.^ 
1122.6 


1.70 


6^.60 


586.8 


39]-« 


14.00 


1683.9 


L((;{ 


m 


4^:1 


14l-5t$ 


i^:U 


IT^oi 


ii&A 


1.90 


^.19 


620.1 


4155 


14.75 


1850.88 
1866.78 
1897.63 


1728.00 


1152.0 

HOT. 9 


a.oo 


699'. 86 


656.3 


4x4.1 


15.00 


1742.85 


a. 10 


P 


434.7 


15.50 
16.00 


1771.65 


1181.1 


a.so 


714.80 


444.9 


1928.00 


1800.00 


1200.3 
I218.6 


a.xs 


723.00 


Si:: 

697.0 


450.0 


16.50 


1957.88 


it27.9o 


a. 30 
a.40 


750.05 
7j6.6a 
762.04 


454.9 
464.7 


17.00 
17.50 


1987.28 
2016.10 


1855.35 
1882.35 


1236.9 
1154.9 


z.(o 
a. 60 
8.70 


711.4 


474.3 

m 


18.00 


2045.12 


1909.35 


1171.9 


^4 


m 


18.50 

19.00 


2073.08 
8101.08 


MU 


^".1 


a.8o 


n.ii 


746.1 


497-5 


19.50 


2128.51 


2007.20 


1324.8 


?S:' 

779-5 
811. 3 


502.0 


20.00 


2155.50 


2012.40 


1341.6 


a.90 
3.00 
3««$ 


820.84 

8|4.8a 
869.04 


510.0 
519.6 

540.9 
561.3 


25.00 
30.00 
35.00 


2^10.00 
2639.91 
2851.51 


2250.00 
1464.65 
2662.20 


1500.0 
1643.1 
1774.8 
1897.2 


3.50 


901.82 


841.9 


40.00 


3048.16 


2845.80 


J-75 


91?- »5 


871.2 


000.0 


45.00 


3*5 3. 45 


3018.60 


2012.4 


4.00 


964.00 


900.0 


50. .0 


3408.22 


3181.95 


2I2I.3 


^ 


1(^.1$ 


m 


618.3 

636.3 


aa^ 


nSlOT 


m^ 


2224.8 

sm8 


4.75 


1050.76 


981.0 


654.0 


65.00 


3885.88 


3627.9 


2418.6 


5.00 


1077.75 
1104.26 


I0C6.2 


670.8 


70.00 


.4032.41 


3764.70 


2509.8 


5-*5 


10)0.9 


687.3 


75.00 
80.00 


4174.12 


3897.0 


2C98.0 
2663.* 


5.50 


1130.29 


1055.2 


705.5 


4311.00 


4024.80 


6.00 


1155.85 


1079.1 


7'9.4 


85.00 


4443.55 


4148.5 


2765.7 
2846.1 


1180.42 


1102 .0 


734.7 


90.00 


*Mi\ 


4a^.i 


6.aj 


1205.00 


1125.0 


7|o.o 


95.00 


4386.1 


2924.1 


6.50 

7% 


1228.62 

1252.23 

1875.87 


"49-0 
1 169.1 

1 1190.7 


764.7 

mi 


100.00 

200.00 

I250.00 


4820.00 
6816.44 

7616.0 


1^-** 

W 


3000.0 
£40.0 



34 



WEEBS OR OVERFALLS.— Tabix 2. 







DUOHAItOB, 




IK OUBIO FEBT FBB ICOnTTB FOB ONB FOOT m LENGTH. 


BmJL'-MtMip^ik0(^iamtUgim(h«Taia0,oppo9U4(h« given depa,^ Unga qf ^ 


Depth 
fciifag 

OTor* 


DiochAxge 


Depth 
over. 


Discharge 


Depth 

fMIing 

over. 


Dieoharge 
ICmote. 


Feofek 


OnUoFeet. 


Feet. 


OahioFeet. 


Feet. 


OabicFeet. 


.01 


0.21 


•51 


77-94 


1. 01 


217.22 


• 02 


0.61 


•5* 


80.24 


1.02 


220. 45 


.03 


I. II 


•53 


«».57 


1.03 


223. 70 


•04 


1. 71 


•54 


84.9a 


1.04 


226. 97 


.05 


2.39 


•55 


!7-if 


1.05 


230. 25 


.06 


3-15 


.56 


89.68 


1.06 


»33- 54 


.07 


3.96 


•57 


92.09 


1.07 


236.86 


.08 


4.84 


.58 


94-53 


1.08 


240. 19 


:3 


J. 78 

6. 77 


:i& 


dlie 


i£S 


24l'8'^ 


.11 


7.81 


.61 


101.95 


i.ii 


250. 26 


.12 


8.90 


• 62 


104.47 


1. 12 


253.65 


•«3 


10.03 


.63 


107.01 


1. 13 


257. 06 


•14 


II. 21 


.64 


109.57 


1. 14 


260.48 


•«S 


12.43 


.65 


112. 15 


1.15 


263. 91 


.16 


13.70 


.66 


114.74 


1.16 


267. 36 


•17 


15.00 


.67 


117.36 


1.17 


270. 83 


.18 


16.34 


.68 


120.00 


1. 18 


274.31 


.'2^ 


17.72 
1914 


:& 


122. 66 

125 88 


12'8 


277. 80 

28131 


.21 


20.59 


•71 


128.02 


1. 21 


284. 83 


.22 


22.08 


•7» 


130.74 


1.22 


288. 37 


,23 


23.60 


•73 


133.47 


1.23 


291.92 


•"4 


25.16 


•74 


136.23 


1.24 


*95-49 


•»5 


26.75 


•75 


139.00 


1.25 


299. 07 


.26 


28.37 


.76 


141.79 


1.26 


302.67 


•a? 


30.02 


•77 


144-59 


1.27 


306. 26 


.28 


31.71 


.78 


147.42 


1.28 


309.91 


•SiS 


UTe 


:^ 


150.26 

168 13 


13*lS 


3'3-54 

81720 


•31 


36.93 


.81 


156.00 


1.31 


320. 87 


•3a 


38.74 


.81 


158.90 


1.32 


3H.5S 


•33 


40.57 


.8j 


161.82 


1.33 


328.24 


•34 


42.42 


.84 


164.75 


1.34 


331.95 


•35 


44-31 


.85 


167.70 


».35 


335.67 


.36 


46.22 


.86 


170.67 


1.36 


339-41 


•37 


48.16 


.87 


173.66 


1.37 


343- »6 


.38 


50.13 


.88 


176.66 


1.38 


346. 92 


:^ 


52.12 

M.14 




179.68 

18278 


1-^ 


350.70 

864 49 


•41 


56.18 


.91 


185.77 


1.41 


358. 30 


.42 


58.25 


.92 


188.84 


1.42 


362. 12 


•43 


60.34 


•93 


191.93 


1.43 


365-95 


•44 


62.46 


•94 


195.03 


1.44 


369. 79 


•45 


64.60 


•95 


198.15 


«.45 


373. 65 


.46 


66.76 


.96 


201.29 


1.46 


377. 53 


•47 


68.95 


•97 


204.44 


1.47 


381.41 


.48 


71.16 


.98 


207. 61 


1.48 


385.31 


.-^ 


73- 40 

75 66 


i.<^ 


210.80 
214-00 


15^^ 


393-14 



35 



WEIRS OR OVERFALLS.— Tablb 2. 



DISCHABGB, 

IN CUBIC FEET PEE lOKUTB FOE (MOB FOOT IN LENGTH. 
B,jn.M.—MmUip!g tks QfumHig i% tk« TahU, oppotiU theoioem depth, h$ fkt UngA ^ f]U 



Depth 
orer. 



1.51 
1.5a 

1-53 
I. 54 

1.56 

»-57 
1.58 

'•59 

leo 

1. 61 

1.62 

1.63 
1.64 
1.65 
1.66 
1.67 
1.68 
1.69 

170 

1.71 
1.7* 

1-73 
1.74 

«-75 
1.76 

1.77 

1.78 

1.70 

180 

1. 81 

1.82 
1.83 
1.84 
1.85 
1.86 
1.87 
1.88 
1.89 

190 

1. 91 

1.92 
1.93 
1.94 
1.95 
1.96 
1.97 
1.98 



rUflcbarge 

per 

Hmate. 



Cabio FMtw 
397. 08 
401.03 
405.00 
408.97 
412.96 
416.97 
420.98 
425 > 01 
429.05 

4siii 

437- »7 
441.25 

445-34 

449-45 

453- 50 

457- 09 
461.83 

465. 99 

470. 16 

474 34 

478- 53 
482.73 

486.95 

491. 18 

495- f» 
499. 67 

503- 94 
508.21 

512. 50 

516 80 

521. II 

5*5-44 
529. 77 

534- " 
538.48 

54»- «5 

547- ^4 

551-63 
556.04 

66046 

564. 89 

5^9- 33 

573- 79 
578.25 

582. 73 

587. 22 
591.72 

596. 23 
600. 75 

606 28 



Depth 

folliiig 

over. 



2 



Feet 
2.01 
2.02 
2.03 
2.04 
2.05 
2.06 
2.07 
2.08 

•ig 

ft. II 
2. 12 
2.13 
2.14 
2.15 
2. 16 
2.17 
2. 18 
2. 19 

2 20 

2.21 

2.22 
2.23 
2.24 
2.25 
2.26 
2.27 
2.28 
2.29 

2 30 

2.31 

2.32 

a- 33 
2.34 

2.3s 

2. 36 

2.37 

2.38 



2 



2.41 
2.42 

a. 43 
a. 44 

»-45 
3.46 

a- 47 

2. 48 

a- 49 

60 



Ducharge 

per 
Ibnnte. 



Cabio Feeti. 
609.83 
614. 39 
618.95 

6*3- 53 
628. 12 

632. 72 

637. 34 
641.96 

646.60 

66124 

655.90 
660.57 
665. 25 
669.94 
674.64 
679. 35 
684. 08 

688. 81 

Si'U 

703. 08 
707. 85 
712. 64 

717- 44-, 
722. 25 

727. 07 

731.90 

736- 74 
741.60 

746 46 

751-34 
756. 22 

761. II 

766. 01 

770. 93 

775. 86 
780. 79 

785- 74 
790.70 

795 67 

800.65 
805. 64 
810.64 
815.64 

820. 66 
825.69 

830. 73 

835.78 
840. 14 

84691 



Depth 

fiOImg 

over. 



Feet 

a. 5* 
a. 52 

*-53 

a- 54 

a- 55 
2. 56 

a. 57 
2.58 

2.61 
2.62 
2.63 
2.64 
2. 65 
2.66 
2.67 
2.68 
2. 69 

2 70 

2.71 
2.72 

a. 73 

a. 74 

a. 75 
2.76 

a. 77 
2.78 

2^^ 

2.81 

a. 8a 
a. 83 
a. 84 
a. 85 
2.86 
a. 87 
a. 88 
a. 89 

2 90 

a. 91 
a. 9a 

a- 93 

a. 94 

a- 95 
a. 96 

a. 97 
a. 98 

a. 99 

3 00 



Discharge 

per 
ICmute. 



Cubic FeeL 
851.00 
856. 08 
861.17 
866. a9 
871.41 
876. 54 
881.68 
886. 83 
891. 00 

89717 

90a. 35 

907-54 
91a. 74 

917- 95 
9a3.i7 

9a8. 40 

933. 64 

938. 89 

944.15 

949 42 

954.70 

959. 99 

965. a9 
970.60 

975- 9* 
981.25 

• 986. 59 

991.93 

997. ao 

1.00266 

1,008.03 

1,013.4a 
1,018.81 
1,024.22 
1,029.63 
1,035.05 
1,040.48 
1,045.92 
1,051.38 

L066.84 

1,062.31 

1,067.80 
1,073,29 
1,078.78 
1,084.29 
1, 089. 81 

If 095. '34 
1, 100. 87 

1,106.42 
I L 111. 98 



36 



WEIRS OR OVERFALLS.— Table 2a, 



SISCHABQE, 



IN CTTBIO FEET PER 1IINI7TB FOB OITE FOOT IN LENGTH, 

When th« Staretm spproadheB fhe Wdr wi£h tbxee different initial velocitleB. 

A(2«.— Multiply the Qnantlty in (he Table, opposite the given depth, and milder the 
•flsmned velocitgr, hy the length of the Weir in foot; using DeoimalB fbr Frac- 
tional parts. 



Depth 
iUfing 
over. 



ibet. 

.ot 

:St 

.08 
.10 
.» 

M 

.18 
.80 



•aa 

.%S 

.}0 



:2 

.50 

I 
.(lio 

.6a 

:a 

.68 

.70 

.?» 
.74 
.75 



DxsoBASoa, wm IvmiL 
YaLOOirr nn MzaiTva. 



aOFxBS. 




ftotlGubio fleetlCabic feet 

perMin. 

1.48 

5.10 

7.86 

10.76 

n.79 

16. Q< 



at. 78 
a6.oo 
a8.56 
JI.91 

17.15 
40.80 

44. 5f 
48.4a 

&U 

60.65 

69.16 

71-7; 

J 8. 26 
a. go 
87.0a 
9»-44 



107. ]8 
iia.51 
117.74 
iai.05 

131-88 
139.41 
i4z.ao 



UOFaxc. 



perlfin. 

j.6j 

1*74 
8.03 

10.48 

13.09 

18.76 



a8.a5 

31.6a 

)J'4i 

37.00 

»:? 

50.4a 

a- IP 



67.a7 
71.7a 

\76 



1^ 



85.60 
90.41 

95*9 

100. a7 



115.67 
iao.96 
1*6.13 
131.64 

137.30 

X4*.75 
148.4a 

151.4a 

iE»2 



180 



95 

ao.aa 

a3.6a 

a7.11 

80.72 



38. ai 
40. at 

44. 45 
50.35 

78.88 



86.67 

ioa.6o 
106.86 
iia. II 



laS.to 

l3^i5 

n9-47 

145-03 

150.8a 
i«6.6a 

165.63 

171.68 

180.78 



Bepi 

fern 



ith 
ing 
orer. 



feet. 
.81 

:U 

.88 
.90 

.9» 

I 

L(S 

i.oa 

1.06 
1.08 

l.IO 

i.ia 

1.16 
1.18 
L80 



i.aa 
i.a4 

i.»5 

«.»7 
1.30 
1.3a 

1.30 
1.18 

L40 



1.4a 

i^ 

1.48 
1.50 
1.5a 

1.50 
1.(8 
LtfO 



DUOKABGI, WITH IVTTUA 

YxLOOixT raa ICnnm. 



60 



OaUofeet 
perMin. 
i6a.a5 
168.13 
174. If 
180.14 
186. a3 
191.40 
198.03 
104.93 
111.19 
817.74 



aa4.i8 

a3o.73 

»37- U 
t44.oa 

a5o.78 

a57-59 
164.44 
171.35 



»9».47 
199.64 
303.14 
310.47 

311.41 
318.83 

336.16 
14175 



366.54 

374. *4 
381.01 

389.84 

197-71 
405.64 
413.60 
411.61 



120FasT. 



Onbio feetlOabio 
perMin. 
171.93 

177.94 
184.05 
190.10 
196.41 
10a. 70 
109.05 

M5.47 



a35.o6 

»4i.75 
»48.45 
IJ5.14 
161.11 
160.04 
170.00 
183.01 



304.49 

3".75 
115.40 
311.73 

in.»4 

141.11 
14f.«7 
356.46 

87L80 



179.51 
387.31 

395.18 

403.10 

411.07 

419. 10 

417.18 

415- «9 



laoFsiT. 



feet 
perMin. 
186.96 
193. 19 

199. 5» 
105.88 
111.30 
118.80 

M5.15 

JU:S 



151.16 

159.0 
165. 

171.94 
aSo.oi 
187.13 
194. a7 
301.46 

^& 



3*3.46 

330.00 

114.04 

14*. 15 

151-51 
361.11 

368.01 

376.67 

89^.'^ 



400.15 
408.11 
416.13 
4*4.1* 

41*- 45 
440.64 
448.88 
457.15 







■WEIBS OE OVERFALLS 


. — Tablk 2a. 




■ 


IN OTTBIO TSBT PBB MDIUTH FOB ONH FOOT IK LINGTH, 




I^.-llBWp1y U» Qnuiatyin thd Dihto. oppodto th. jiToa dcptti, >nd oDdcrllM 


■wnmed TBlodty, Vt 0" Ia«tti ot tbg Wdr In AM| otfiw Dsdmili lot Am>. 


ttoulpuU. 


- 


a. 


~ Ht 




PSJUD. 


pCTHlU. 






psjun. 


periun. 


ptrlOa. 


i:| 


446.» 


f? 

'£'- 


4S..M 


t.41 

ts 


EtS 
E:8 


»a.to 


£1.1) 


i:S 




491' 4fl 


?i 


as 


3:S 


a 


t^:^ 


^:a 


<t^ 


<KS 


^& 


>^^ 


i.lt 


HO. 46 


»(-17 


as 


l-bt 


911' (9 


9I<-4S 


9*°- II 




:8 

.n 


5J9-'7 


IM--^ 


ta 

1.68 

tE 

»-7l 


,H-<» 


«'■(• 


97^1 




ill 
srs 




|::S 


9!*-« 

ii 




^<S 


&£ 


>ji2 


I.2S83S 


ii«rr*^ 


liEE 


La 


as 


6«.J9 


&so.{r 


in 


i-"9-69 


■ ,<qB.19 


'.079-1* 

......76 


1 




69a. )9 


ts 

>n 

t.90 


1.071- '7 


i«S 

I.Ota, 01 


til 


69.. 4» 

701. OQ 


ti 


l:S::! 


i;|il 


iiiiip 


iiS 


i%ji 


liMifS 


.-:& 


■iSSlli 


l:i^:i!> 


i^M 


tn 


S;S 


7*9- «» 
7J9-I' 


Sis 


■2 


;::;f:S 

i*:S 

;:S:S 
iiii 


■■B 


;:S;S 




7»T^»J 


7M-I* 


m.lj 




1, 141.70 


»-»7 

til 




11 


i 


■ 40 


i£E 





38 
VELOCITIES OF RIVEIIS.— Table S 



TABLE OB SUBPACE. KEAH ft BOTTOM VELOCITIES 

or 
STREAMS, RIVERS AND TIDAL ESTUARIES. 



From 5 to BOO Foot per Minute. 



RULI.— n« Jtm eoh$iim np r etmti th$ averofft ntrfaoB vdoeitia at the muUZc </ a 
rwer. Aity eom M po nd btf wtt an vdoeUjf, when mmlt^^titd Sy th$ area» wiU five 
the diMcharge in cMe fa^ per minute. The bottom velodHea repreaent the action 
on the ndee and bottom ^any «frMm» pipe, or eubiert, tehote flMm velooUif i§ ? 



Nois.— For rdocItioB in Inches, per second, dlrlde the tabular numbers by t. 
For miles per hour, multiply the tabular numbers by .01 136. 



Surface 


Mean 


Bottom 


Surfiaoe 


Mean 


Bottom 


Velocity. 


Velocity. 


Velocity. 


Velocity. 


Velocity. 


Velocity, 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


«y Minute. 


V Minute. 


VMtaiute. 


iP* Minute. 


V Minute 


V Minute. 








102.5 


82.35 


62.2 


5- 


a. 50 


.0 


105. 


84.60 


64.2 


7.5 


3.90 


.3 


107.5 


86.80 


66.1 


lO. 


5-45 


•9 


no. 


89.05 


68.1 


^*.5 


7.10 


1.7 


112. 5 


91.30 


70.1 


15. 


8.85 


2.7 


"5. 


93.55 


72.1 


17.5 


10.65 

12.50 


3.8 


117.5 


95.75 


74.0 


20. 


5.0 


120. 


98.00 


76.0 


a*-5 


14.40 


6.3 


122.5 


100.25 


78.0 


'5. 


»<5-35 


7.7 


"5. 


102.50 


80.0 


^7.5 


18.30 


9.1 


127.5 


104.75 


82.0 


30. 


20.25 


10.5 


130. 


107.00 


84.0 


3^.5 


22.05 


12.0 


»32.5 


109.25 


86.0 


35- 


24.30 


13.6 


«35. 


111.55 


88.1 


37.5 


26.30 


15.1 


i^:' 


113.80 


90.1 
92.1 


40. 


28.86 


16.7 


116.05 


4»-5 


30.45 


18.4 


«42.5 


118.30 


94.1 


45. 


32.50 


20.0 


145. 


120.60 


96.2 


47.5 


34.60 


21.7 


H7.5 


122.85 


98.2 


50. 


36.70 


23.4 


150. 


125.15 


100.) 


S^'S 


38.80 


25.* 


"52.5 


127.4^ 


102.3 


55' 


' 40.95 


26.9 


155. 


129.65 


104.3 


^' 


43.05 
4S.20 


28.6 


157.5 


131-95 


106.4 


30.4 


160. 


134.20 


108.4 


6z.s 


47.35 


32.2 


162.5 


136.50 


110.5 


65. 


49.50 


340 


165. 


138.80 


112.6 


67.5 


5^-65 


35.8 


167.5 


141-05 


114.6 


70. 


53.80 


37.6 


170. 


143-35 


116.7 


72.5 


55.95 


39-4 


172.5 


145.65 


118.8 


75- 


58.15 


41.3 


175- 


147.95 


120.9 


77.5 


60.30 


43.1 


177.5 


150.20 


122.9 
126.0 


80. 


62.60 


46.0 


180. 


162.60 


81.5 


64.70 


46.7 


182.5 


154.80 


127.1 


85. 


66.90 


48.8 


185. 


157.10 


129.2 


87.5 


69.10 


50.7 


187.5 


159.40 


131.3 


90. 


71.30 


52.6 


190. 


161.70 


133.4 


92.5 


73-50 


54.5 


192.5 


164.00 


135.5 


95- 


75.70 


56.4 


195- 


166.30 


137.6 


i^:' 


77.95 


58 4 


197-5 


1 68 . 60 


11^ 'Z 


80.15 


60.8 


200. 


170.90 


14L8 



39 



VELOCITIES OP RIVERS.— Tablb 8 



TABLE OF SmFACBi VXAB «k BOTTOM TILOCITIES 


bTUEAMS, mVERS AND TIDAL ESTTTARTES. 


rwam aoa.t to oao PMt p« 


r Mtante, 










90 feet p«r minato will not dUtozb elay witli nad and itoneo. 1 


40 „ „ will sweep along ooane Mnd. | 




flne gravel, 
raonded'pebblee. 


*■• i» fff *t 


aognlar atenet. 


Snrftee 


Hean 




Snrfkioe 


Mean 


Bottom 


Yelodty. 


Velocity. 


Velocity. 


▼elodtgr. 


VdociQr. 


Velocity. 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


«y]ftnnte. 


V^Klnata. 


Vymniite. 


«y Minato. 


IT Minute. 


rmnato. 


202.5 


173.20 


143.9 


305 


268.4 


231.9 


205.0 


»75.50 


146.0 


310 


273.1 


236.3 


207.5 


177.80 


148.1 


315 


277.8 


240.6 


210.0 


180.10 


150.2 


320 


282.5 


245.0 


212.5 


182.40 


152.3 


325 


287.2 


249.4 


215.0 


184.75 


154.5 


330 


291.9 


253.8 


117.5 


187 05 


156.6 


M 


296.6 


258.4 


220.0 


189.85 


158.7 


301.2 


262.5 


222.5 


191.65 


160.8 


345 


305-9 


266.9 


225.0 


193.95 


162.9 


350 


310.6 


271.3 


227.5 


196.30 


165.1 


355 


3153 


275.7 


230.0. 


198.60 


167.2 


360 


320.1 


280. a 


as*. 5 


200.90 


169.3 


365 


324.8 


284.6 


»35'«> 


203.25 


171.5 


370 


329.5 


289.0 


S^.'^ 


iSIM 


173.6 
175.7 


^ 


388.9 


293.4 

297.8 


H2.5 


210.20 


177.9 


385 


343.6 


302.3 


H5-0 


212.50 


180.0 


390 


H8.3 


306.7 


H7.5 


214.85 


182.2 


395 


353.0 


311.1 


250.0 


217.15 


184.3 


400 


357.8 


315.6 


>5i.5 


219.50 


186.5 


405 


362.5 


320.0 


255.0 


221. 80 


188.6 


410 


367.2 


324.5 


IN^.^ 


224.15 

226.45 


190.8 
102.9 


M 


J^o:? 


328.9 
333.4 


262.5 


228.80 


195.1 


425 


381.4 


337.8 


265.0 


231.10 


197.2 


430 


386.1 


342.3 


267.5 


233.45 


199.4 


435 


390.8 


346.7 


270.0 


235.75 


201.5 


440 


395.6 


351.2 


272.5 


238.10 


203,7 


445 


400.3 


355.7 


*75.o 


240.45 


205.9 


450 


405.1 


> 360.2 


277.5 

280.0 


215.10 


208.0 

2101 


KO 


452.5 
500.6 


^1 


282.5 


247.45 


212.4 


600 


547.7 


495-5 


285.0 


249.75 


214.5 


650 


595.5 


541.0 


287.5 


252.10 


216.7 


700 


643.3 


586.7 


290.0 


25445 


218.9 


750 


691.2 


632.5 


292.5 


256.75 


221.0 


800 


739-2 


678.5 


295.0 


259.10 


223.2 


850 


787.3 


724.6 


297-5 
300.0 


261.45 
263.75 


225.4 
227.5 


900 
950 


&i 


770.8 

817.2 



ARTERIAL DRAINS, NEW CUTS AND RIVERS.— Tablk 4 





Bottom 


Dl>- 




DIf 








Dlt- 






1 












cluTBe 




chug. 


Vtl 


ciunn 




chirm 




ch.rB«[V.l 


chi^ 












fwl 




roet. 


cnMc 








cubic ftet 


cdMc 


bet 






Feet 


(^1° 




(ML 




AKt. 




feci. 














1 

3 


ft 


J" 


Ss 


u6 


is" 


a 


«"4 


«f 


tl 


476 
17' 


»■• 


"g 


^ 






I 

7 


'"J 
49B 


'i'' 


s 


i^ifi 


S 


£ 


1 




66S 

a 


i-i 


,S 


d 






1 


J 


1!: 


ii:= 


749 


l\'.6 


St 


S:| 


^ 


"'■7 


,a 


S:; 


!^6 


7»!ci 






«» 


J-I-: 


«I7 


*<-9 


946 




»I7 




■ ■!6 


19-) 


;g 


7..6 






ts 


e 


)t'i 


9(8 


*i.i 




49-i 










71-7 






LU 


IS' 


low 


«.I 


lljo 




14IS 


as 


'SiJ 


61.0 




74.8 






J 


^1 

7 


g 


\tl 


g 


j:;^ 


a 


48.4 


s 


$1 


R,l 


F'° 


S 


?!:: 








is 


ll] 


ii:^ 


li.6 


;?j; 


Ji:S 


V^i 




.164 


£ 


■isi 

.719 


?:l 






1 


J 


K 


IE. 9 


]l?4 


4^-7 


i#>i 


l):9 


i^a 


ii 


1861 
1161 


1? 


i 


j!o 






U4 


■w 


I9.7 


■T4» 


♦S.4 


J019 


S6.1 




Si.j 


147J 






84.1 






1 


J 


ia 


u 


)Si 


4«-' 

J! 


'^ 


',ii 


ii7« 


".-.l 


l| 


Il 


;i2 


S?:j' 






J 


_9«S 


"'.* 




is 


a 


17,11 


t.i 




^:1 


1J4! 


1.6 






1 










49'9 








S4.3 




JO .4 


.(«, 






i 


i 


tl 








JS.I 


iii° 




i 


'i:J 


IS 


ps 










*]'.l 


"ill 




IJIfi 


1.6 


tJ6( 




Ji76 


7). J 


4I1S9 







41 
ARTERIAL DRAINS, NEW CUTS AND RIVERS— Table 4 



9I8CHAB0E AHD VELOCITIES 



IH OUBIO AKD LINBAL FBBT PBB UllfVTB, 



At the foUowlnc Hates of FalL 



FALL. 




i 

s 

I 



i 

8 




r 6 




2inehM 

per mile. 



Dis- 

durge 

cable 

feet. 



i 

s 



S 



r 8 

10 
13 



IM5 

i86s 
ai79 

M95 
1814 

3781 
45941 



Vel. 
feet. 



1565 

ji87 
3671 
4160 

4^ 

5116 
5616 
6104 

7339 
85x7 



4005 
4565 

569* 
63 II 

6,864 

7*464 
8,910 

10,414 

11, 860 



4> 
43- > 
44*4 

46.1 
46.9 

%: 

48.5 
49-4 

46.0 

4«^3 

49- 
50.0 

50.6 
SI 

51.8 

53-4 



45 

49-8 

51.0 

51.Q 

51.8 

53 -41 

54.0 

54-5 

55-6 
56.1 



SinehM 

per mile. 



Dia- 

chargo 

cable 

feet. 



5*- 
53* 
54. 

50.1 



56.5 

57-« 
58, 

59-4 
59 



1517 
1904 
1184 

3056 

3431 
3847 
4*33 



tSSX 
3019 

3534 
3983 
4483 



Vel 
feet 



50.91 
Si.g 

54.4 

57.1 

58 

58.8 

9.1 



4inohe8 

per mile.' 



TUB- 

charge 

cabic 

feet 



400Q 
54S 

597a 
7101 

8404 



3ji6 
3904 

447« 
5104 

5658 

6178 
6864 

7448 
9001 

10,533 



4880 



A 6 



559» 
6996 



77*8 

8408 

9109 

10,939 

i»*74i 

M.59* 



56.1 

57 

59"4| 

59-' 
61. ( 

61. 1 
61.7 
63.1 

64.9 



59.. 
61.0 
61.1 
63.8 
64.3 

66. < 
66.5 
68.1 
69.3 



63.8 

U: 

67,6 
68.7 

69.1 
69.8 

71.6 
73 



'764 
X196 

2633 
3001 

3504 

3960 

44*8 
4867 

53 »9 
6491 



*953 

3491 
4051 

4609 
5174 

5755 
6300 

6908 

8310 

9751 



Vel. 
feet 



Sindies 

per mile. 



Dis- 
charge 
cubic 
feet. 



61.7 
63.8 
64.9 

66.0 
67.1 

68.1 
69.8 



3«47 
4505 
5184 
5848 
6519 



68. T 
69.3 
70.4 



1961 

MS5 
1931 

343* 
39Z0 

4611 

49»9 

5465 

5959 
7163 



Vel. 
feet. 



SmehM 

permUe. 



Dis- 
charge 
cubic 
feet. 



71 
71 

73 
74- *| 
75-3 



68.7 

;7o 

71.0 

|73 

74-2^ 



7119 75.3 
76.4 
77.0 
78.6 

79-7 



>o»37S 
11,114 



5638 
6438 



73. 
75. 



7176 177 .c 
8051 '77.8 



8841 



78.6 



9683 79.7 
10,544 80.8 
11,621 |8i.5 
1^,671 83.6 

16,770 84.7 



3303 

3917 
4516 

5»5J 

5777 

6416 
7070 
7691 
9196 
10,890 



65.^ 
68.2 
69.8 

71 
71.6 

73 
74.8I 

76. 

78. 



71.6 

74 

75 

77 ^ 
78.6 



1160 
1811 
3*34 
3773 
4304 

4848 

5405 
5976 
6511 

79*3 



i? 



9 

81! 

83.0 

84.1 



4x78 
5030 
578T 
6551 

7304 



76. 
78. 
80.3 
81. 

83. G 



8073 84. 1 
8871 85.3 
960085.8 

ii,6io'88.a 
13* 541 89 



6303 81.4 
7190 84. 1 
8lo8!85. 
905687.5 
996788.6 



10, 815 
11,771 



89.1 
90.1 



iA,iH|9i.3 

16,4099?. 

18,850.95. 

1 




7043 

775» 
8420 

10, 115 

11,966 



4710 

7116 
8034 

8870 

97*4 
10,518 

11,698 

14,865 



6946 
7800 
8883 

9905 

10,890 

11.895 
11,910 

15*483 
18,041 
10,571 



Vel. 
feet. 



71.0 
74.8 
77. ol 
78.1 

79-7 

80.8 
81.9 
83. c 
83.6 
85.1 



per mile. 



Dis- 
charge 
cubic 
feet. 



Vel. 
feet. 



I 



9-7 
1.4 

83.5 

85.3 

86.4 



1640 
3187 
3948 
4617 
5186 

6639166.6 

7311 

8018 



88.0 
91,3 
91.0 
96.1 

97.9 
99,0 



9718 



44*7 
r*55 



6941 



87.5 
88.6 
89.1 

9» 
9* 

88.< 
90.2 

91.3 



91. 
93. 

^- 

97.8| 



.0 

.2 



90.8 

91 

94.C 

951 

97 

99.C 
loi.x 
101.8 
103 



8630 

9476 

10,338 

i*,499 
14,615 



5757 
6751 

7718 

8800 

98*9 

10,915 
11,897 
Il,9j6 
15,615 
18,115 



101.7 
101.8 
104.5 



97-3 
100. 1 

IQI.3 

104.4 

7754 W5.5 



8,500 

9,687 

10,915 

11,130 

13*365 

I4*56S 

>5.790 
18,916 

11,095 

15,165 



107.1 
108.3 
109.4 

III.O 

113.3 



101.8 
105.5 
107.1 
1 10. 3 
HI. 7 

113. 8 

114.4 
115.5 

118.3 

119.9 



iii.i 
113. 3 
115.5 
117. 1 
118.8. 

119.9 

Ill.O 

113.7 

»»5.9 
117.6 



ARTEBIAL DRAINS 


NEW CUTS AND KIVERS.- 


Tabu 4 






m eoBie tva hinm, psbt tti HiNim, 












Sinaka*. 


S inalMS. 


4iiiobat. 


SinakN. 


eiiuibM 


SfaldlM 


FAu., 


psrmUa. 


permUa. 


pwmito. 


IWdUK. 


pormllt. 


peimlla. 


S^ 


DU- 








Die 




Dig- 




DU- 




Dls- 


1 


dunre 




•SK 




Chmrgo 


Vel 


durge 


V.1 


ChUgf 




chirje 




cable 


(Hi. 


fcet 




r«t 


cubic 




CDMe 


feel 


cnM^ 


bet! 


7Mt 


tHt. 




feet 




hat. 




IHt. 








Diet 






10 


li^ 


"jT 


ai 


* 


1 


7T 




& 


86 


ij?[6 


"^ 


■o„j 


ii[ 


1 

r 


i 


69M 


H: 


7611 

9^1 


9 


Si 


si 


1 


ii 




1 


i 


i 

IIJIO 


2 


is 


1 


is; 




ii 


1 


i4,u 

11440 


">( 


i£ 

16180 


It 


U»D 




Si 


'7i»I 




.9911 


U1J5 




1448° 


■09 


•»« 


'n 


,]n 


7^ 


to 


9S« 


71 


"ISO 


50 


'M7* 


i 


■ 1718 


■04 


■68)0 


i»7 


^ 1 


9^ 


6^ 


-1 


?i 


It^l 


nMn 
1J171 


iS 

■9801 


!^ 


» 


IJ? 


s u 


"(M 


S 


H8SO 


77 
77 


;0 


1*71' 
ItolS 




I^ 


SIS 


11! 


pii 


i 


1 




S 


1 


5 


Sli 


ii 


^^ 


"1 


3 


11; 




1117B 


i6aj| 


'' 




J7 


!17S9 


ItSJ 


i» 




■« 


J 




an 


1 


ii 


^: 


ii 


JO 


iS 

t(L|6l 


s 




119 


3! 


IB 

■4a 


? 




S7 


;e 


n'. 


;s 




S!;s 


ii 


Xli 


;;; 


iS 


141 


^ 


i 


.613. 


% 


i 


!! 


a; 


SHS 


iS«i. 


TOS 


no? 


!» 


K5 


;ii 


so 

81 


Si 


j; 


S 


« 


lU 


wIj 


i;j 


!7>M 


ill 




jii 


L40 


17611 


" 


»679 


S9 


Wt*! 


■O) 


4)6(9 


■'5 


477°J 


" 


1 


1 




<9 


J!!7» 


» 


M6S} 


99.' 


M»» 


■08 

iii 


>66ll 

X 


1;? 


IS 

44°!! 


'4« 

,'i 

'19 


:? 


U 


^'M 


7* 


K 


^ 


IS 


ii 


jSiM 


4T8U 
_477»9 


;;i 


!S! 


1^ 


II 


i 

48091 


76 

1 




M 
97 




ii 




"4 


IK 




,53 


t6i 

ii 

i6t 



AHTERIAL DRAINS. NEW CUTS AND RIVERS— T*BL«4ft 



SiaK 



V8.7<M 9 



i]0,i7(iii 



■ 4'J.4f6'7l 
(7 1696, 1(6 ru 



1(1,90 

14S10 



77]^ T< 
9'67.7l 



("IpSIO 
1S7I90 







CIRCULAR 


CULVERTS .- 


-Tabu 4b. 








TAILE OT BISCHABOK iBD THOCITrBS, 


IK CCDIO AND UHBAL VBEI PZB HIBCTE, 


llulM OT B*wen of dlflSrent dlmelut, wl JM, but oinTlng W«Hr to twe 


»tb™1 Depth. «^ Aku ipaiiW In Mth CMfc 


/ (Uf JW> aun &• BUxdaf (f (Aa /iiUawAv -Co" '— 


Fl.(» FI.t» PL1» Tt.V 

Mila. Mile. Ulle. HI)! 




E 


" i-t« th. 
IS Dlwlurgi 

24 Columo. 




Si"? ■ 


« 


Tike 

hmir th* 

AValodly 
from U» 






I5S 


3Ssi 


5SSJ 


^^. 


ISffi 


lift 




ltllZ640 


nnl760 


Hnl310 


1 in I0S6 


iinaso 


ltn7M.3 


1 


3S»"il' 


~ 


^ 


^' 


Je. 


£ 


Si 


_?_ 


S^ 


Bl.. 


K. 


^ 


S; 


^ 


Ar. 


&. 


w, m. 


-Lin. 


9ll« 


;.TL 


Fxi. 


3. n. 


F^ 


1, Ft 


FML 


C.Ft. 


F«. 


en. 


r«. 


CFt 


Fw. 


..0{ 


(5.0 


Ef 


i.9io 
1.91 


■71.. 


I.46& 
t.78» 


19^. 


':S 


JS 


io,9Ji 

6,f?8 


MS- 


fc77 


t 




.9^9 


7.0) 


It 

J. 6 


i:i 


t?^ 


145. ■ 


S,oS« 
1.419 


:^d 


S 


iS 


7.«»! 


»9-9 


lis 


.7^6 


t'l 


i?t;| 


e.o| 


Jo 


M.i 


'.904 


'14-; 


mji 


.6j:S 


tsf 


'71 


(;^ 


ilW 


1,8' 


B" 


6,1, 
I,SS9 


.74,' 


s.o( 


i;l 


'^1. 


^Ili 


[iff 


1I4W 


65.) 


I:™ 


151. 


J.3j« 


"'■: 


I-69J 


;iii 


ts, 


0' 


t. ( 


I'S 


■j:j; 


r.786 
1,007 


;^: 


'::!; 


Jl:^ 


ta> 


s, 


»,!!0 
1.59B 


IJ:, 


'■74 


2S 


lA'i 


141.6' 


4^1 ( 


^.ti 


":J. 


'"to^ 


114.3 


.754 


\».l 


1.™ 


176-' 


1..M 


96-( 


».4»» 


3 


^671 


«!'<' 


10 { 


to 


^U 


'■fij! 


til 


■8 


47- ^ 
<4-7 


.71* 


>Sf.> 


l!o9i 


7M 


1,116 
>. 19! 


109.) 

190. J 


S3 


u4>! 

"i.7| 


s.e ( 


^^ 


l?^ 


'■^ 


r, 


."« 


jo:. 


"sji 


Sj-s 


'if. 


>4-9 
68. B 


J.T9( 


114.: 


!:S 


:iJi 


3.41 { 


i-a 


i« 


w 


'<^\ 


970 


He 


■'£ 


JjS.. 


'.»!4 

7o« 


SS 


'777 


Si 


■■s 


■S7-' 


1.0 ( 


u 


j.M 


m 


04-f 


NS 


:lt 


a:s! 


917 


«(.. 


'■^ 


.6j.S 


■•S 


■;t: 


J,>{ 


1-41 


+ 77 


iy, 


sj s! 


u:< 


Wiji 


^'S 


2:3 


ei9 


;j:; 


s 


;,.,l 


I.I 


1" 


»:! 


«K 


61.. 

49-' 


S! 


EJ 


;; 


!w 


14-7 


ni 


14.7 


us 


S! 


tJ 


r*4 

9! 


16. e 

OS- 6 


.« 


X 


K 




'■( 


J4 


8Si 


66 

J7 


o«.J 


J 


5 



45 



EGG-SHAPED CULVERTS.— Table 4c. 



TABLE OF DISCHABO£ AND TELOCITIES, 

m CUBIC AND UKEAL 7SBT FEB MUnTTB, 

For d!ffoi«nt Bteed Cnlyerts or Severs of fhe Egg form, not fiOl^ Imt curying Water 
toihe aeveral Depths and Areas specified in eaoh case. 



Th»vM4ifM»TBXUm^U0xUiidedlnfl3»6f(iXUnoingRtd^:— 





FLV 




Mile. 




r 8 1 


For the 


12 
16 


DIflcharge 
and Ydo- 


dty of a< 
Gmrert 


90 


haTing a 
&Uof 


S4 


SS 





Ft.V 




MQe. 


fc* 


r * 


>ake 


8 


twice the 


Discharge, 


4 


»&yelocit7< 





Irom the 


Columns 


6 


of 


7 



Ft. IP- 
Mile. 



For the i 
Discharge I 
and Velo- 1 
dty of any 4 
Culvert 
Laving 
faUof 



i 



i 



1 Take 
half the 

I I Discharge 
|i ^& Velocity. 
*♦ from the 

II Columns 



Ft. V 
Mile. 

2 

3 

4 
5 
6 
7 



BAXSorrMi.. 



fiMOf 

OnlvvrtB* 



Dqith 



'Wt.lam. Ft. Iiw. 
V«t. Tnoa 



6 8x8 



8 10x8 



8 8x8 



4 7x2 



8 9x2 



8 4x2 



2 0x1 



1 4x0 10 



{ 



Bmninro. 



2Feet 

IP'MUe. 



Ft. In. 

4 6 

3 a 

4 3 
1 II 

4 o 

X n 

I s 

* 3l 

* 9 
I loi 

a 6 

I 8 

X 6 

1 o 

I o 



Ana 



Sq.Ft. Ft, 



"J.37 
8.52 

11.7s 
7.1 

10. 17 
6.11 

4.48 
4'91 

4.01 

1.37 



I. 

o. 



49 
87 



0.66 
o.jg 



Dta. 

EL 



1654 

974 

1401 
777 

"97 
653 

80s 
436 

474 
a$J 

364 
196 

105 
5» 

38 
ao 



Mto. 



8 Feet 

fp'Mile. 



Dta. 



Feet. 
1*3.7 
I14.4 



119.311719 
108. 91 954 

I15.5I1471 
105 



107. 
97- 

96.2 
85.8 

90.7 
83.0 

70.9 



58.3 



F«ot. 
1941 140. 2j 



CFt 
2019 
I 



803 

987 
534 

580 
313 

445 
«4i 

130 



59.5 64 



47 



53 •31 *S 






146.3 
133.6 



4 Feet 

IP' Mile. 



Dto. 
ter 
In. 



CFt. 

8p3x6 

1381 



141 
129.2 



91 



I3».4l"35 

1 19. 3 



117.7 
105. c 

III. I 

101. 7 



1983 
1103 



699 
927 



618 



672 
362 

514 

177 



87.4 »5o 
73-7 74 



70.9 



54 



66.C 29 



VeL 
per 
Uln. 



F««t. 



m 

162.2 



168. 
154-51 

163. 
149.C 

138.0 

136. 
IZI.5 

128. 1 
117. 1 



6 Feet 

VJ'Mile. 



Dta. 
per 
MIn, 



CFt. 



21417 



1546 



8 2ai5 



1233 

1899 
X036 

1272 
692 

751 
4041 

573 
3" 



100.6 x68 



85.2 



82 



81.9 61 
75.9 33 



Tel. 
pop 
Kin. 



6 Feet 

IP'MUe. 



F68t. 
195.8 
X8I.5 

188.6 
172.7 

183.1 
166.6 



152.3 
135.8 

143.0 
131.4 

112.7 
95.1 



Dls. 
per 
Mln. 



C.FL 
2867 
1691 

2429 
1350 



2076 
"35 



169.4 1391 
154.5 



824 
44a 



628 



183 
90 



91.8 66 
85.2 36 






Fe«t. 
214.5 
198.5 



to6. 

X89. 



82623 

2 1460 



200. 

182.6 



2 1247 



185.3 
756|i68.g 



167.2 
148. 5 

156.7 



340143.5 



123.2 
103.9 

100.6 
9J.5 



7 Feet 



Dto. 
in. 



CFt. 

3095 
1827 



1224 

1503 
818 

889 
478 

679 
367 

187 
98 

72 

39 



YeL 
wr 
[in. 



Feet. 
231.5 
214.5 

223.3 
204.6 

216.7 
196.9 

200.2 
182.6 

180.4 
160.6 

169.4 
155.1 

133.1 
112. 7 

108.9 
100.6 



, 



46 



ARTERIAL DRAINS. NEW CUTS AND RIVERS.— Tablk 6. 





TABLE 


OF COirSTAVTS, 






FOB ASCERTATNINO YELOailES, 






APPLICABLE T( 
flydmulte M 


) ANY 


FALL 


AND SECTION. 
ft .01 to 110. 


eaa Dep 


tliB trtm 




Tabular 


w 9 


Tabular 


w^ 9 


Tabular 


w 9 


Tabular 


Hydr. 


Ko. 


Hjdr. 


Ko. 


Hydr. 


No. 


Hydr. 


No. 


Kean 


to be 


Kean 


to be 


Maaiv^ 
Depth. 


to be 


IfftMl 


to be 


Depth. 


diridedl^ 


Depth. 


divided by 


dividedby 


Depth. 


divided by 


.01 


600 


• 5« 


4,x85 


• 
l.IO 


6,X93 


6.10 


14,819 


.ox 


849 


•5* 


4.3»7 


I.XO 


6.57a 


6.X0 


"4.940 
15.060 


.03 


1,039 


• 53 


4.368 


1.30 


6,841 


6.30 


.04 


IfXOO 


.54 


4.409 


1.40 


7.099 
7.346 


6.40 


"5.179 


.05 


if343L 


•55 


4.450 


1.50 


6.50 


"5.197 


.06 


«»469 


.56 


4.490 


1.60 


7.589 


6.60 


"5.4»4 


.07 


I.587 


.57 


4.5*9 


1.70 


7.8a3 
8,050 


6.70 


"5.530 


.08 


".697 


.58 


J:lS 


1.80 


6.80 


"5.646 


.09 


1,800 


•59 


1.90 


8,X70 


6.90 


15,761 


.10 


i»«97 


.60 


4.647 


X.00 


8.4«5 


7.00 


"5.874 


.11 


1.990 


.61 


4.686 


X. TO 


!'?>* 


7.10 


"f.988 
16,100 


.IX 


*,078 


.6x 


4.7*4 


X.XO 


8.899 


7.X0 


• II 


2*163 


.63 


4.76a 


X.30 


9,100 


7.30 


16, XT I 


•H 


a.»45 


•5* 


4.800 


X.40 


9.105 
9.487 


7.40 


"6,311 


.>s 


».3M 


•65 


4.837 


X.50 


7.50 


"6,43a 


.16 


a, 400 


.66 


4.874 


X.60 


9.674 


7.60 


16.541 


•>7 


».473 


.67 


4.9" 


X.70 


9.859 


7.70 
7.80 


16,649 


.18 


»»54J 


.68 


4.947 


X.80 


10,040 


\^M 


.19 


X.6i5 


.69 


4.983 


X.90 


io,xi7 


7.90 
8.00 


.xo 


x,683 


.70 


5,019 


3.00 


io,39x 


16,970 


.XX 


*.749 


•7« 


5.055 


3.10 


10,564 


8.10 


17.076 


.XX 


2*814 


.7* 


5.o9> 


3.X0 


»o,733 


8.X0 


17,181 


.XI 


a. 877 


•73 


5.ia6 


3.30 


10,900 


8.30 


17.X86 


'H 


*.939 


•74 


5.>6i 


3.40 


11,063 


8.40 


"7.390 


.»5 


3.000 


•75 


5.196 


3.50 


ii,xx5 


8.50 


17.493 


.x6 


3.059 


.76 


5.a3i 


3.60 


11.384 


8.60 


"7.596 

17,698 


•*z 


3.118 


•77 


5.a65 


3.70 


11.541 


8.70 


.x8 


3.175 


•78 


5.a99 


3.80 


11,696 


8.80 


"7.799 


29 


^•*21 


.80 


5.333 


3.90 


11,849 


8.90 


17,900 
18,000 


.30 


3.*86 


5.366 


4.00 


IX,00O 


9.00 


•31 


3.340 


.81 


5,400 


4.10 


IX, 149 


9.10 


18,100 




3.394 
3.446 


.8x 


J:JU 


4.X0 

4.30 


IX, 196 

ia,44a 


9.X0 
9.30 


:i:^ 


.34 


3.499 


•!* 


5.499 


4.40 


ia,586 


9.40 


"8,395 


• 35 


3.550 


•85 


5.531 


4.50 


IX, 7x8 


9.50 


"8,493 


.36 

• 37 


3.600 
3.649 


.86 


5.564 
5.596 


4.60 

4.70 

4.80 


IX, 868 

13,007 


9.60 

9.70 


'^STj 


.38 


3.698 


5.&19 


n.145 


9.80 


18,878 


.39 


3.747 


.89 


5.660 


4.90 


I3.a8x 


9.90 


.40 


3.794 


.90 


5.69a 


5.00 


13,416 


10.00 


"8.974 


•41 

•4» 


3.84a 
3.888 


.91 
•9» 


5.7a3 
5.755 
5,786 


5.IO 

5.X0 


»3.550 
13.68X 


X0.00 
30.00 


x6,8n 
3X,86x 


•43 


3.934 


•93 


5 30 


13,813 


40.00 


37.944 
4X,426 


.44 


3.980 


•94 


5.40 


■3.943 


50.00 
60.00 


•45 


4.0x5 


.95 


5,848 


5.50 


14,071 


46.470 


•46 


4.069 


.96 


5.879 


5.60 


14.198 


70.00 
80.00 


56.91a 

60,000 


:JI 


4. "3 


:5 


5.909 


5.70 


"4.314 


4.»57 


5.939 


5.80 


"4.450 


90.00 


•49 


4.aoo 


•99 


5.970 
6,000 


590 


"4.574 


100.00 


.50 


4.143 


1. 00 


6.00 '4.697 1 


110.00 


61,9x8 



47 



dBGULAB PIPES.— Table 6. 



TABLE OF ASEA^ CTBC U MFERE g CE, AH D SQTTABE BOOT 

OF THE FIFTH POWEBS, 

IN FBBT AND DJBCDCALS, 

For Diameters vaiying fi:om \ inch to 12 fbet, 

TO FACILITATE GALCT7LATI0NB BY HYDEAULIO FOBMUL^. 






7l.la 

o. i 

o. \ 

o. i 

o. # 

o. I 

O. 1 

0.14 

o. if 

o. z 

o. 4 
o. 5 

o. 

o. 7 

o. 8 

o. 9 

0.10 
0.1I 

9- o 
9.6 



i 



.00034 
•00076 
.00136 
.00&13 
» 00307 
.00417 

.OOJ4 
.0085 
.0IZ3 
.0167 
.0Z18 
, OM" 

.0491 
.0668 
.0871 
.1104 
.1363 
.1650 

.1963 
.2671 

•1490 
.4418 

•S454 
•6600 

63.617 
70b88ft 



i 



.0653 
.0980 
.1307 
.1637 
.1963 
.Z190 

.1617 

•39»7 
.4584 
•i»}6 
•6j4 

•7854 
.9161 
1.0471 
1.1781 
1.3088 
1.4401 

1.5708 
1.83*5 
Z.094Z 
z.356£ 
Z.6180 
z.»797 

Z8.Z7 
19.84 



\/d» 



FI.DM. 
.000062 



.000171 I 
.0003541 
•OOOulO 



•000975 ' 
.001435 



.001000 I 



.003498 
.005515 

.000117 
.011319 
.019609 

.0311 

•0459P 

.0641 

.0817k 
.nio 1. 



14181 



.1768I1. 6 

. 7 
L. 8 

1. 9 

.6339 1. 10 



■1599 1 
> 3619 *' 



,4871 



143.00 
178.17 



rt.in 

1. o 



I 

. 1 
«. 3 
41 
I. 5 



. 6 

«• 7 
I. 8 
1 9 
1. 10 
i.li 



1. o 
. I 

3 

4 
5 



.8043 1.11 



10. o 
10.6 






8«.fMC 

0.7854 

0.9117 

1.0690 

I.Z171 
1.3961 

1.5768 

1.7671 
1.9690 

1. 1816 

Z.4053 
1.6398 
Z.8851 

3. I4I6 
3.4088 

3.6870 

3.9761 

4.1760 
4-5«73 

4.9087 
5.1480 
5.5850 

59396 
6.3053 
6.6813 

7«-54 
86.59 



Ft. Dm. 
3.141 

3- 403 
3.665 

3-9»7 
4.189 

4.450 

4.711 

4-974 
5.136 

5-498 

5-759 
6.011 

6.183 

6.545 
6.806 

7.068 
7-330 
7-59* 

7-«54 
8.116 

8.378 
8.639 
8.901 
9.163 

31.41 
31.98 



V^ 



7t.]>ML 
1.000 

I.Ul 

1.470 

»-747 
1.053 

1.389 

1.756 

3-155 
3.586 
4.051 

4-55» 
5.086 

5-657 
6.164 
6.909 

7-593 
8.316 
9.079 

9.881 
10.716 
11.611 
11.541 
13.511 
14-5*8 

316.13 
357.16 



F«.ln 

. O 

. 1 

. 1 

• 3 

• 41 

• 5 



7 
8 

9 
10 

II 

4. o 

4- 3 

4. 6 

4- 9 

5. o 

5. 6 

6. o 

6. 6 

7. o 

7. 6 

8. o 
8. 6 

II. o 

11.0 



J 



Bq. fM. 

7.069 

7-467 
7.876 
8.196 
8.717 
9.168 

9.611 
10.085 
10.559 
11.045 
11.541 
11.048 

11. 564 
14.186 

15-904 

17.710 

19.635 
13.758 

18.174 
33.183 
38.4B5 

44-179 
50.166 

56.745 

95.03 
113.10 



o 



9.41 
9.69 

9.95 
0.11 

0.47 
0.73 

0.99 
1.16 
1.51 
1.78 
1.04 
1.30 

1.57 

3-35 
4.14 

4.91 

5-71 
7.18 

8.85 
10.41 
11.99 
13.56 
15.13 
16.70 

34-55 
37.70 



\/d8 



Ft D««^ 
15.588 

16.693 

17.844 

19.041 

10.186 

11.577 

11.918 
14.J06 
15.741 
17.131 
18.770 
30. 359 

31.000 
37-*37 
4»-957 
49-174 
55.901 
70.941 

88.181 

107.717 
119.641 

«54-047 
181.019 

11a 643 

401. 31 
498- 83 



48 



GAS PIPES UNDER PRESSURE.— Table 7, 



TABLE OF COVSTAirrS 

FOB ASCERTAININa DI8CHABOE, &C., 

APPLICABLE TO ANY LENGTH AND PRESSUBE. 



DlaaMtem of Pipes } In^ to 4 fMt. 



BiTLS.— When the length, pressnre and diameter are given, to find the discharp^ ; 
Divide the Tabular No. oppotite the given diameter^ fly the tquare root of Ac tpeetfie 
gravity <f the gat ('air = i.oo> multiplied bg the rate of ineiiMttiim (leingtk -7- 
preeewrej ; the result is the discbarge in cabic feet per minute. 

When the length, pressnr e and discharge are given, to find the diameter ; MtUiiplf 
the dieeharge by the '^ep. gr. x rate qf inelination feu above) ; oppotite the nearett 
eorreipondtng n*mbtr to the retult in the table, is the required diameter. 

When the length, diameter and discharge are given, to find the jiresanre ; IfuUiply 
the length by the tp. gr. and divide the retuU by the tgptare qf {Tabular No, -j> 
ditchargej ; ue quotient is the pressure. 

27oxB.'Lengtbs to be taken in feet ; pressure in imchet qf waters discharge in onbio 
feet per minute. 







TftbolarlTo. 




TalmlarlTo. 






TabularKo. 






to be divided 




to be divided 






to be divided 


Diameter^ 


by 


Diameter. 


hy 


Diameter. 


hj 






^ P 




K 






^'T 


Ft. 


In. 




Ft. In. 




Ft. 


In. 







O: 


1.202S 


7 


5,041.28 


2 


I 


121,531 





of 


3.3368 


8 


7,039.60 


2 


2 


134,040 








6. 8676 


9 


9,450.22 


2 


3 


»47»3H 





CV ■ 


12. 0280 


10 


12,297.5 


2 


4 


161,337 





of 


18.9150 


II 


15,603.7 


2 


5 


176,1^6 





oj 


27. 8390 


I 


19,400.0 


2 


6 


191,711 





I 


38. 8000 


I I 


23,682.9 


2 


7 


208, 087 





l\ 


67.8612 


I 2 


28,516.4 


2 


8 


225,272 





Ih 


107. 185 


X 3 


33,889.4 


2 


9 


i43»a97 





18 


157.664 


I 4 


39, 820. 7 


2 


10 


262, 139 





2 


219.783 


I 5 


46,337-5 


2 


II 


281,841 





2i 


384. 195 


I 6 


53»459-6 


3 





302,413 





3 


605. 765 


I 7 


61, 198.6 


3 


2 


346, 176 





Zi 


890. 984. 


I 8 


69, 568. 8 


3 


4 


393» 544 





4 


1244.06 


I 9 


78, 597. 6 


3 


6 


444,602 





4i 


1604. 13 


I 10 


88,285.5 


3 


8 


499» 397 





5 


2173.27 


I II 


98, 662. 5 


3 


10 


558»i3» 





6 


3429. 47 


2 


109,741.9 


4 





620, 800 



ExAMPLs.— Required the discharge of a pipe 6 inches diameter and 4000 feet long 
under a pressure of . ; or half an incn nead of watex^— the spedfle gravily of the 
gas being . 410 (air s i.ooo). 

Tabular No. for 6 inches 3419. 47 "iA^- 47 



V 



4000 



57-96 



s= 59. 16 Gubio foot per minute. 



L 



49 
WATER PIPES UNDER PRESSURE.— Table 8. 



TABLE OF COVSTAHTS, 

FOB ASCERTAININO DI8GRABQB, &0., 

APPLICABLE TO ANY LENGTH AND HEAD. 



Diameter of Pipes 1 lacli to lO feet* 



Bvu lOB IhsoKAiai.— When tbe length, fUl, and diameter are ffiren, iMd» ikt 
iaiular nmm h e r opp<mte tk« HamHer bg ike $quar« root qf fko rato <if ineUmaHomi the 
xoaolt will be the diechajge in oobio net per minate. 

RvLM lOB DiAMBSsm.— When the length, lUl, and dieoharge are given, mmUiplf fke 
iioAmrgo hm tt« o^maro root qfike rate <ffineUnation ; find fho wtarmt eorro tp ondimg 
im &4 tabU, and opposite to it ia the required diaineter. 



BiTLB voB HxAD.— When the len^, diacharge and diameter of pipes are given, iMdo 
Ae tmbmiar mwm ber for tko gvoom diametor bg Us diodtargo ; oquaro tie ronUt, amd 
dimdo bjfit ike Uugih qfpipoi the qnotienbia theheadreqnired for driving the given 
qoantily of water through the pipe. 

Jfote.^All terms are to be taken m Umoal or oMc JM por mthmto respeottvelj. 





TabnlerKo. 






Tabular Vo. 






Tabular Ko. 




to be divided 






to be divided 






to be divided 


Diameter. 


by 


IHameter. 


by 


IMameter. 


by 




A 






^^ 






^-1 


ru In. 




Pt. 


In. 




FU 


In. 




O I 


4.71 


I 


7 


7,433 


3 


7 


57, 265 


o li 


S.48 


z 


8 


8,449 


3 


8 


60,648 


o li 


13.0a 


z 


9 


9,544 


3 


9 


64,156 


O If 


19.15 


I 


10 


zo, 72a 


3 


10 


67,782 


o a 


26.69 


z 


II 


",983 


3 


zi 


71,526 


O 2} 


46.67 


a 





I3,3»8 


4 





75, 39* 


o 3 


73-50 


2 


I 


H, 758 


4 


I 


79, 380 


o- 3i 


108. 14 


2 


2 


z6,278 


4 


2 


83,49* 


^ ♦, 


151.0a 


2 


3 


17,889 


4 


3 


87, 730 


o 4i 


194.84 


2 


4 


19, 59» 


4 


6 


101,207 


** 1 


a63. 87 


2 


5 


21,390 


4 


9 


115,854 


o 6 


416.54 


2 


6 


23,282 


5 





131,703 


o 7 


6ia. 32 


2 


7 


25,270 


5 


3 


148, 791 


o 8 


854. 99 


2 


8 


27,358 


5 


6 


167,139 


o 9 


X, 147. 61 


2 


'9 


»9, 547 


5 


9 


186,786 


o xo 


«»493-47 


2 


10 


31,834 


6 





207, 754 


O II 


1,894.93 


2 


IZ 


34,228 


6 


6 


253,781 


I o 


a, 356.00 


3 





36, 7»5 


7 





305,437 


I I 


%f 876. 68 


3 


z 


39, 3»9 


7 


6 


362,935 


I a 


3» 463.3a 


3 


2 


42,040 


8 





426,481 


» 3 


4. "5- 93 


3 


3 


44,863 


8 


6 


496, 275 


» 4 


4.836.87 


3 


4 


47,794 


9 





572, 508 


' 5 


5,628.48 


3 


5 


50,835 


9 


6 


655, 369 
745,038 


I 6 


6,493.14 


3 


6 


53,995 


10 






EXAMK.B.— Reqnirod the discharge of a pipe 6 inches diameter and S.000 feet long, 
with 80 feet fkOl..^ 



*^^t till in 100, then |/lOU^10 
and Tabular 



20 

-TTT Ba4l.65 cdMo feet per mfarate. 

Noto.—lf half the tabular numbers be taken, the discharge will be nearly that tar 
pipes half ftill ; and the table is thus applicable to sewers, drains, ftc. 



60 



PIPES UNDER PRESSUKE.— Table 8a. 



TABLE OF DISCHABGE AXTD VELOCITIES, 

IM CUBIC AND UNEAL FBBT PBR MIMUTB. 

FOR PIPES RUNNING FULL WITH A CONSTANT HEAD. 



DIaiiMters ftrom a to 60 Uuihitm, 

With Bates of FaU extending from 6 iiset to S6 fieet per MUe. 




,6301479.9 B,A37 518. 1 
, 930*505.8 107^0546.1 



51 



WATER PIPES UNDER PRESSURE.— Table 8b. 



XABLE 07 BISCHASaE AHD BEaUIBED HEAD 

FOB FIFES BXTimiKQ FULL AT STATED VELOCITIES. 



DUuMters from 1 Imth to 7B Inehos. 



dtiet. 



Biam. 

of 
Pipes. 



1 

% 
I 

4 
5 



1 

9 

lO 



II 
la 
M 



i6 

17 
18 
so 



*4 
*7 
lo 

14 



36 
19 
4* 



5» 

7» 



180 Feet per mn. 



HMd 



ft. 16 

1.3 
0.86 



"IS 

•43 



• 31 

•3» 
•«9 



:2 

•»4 
.xo 



.18 
.16 

•«4 
•>3 



.ift 
.11 
.10 
.10 
.09 



.07 

:3 



Onus 
Fmidw 

MlD. 



.98 



S:S 



3 

8 
15.70J 

a4.S3 



35-33 

£.10 
.82 

79.5* 
98.17 

1 18. 8 

«4i-4 
16J.9 

i9»-4 

aao.9 



i8|.8 
318. 1 

39*. 7J 
475.* 



565.5 

88|!8 
1,005.3 

J.«34.9i 



1,171.4 
>»493-3 

i.73'-8 
1,988.1 

1,161.5 







8. 

35.J 

79.6 

141.3 
110.8 



1 18.0 

431.9 
565.1 

S"5.7 
B3. 



1,069.1 

1,171.6 

».493-3 

i»73>.^ 
1,988.1 

1,161.7 

1,861.9 

3' 534* 3 

4>176.8 



I: 



089.5] 

*44i*3 

7i954«* 

9.047-7 
10,114. 



11,451. 
i3t439> 

151 5». 
17,891. 

«>»353. 




800 Feet per ICin. 






l«r«el 





0.49 
0.45 
0.41 

0.38 
0.36 



0.33 
0.31 

0.30 
0,17 
0.14 



0.11 
O.XO 

0.18 

O.I" 

a: 



]l 



0.15 
0.14 
a 13 
ail 
0.11 



o. 10 
0.10 
0.00 
0.08 
0.08 



DUOBAI 



Oablo 

FMtpar 

Min. 



1.09 
4.36 
9.81 

«7.44 
17.16 




131.0 
157.1 
184.3 
113.8 
445. 4 



179.1 

3»5. 
353.4 

436.3 

518.0 



618.3 

795. a 

981.7 

1,117.0 

1,261.1 



I>4I3.8 
11659.1 

1,914. » 
1,109.0 
1,511.8 



»»837-* 
3.I80.8 

3,917.0 

4»75>.6 
5.054.8 



of Gmllen 
parDij. 



9.8 

X 

4 

157. c 

H5>3 



IT 



353-3 
481.0 

618.1 

795-* 
981.7 

1,188. 

1,658.7 
1,914.1 

1,108.6 



i,5ii.S 
».837.7 
3,180.6 
3.9*6.7 
4.75».o 



5.654.7 
7.156.8 
8,835.3 
10,053. 

"»349- 



11,714. 
14.93*. 

I7.3«7- 
19,881. 

11,615. 



*5.535. 
18,617. 



9'iS 



41.764. 
50.893. 



820 Feet per XbL 



H«ftd 
i«qiiir*d 



6.45 
J.ll 

1.61 
1.19 



1.08 

o.< 
o. 
aTi 
0.64 



>.9i 
>.8i 



0.59 
0.54 
0.50 
d.46 

0.43 



0.40 
0.38 
0.36 
0.31 
0.19 



0.17 
0.14 
o.ii 

0.10 

0.19 

0.18 
0.17 
a 15 
0.14 
0.14 



0.13 
0.11 

O.II 

o. 10 
0.09 



OuU« 
7Mip«r 

Mln. 



1.10 

4.80 

10.80 

19.18 

19.99 



58.78 

76.78 

97.10 

119.99 



145.1 

171.8 
101.8 
135.1 
170.0 




691.1 

874.7 
1,070.9 

1,118.7 

1,387.1 



1.555-* 
1,815.1 
1,110.6 



Theawub 

of OaUoD* 

p«rD»7. 



10.8 

f3.» 

97- a 

171.6 

169.9 



388.7 
519.0 
691.0 
874.8 
1,079.9 



1,306.8 

1,555.1 
1,815.1 

1, 1 16. 8 

1,430.0 



1,764.8 
3, 111. I 

3.499-* 
4.3>9-i 
5,116.3 




'3.996. 
16,4*5. 

19.049- 
1,419. dil, 860. 



»,764-« 



3.1*0.9 

3*498.9 
4.3»9-7 
5,116.8 

6,11a 3 



M.056. 



i8,d88. 

38I877; 
47.041. 
55.98*. 



52 



FRICTION OF BENDS.— Table 9. 



i;fMTlT4; 



THEOBBnO HEAD DT 

B«q:alred to owmreoimm roslfltmoo of Bonds firona lO* to 

FOB PIPES, CULVERTS, DRAINS, AND RIVERS, 
With ChmrmUt htaring the mean vtlocitieg tiated in the Jlnt eol\ 



Noxi.— Tlie nvmben glre tiie hdi^t in inebat or dedmals required to diire 
past th« fpodfled MBdi, Tarytng aoooniiikg to tbe Telodty of dliduTge. 



-A pipe cwrytng water at a 
has 8 bends of 20 degreee 
and 7 bends of 60 degreee 
and 20 bends of 40 degrees 



▼eloci^r of SOO feet per mlnola 
each .126 X S- .878 
each .632 X 7 •4.424 
each .446 X 20 » 8.920 



Total bead reqnlred 18.722 inehea. 

A River haTlng a mean veloctty of 110 feet per minnto 

has 5 bends of 46 degrees each s .072 X 5 a .860 
and 8 bends of 70 degrees each « .128 X 8a .884 
and 2 bends of 90 degrees each o .144 X 2s .286 

Total additional fUl required 1 .082 inch. 



Yelodty 

of 
Oonoiit. 



Feet per 

mnnto. 



AnglM of Bond with ftarwazd lino of dlzoetioiL 



10« 




Ins. of 

Head. 

•ooco6 

.00014 

.ooo&x 

.0001 

.0004 



.0006 
.0007 
•0009 
.0011 

.0013 



.001$ 

.0017 

.00x0 
•OOX' 



90* 



.00x9 

.00|X 

.0036 
.ooi9 

.0043 



.0001 

•0070 

.0081 
•out 



.014 
.out 

.OJA 

.044 
.057 



Ins. of 
Head. 
.0003 
.0005 

•0009 

.OOIZ 

.0017 



.ooax 

.00x8 

.OOJ5 

.004 

.005 



.006 



.009 
•010 



.011 
.oxa 
.014 
.015 
.017 



.oso 
.0x3 
.0x7 
.031 
.043 

.o«6 

:?S 

.17X 
.xa4 



W 



I 



Ins. of 
Head. 
.0006 
.ooxx 
.0018 
.00x7 
.0036 



.ooiS 

•OOOO 

.0075 

.009 

.oxx 



.oia 
.015 
.017 
.019 
•oxx 



•0x4 
.0x7 

.0|0 

.031 

.036 



.041 

.050 

•007 
•09X 



.ISO 

.187 
.X70 

.367 

.480 



40* 



Ins. of 

Head. 

001 X 

00x0 

0031 

0044 
0060 



008 
010 
oxx 

015 

0x8 



oxx 

0x4 
0x8 

036 



040 

045 
049 



Xlt 

153 



40* 



Ins. of 
Head. 
.0013 
•00x4 

.0037 
.oo$4 
.0073 

.0096 

.oxx 
.015 
.0x8 
.0x1 



.0x5 
.0x9 

.033 

.038 



.048 

.000 
.006 

•CfJX 

•086 
.lOX 

•"7 
.135 

•Ml 



.875 
•540 

•900 



60" 



Ins. of 

Head. 

0016 

00x8 

0044 
0063 

0086 



oxx 
0x4 
0x7 
<ax 

OXJ 



0S9 

034 
039 

04A 

05X 



070 

xox 
xxo 

X38 

X58 

XX7 



x8x 

03X 
867 
t%5 



80* 



70* 



Ins. of 
Head. 

•OOflO 

.0036 

.0^(6 

.oo8x 
.0110 



.0x4 
.0x8 
.oia 
.0x7 
.03a 



.037 
.044 

.050 

.o|7 

.064 



.07X 
.081 
•090 

.000 



.1x9 

.X76 

.XOl 

.»77 

.360 

• <6!X 

.810 

x.xox 

1.440 



Ins. of 
Head. 
00x4 
ooja 
0066 
0095 
0XX9 

016 
oxx 
ox5 

03 X 
038 



045 
068 

076 

086 

:2 



»5» 

X79 

1»7 



iX 

^5 



80* 



Ins. of 
Head 

.00x0 
.0046 
.0071 
.0x04 
•0I4X 



.0x8 
.0x3 
.0x9 
.035 
.04X 



.049 

.OCT 
.065 
.074 
.084 

.094 
.I0« 
.XfO 

.xx8 
.X40 

• X07 

.X96 
.xx8 
.a6i 

•357 

.7x6 
1.046 
1.424 
1.860 



90* 



Ins. of 
Head. 

.00x7 
•0048 
.0075 
.0108 
.0x47 



.0x9 
.0x4 
.030 
.036 
.043 



.050 

•^ 
.007 

.077 

.087 



.097 
.108 

• ISO 

.»34 
•>44 



•173 
.xox 

.»35 

.170 
.370 

.480 

.750 

X.060 

X.470 

x.9gto 



63 



FRICTION OF BRIDGES AND PIPES.— Tablb 9a. 



r 



TABLE OF APPROXIMATE RISE OF WATER, 

OCCASIONED BT BRIDGES, WEIBS, &c., 
JWnh GngoTifM •* MaihtmiMet for Praetkal MmT 

J0Mfc— Thte table to ftppvozlinatlTe only, beeaoie the Telodtr most be an erer Tarylng 
onantttf , fluetoatiiig at all timea wtth the amount of lirer flood, and alao greatly 
depending on the state of riyer eectlon above and below bridge. The tabla was 
taken by Dr. Olfaithiis Gregory, flrom Da Boaf a theorems. 





Pzobabto BiM of Water, 


1 


YeL 
of 

Btnun 


For Obstmodoiia Ihmi one-tenth to six- 
tenths; the whole aeotlon of the Riyer 
being taken as unity. 


OBSTRUCTION. 


ao 


JO 


.80 .40 


M 


.00 


Feet 

)erMi& 

180 


Feet 

.05 


Feet 
.la 


Feet 


Feet 
.16 


Feet 
.61 


Feet 
1.07 


MO 


.08 


.18 


•14 


.5« 


•97 


1.70 


80b 


.» 


.as 


.5* 


.88 


«-49 


a. 60 


800 


.16 


•27 


.69 


1. 18 


1.99 


3*49 


480 


•«7 


.64 


1. 19 


a.o| 


J"4» 


5.99 


000 


•4» 


•99 


1.83 


|.i» 


J.X7 


9.aa 



SHEATOFS TABLE OF THE HEAD 

FOB DRIVING WATER TBCROUGH 100 FEET LINEAL OF PIPES, 

From 1 to IS inehes diameter, at Ydodties inereaslng from 90 to S70 feet per minnte, 
with the relatiTe dtoehaige In eabio feet per mlnate^ oompUed from Smeaton's 
Papers. 



Ammiad YglodtiM of Wtte throiigk Fipoi in Foot por IQwito. 




180 



Dta. 



rM. 



60X.40 



i.|6 
1.41 

la 

n 

94.x 



n 



160 



040 



1.60 

I. so 

80 
.60 

0.40 

*7 
o.a(x 



150 



DIs. 



Ft. 
rM 



.761 



1.69 
}.01 

7-15 

IS. 

19.4 
S6.3 
118 



8a o 



H«ad 



a.j8 
1.80 
i.ao 



90 

0.60 



0.40 

0.}l 



180 



Dta. 



6aa 



C Ft 
mU 

.9a 

a. 03 

1 
8.8a 

>S.39 
15. a 

79.6 
«4» 



5.04 

S.36 

5» 
1.68 

i.a6 

0.84 

0.56 

0.4a 



no 



Dta. 



. Ft 

M. 



08& 



}64 



I. 
a. 

4.aa 
10.3 

»7 
41. a 

9» 
165 



Ft. 

perM. 



81 

.56 

3.4» 
a.a8 

7» 
1. 14 

.76 
|o«57 



9« 



80 



Dta. 



a3 8 



8a 4 

7» 



I. 

a.9a 

4 

It. 

aas 

47.0 

106 

188 



9* 

5*94 

.46 

97 
a.a3 

i.4« 

0-99 
0.74 



970 



Dta. 



Z Ft, 
larM. 

1.39 

3.05 

5*43 
13. a 

M.I 

13- o| 

119 

aia 



FmI. 

11.30 
7.5a 
J. 63 

8.76 
a.8i 
1.87 
I. as 

0.94 



This Table wiU be foond to be somewhat similar in its results to Table 0, bat is not of 
soezteudTe an application, and glTea too low a discharge on tie larger class of pipes. 

fset to the bead perlOO feet to driTC 141 onblo feet, at a reloottj of 180 
Jbet per minnte, tliro:igh a IMneh pipe. 



M 



MOTION And resistance of water.— Table lo. 



TABLE OP THE BESISTAHCE TO OIIE SaUABE FOOT, 

Moving ihrtnigh Water (or vice ver*A), 

At VelooitieB from 60 to 900 Feet per MInufee, 

And at aiigl^ vltti the line of foroe from 6 to 90 Degrees. 



NotAr-ThlB table givee the thMretieal zesIataDoe due to the aeyeral Telocitlefl, 

and Is eompatedi by the formoUt .976 x v^ reL in feet per eecond — redatance 
at ^ht angles per square foot, in lbs. The angular resistances are computed 
ftom the name formula as Button's Experiments^ as explained at the head 
of Table 10a Beslatance for Tariable figures appears to be almost beyond 
any assigned rale; for the best information see Beanfo/s Experiments. Be- 
slatanoe under clroomstances of compound motion should be at its maximum, 
according to the known effects of water-wheels, when the soiikce moves at from 
- one-half to two-thirds of the velocity of the fluid, when the best H>plications 
produce 76 per cent of the weight; although at hig^ velocitfes only 90 per cent, 
is produced. 



Angleof 

BUX^MC, 

with 
Line of 
Beslst- 



Degrees 

6 

7 
8 

e 

10 

16 
20 
25 
30 
86 

40 
46 
50 
66 
60 

66 
70 
76 
80 
86 

90 



Fraiffare per B^naze Foot fbr the IbUowing Velooitj— per IQaute. 



60 

Feet 



lbs. 

.021 

.0*7 
•033 

•039 
.045 

.089 
.152 

.a?5 
.338 
•449 

.665 

•749 
.81* 

.864 

.90a 

•93* 

•953 
.966 

•973 

.975 



uo 


180 


240 


800 


480 


600 


Feet 


.Feet 


Feet 


'Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


.090 


.202 


•359 


.561 


i-435 


2.242 


.109 


.246 


•437 


.682 


1-747 


a. 730 


•133 


.298 


•530 


.829 


2.122 


3-3»5 


.156 


'iS^ 


.624 


•975 


2.496 


3.900 


.179 


.404 


.718 


1.121 


2.870 


4-485 


•355 


.798 


1.4*0 


2.218 


5.678 


8.872 


.608 


1.369 


2.434 


3.802 


9.734 


15.210 


.940 


a. 115 


3.760 


5.874 


15.038 


23.497 


^•353 


3-045 


5-4U 


8.458 


i>.653 


33.832 


1.798 


4-045 


7.19* 


ii.i37 


28.766 


44-947 


2.258 


5.081 


9.032 


>4-"3 


36.130 


56.45* 


2.660 


5-985 


10.639 


16.624 


4«.557 


66.495 


^'9^S 


6.739 


11.981 


18.720 


47.9*3 


74.880 


3-*49 


7.3»o 


ia-995 


20.304 


5>-979 


81.217 


3 455 


7.775 


»3.8*2 


21.596 


55.286 


86.385 


3.607 


8,117 


14.430 


i»-547 


57.7*0 


90.187 


3-7*8 


8.389 


14.914 


23.302 


59.654 


93-*«o 


3.810 


8.573 


15.241 


23.814 


60.965 


95-^57 


3.857 


8.678 


15.428 


24.107 


61.714 


96.427 


3.892 


i-ii^ 


wiw 


24.326 


62,275 


97.305 


8.900 


8.776 


24375 


62.400 


97.500 



900 

Feet 

lbs. 

5.046 
6.142 

7.459 

8.775 
10.091 

19.963 
34-"2 
52.869 
76.123 
101.132 

127.018 
149.614 
168.480 
182.739 
194.366 

202.922 
209 . 722 
214.329 
216. 026 
218.936 

219.876 



55 
MOTION AND RESISTANCE OF AIR.— Table 10a. 

TABLE 07 THE BESISTAHCE TO OHE SttlTASE FOOT, 

Moving through Air (or vice versa). 
At V«loeltleB from 7flO to 8^600 T—t p«r Mtntito, 

And at anglM vlfh the line of fi>rott firom 6 Degrees to 90 Degrees, or Right Anglee. 

^rom BtMom^a Bx perimat t a. 



KoU^~Dt, HattoB found that the reelatenoe Tailed aa the aqnare of the yelociftf nearly, 
and to an inclined nirftce, as the 1.84 power of the sine x ooslne. This tahle is 
eonstrocted thns : — . 841 « 1. 84 e ■« resistance In onnoes to a plate 8S sqnare inches, 
moving at the rate of IS feet per second. Mr. Hatton's experiments went to show 
that the llgnre of a plane makes no sensihle diffarenoe in the resistanoe^ hot Uiat 
a eooTex imftoe of a hemisphexe with a sarflMse donhle the hasoi had only half 
the resistance, and a oone with 74 inches area, at an angle of S6. 42, suffiBrs fitr less 
lesistanoe than a plane of eqnal angle^ with 82 inches area ; the areas being as 
r4 to 88; and the reaistanoe aa 87 to 26b It mnst be observed that at high 
ydodtiflS) railway and hai eanal boat experiments shew that resistance becomes 
nearly a constant qoantity. 



Bmfce. 


««V««IU« 


p«H n^«Mi 


«« CWWk A« 




ir^rmp w«k 


wwttiww ymi 


V ^M^W<*WV* 


with 
















Line of 
fiMriaU 


720 


1,080 


1,440 


1,800 


8,400 


8,000 


8,600 


anoe. 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Degrees 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


6 


.0054 


.oi2r 


.0216 


•0337 


.060 


.094 


U5 


7 


.0066 


.0148 


.0264 


.0412 


.074 


.115 


.165 


8 


.0080 


.0180 


.0320 


.0500 


.089 


•»39 


.200 


e 


.0094 


.0211 


.0376 


.0587 


.105 


.163 


•a35 


10 


.0109 


.0245 


.0436 


.0680 


.121 


.189 


.272 


15 


.0215 


.0484 


.0860 


•»344 


•239 


.373 


.537 


80 


.0368 


.0828 


.1472 


.23CX> 


.409 


•639 


.920 


86 


.0569 


.1280 


.2276 


.355<$ 


r632 


.988 


X.422 


80 


.0820 


.1845 


.3280 


•53*5 


.911 


'423 


2.050 


85 


.1089 


.2450 


•4356 


.6806 


1. 210 


1.890 


2.722 


40 


.1368 


.3078 


•547a 


.8550 


X.520 


a. 375 


3 420 


45 


.1611 


.3625 


.6444 


1.0069 


1.790 


a. 797 


4.027 


50 


.1814 


.4081 


.7256 


I-I337 


a. 015 


3 -149 


4-535 


55 


.1968 


.4428 


.7872 


1.2300 


2.186 


3.416 


4.920 


60 


.1093 


.4709 


.837a 


1.3081 


a.3a5 


3-633 


5-a3a 


65 


.2185 


.4916 


.8740 


X.3656 


2.427 


3-793 


5.462 


70 


.2258 


.5080 


.9032 


1.4112 


2.509 


3.920 


5-645 


75 


.2308 


.5193 


.9232 


«-44'5 


2.564 


4.007 


5-770 


80 


.2336 


.5»5<5 


.9344 


X.460C 


2.596 


4-055 


5.840 


85 

90 


.2358 

.2362 


.i^il 


Mis 


> -4737 

U762 


2.620 

2.624 


4.09^ 

4100 


m 



56 



EXPANSION OF WATER, STEAM AND GAS.— Table 1L 



BEVBITT AHD VOLUXE OF WATER. 

At Temperatures -nrying fhna 32* to 100* FBtarenheit, taUog maxiziiam density and 

volume (at39'.4) asunitj. 

Aathoritiee:— flirfWfa», "A»n. Ch. «t Fk. XXYJU., p. 90." -RfcW, '*TraiiU it la 

Ckalmr** 



Temp- 
Degxv 



Fahr. 
JX.O 

31 f 
3J.6 

41.0 
46,4 

&»0 



DentitT and Yolome 



4L0 



Density. 
.99989a 

•999918 
•99997* 

999995 
999977 




Volnme. 
1.000108 

I.OOOOSXr 

1. 003018 

i.oooooS 
100000 

1.00000$ 
I.OOOOXJ 

1.000095 

1.030150 

10002801 



Temp. 
Degn. 



Density and Yolome 
ai80*.4«l.OO. 



Density. 
•99970 J 

•99961a 
.999508 

.9^1 

.99864 

.998x6 
♦ OTS05 



Volume. 
000197 
O0OJ9 
00049 

toc^^ 

.00101 
.00110 
.00136 
.00176 
1.00 



Temp. 
Degn 

F^r. 

7J-4 
75.1 
77.0 
78.8 

10.6 

8*. 4 
84.1 
86.0 
>.o 



Ui 



Density and VolmiM 

ai8e*.4»ijoe 



Density. 

.9?7jl 
.99760 

.99716 

■99684 

•99657 
.99619 

.99J99 
l8M^66 



VolnmeL 
t. 00117 
I.< 
I. 
1.00190 

Loom 

1.0034^ 

1.00373 
1.00401 



TEMPESATUBE AED YOLUIEE OE 8TEAX. 

WITH OORBESPONDINO FBESST7RE9L 
Anthorities •,-—BeffmutU, Tredgold and Be Fambow, 



Tolmnes 
of Steam 
from one 
of Water. 



»o»954 
10,907 




109 

XII 

X16 

228 

118 

X38 

Z51 

*55 

X58 



265 



1.57a 
L«LO 

1,180 

1. 17* 
1,081 

1,005 

989 

881 
831 
786 




Volumes 
of Steam 
from one 
of Water. 



647 
610 
6o8 

467 
£« 

881 

359 
340 
51} 

169 
M9 

116 
808 

183 



PnxMxws. 



lbs. per 
sq. In. 



40 
4* 
44 

80 

«5 
90 

1^ 

110 
110 
130 

!& 

160 
170 
180 

2^ 



Incbesof 
Mercury. 



81.60 
85.68 
89.76 
91.80 

1080 

11X.X 
111. A 
131.6 

141. 8 

mo 

163. X 

«73-4 
183.6 
193.8 

8040 

X14.4 

»44.3 
165.1 

X85.6 

8060 

316.4 

346.8 

367.1 

187.6 

4080 



Atmo^pht. 



1.71 

1.85 
in 

8.40 

3-74 
4.08 

|:IS 

5-44 

78 
11 

6.46 
6-80 

7.4f 
8.16 

8.84 

l^ift 

10. 8S 

11.56 
11.14 

11.91 

1860 



i 



XEMFESATUBE AED YOLUIEE OF AIB AED GA8. 

JBraiuU*$ MommoI qf ChtmUtrg; Thonuon. 



Temp. 
Fab. 



Balk. 



Temp. 
Fah. 



Tolnme. 



Temp. 
Fah. 



Tolnme. 



Temp. 
Fah. 



Volume. 



Temp. 
Fah. 



VolnnM. 



-33 

3* 

I 

40 
4* 

48 
60 



0.86500 
I. 00000 
1. 00416 
1.00833 

1101248 

1. 01666 
1.01080 
1.01496 
1.01916 

11.08749 



5a 
68 



1.04166 
1.04576 
1.04991 



i.o 



106824 

1 06140 
1.06656 
1.07071 
1. 07488 

l!o^ 



7^' 

82 
88 



1.08310 
1.08736 
1.091CI 
1.09568 
1.099841 




9» 

no 
no 
130 
140 

lis 



1. 11480 
I. 11899 
I. 13311 
1. 13718 

(114144 
1. 16114 
1.18304 
1.X0384 
1.X1464 



190 
100 

210 

111 
301 

So 



1.18704 
1.30784 
ii 31864 




67 
VALUE OP WATER POWEE.— Table 12. 



TABLE OF HOMIVAL HOBSE POWER, 

FOR ONE FOOT OF FALL, 

With tha dUKnnent EfllsctlTe ValiiM m applied to Undershot Breeil and Orenhot 

Wheels and to the TnrUBe* 



RtOt^—AAA together the nixmben. fh>m the oolnmii spplloihle to the ease, opposite 
the sereral anwunts of cubic feet making ap the estimated ran of the streams, and 
miiltlpljthesiimsh7thaniimheroffeetoffiril; ilie result la the H. power of the MIIL 

iRols.— An ordinary Hill will grind abont 1 bnshel per horse power per honr— a rery 
good one 1.2 boshels— therefore multiply the tabniar nombers by I or 1.2 (according 
to the case), and by tha number of hours worked, for the bushels ground per diem. 







Undershot 


Breast 


Orersbot 


fl^-^M^- 


Discharge 
of Stream 


Horse 
Power. 


Wheel. 


Wheel. 


WheeL 


TUXllUM. 


per 

Iflnnte 




Eflbctfve 


Effective 


Eflbcttre 


MiiimD« 




H. Power. 


H. Power. 


H. Power. 


H. Power. 


Cubic Feet 












5 


•0095 


•0033 


.0052 


.006x5 


.0071 


lO 


.019 


.0066 


.0x6 


.012 


.0142 


»5 


.028 


.0099 


.015 


.0x8 


.021 


zo 


.038 


.013 


.020 


.024 


.028 


i5 


.048 


.016 


.026 


.03X 


.035 


30 


.057 


.020 


.031 


.037 


.042 


35 


.066 


.023 


.036 


.043 


.050 


40 


.076 


.026 


.041 


.049 


.057 


i^ 


.085 

.005 


.030 

.033 


.046 

.052 


.0^1 


.064 

.071 


SS 


.104 


.036 


.057 


.068 


.078 


60 


.114 


.040 


.062 


.074 


.085 


65 


.124 


.043 


.067 


.080 


.092 


70 


.133 


.046 


.07* 


.086 


.099 


75 


.X42 


.050 


.078 


.092 


.106 


80 


.15* 


•053 


.083 


.098 


."3 


85 


.161 


.056 


.088 


.X04 


.121 


90 


.171 


.059 


.093 


.XII 


.128 


^ 


.x8o 


.063 


.098 


.XX7 


m 


aao 


.066 


ao4 


123 


200 


.380 


.130 


.208 


.246 


.284 


300 


.570 


.200 


.3" 


.369 


.426 


400 


.760 


.260 


.416 


.492 


.568 


500 


.950 


.330 


.520 


.615 


.710 


600 


1.X40 


.400 


.624 


.738 


.852 


700 


1.330 


.460 


.728 


.861 


.99+ 


800 


1.530 


.530 


.832 


.984 


1.135 


900 


1.710 


.590 


.936 


X.107 


1,178 


1,000 


L900 


.660 


1.040 


L230 


L420 


2,000 


3.800 


1.300 


2.080 


2.460 


2.846 


3.000 


5.700 


2.000 


3*120 


3.690 


4.260 


4,000 


7.600 


2.600 


4.160 


4.920 


5.680 


5.000 


9.500 


3-300 


5.^00 


6.X5O 


7.X00 


6,000 


11.400 


4.000 


6.240 


7.380 


8.520 


7,000 


13.300 


4.600 


7.280 


8.6X0 


9.940 


8,000 


15.200 


5.300 


8.320 


9.840 


XI. 360 


y,ooo 


17.100 


5-950 


9.360 


11.070 


12.780 


10,000 


19.000 


6.600 


10.400 


12.300 


14.200 



58 



PRESSURE OP MERCURY AND WATER.— TabmIS. 



EaTJIVALEVT COLXnOTS OF MEBCTTBT ft WATER ; 

'WlttL their Preuwre p«r sqiUHr* laek and per sqfuur* foot. 



Applicable to Steam Gaaget and Praeaore Oaugea, for Pumpinff Enginea, and 
for ealenlatingtlM atrength of Pipea, Tanka, lk9; ««. 



Column of 
Mercttrj. 



Inchea. 
.1 
.2 

•3 

•4 

•5 
.6 

.7 
.8 

•9 

1.0 

2.0 
2. 04 
3.0 
4.0 
4.08 

5- 
6. 
6.1a 

7. 

8.16 

9- 
10. 

XO.20 

II. 

12. 

12.24 

13- 
14. 

14.28 

15. 
16. 

16.32 

17. 

18. 

18.36 

19. 

20. 

20.40 

21. 

22. 

22.44 

23.0 

24. 

24.48 

25.00 

26. 

26.52 

27. 

28. 



Equivalent 
of Water. 



Feet. 

.."3 

.226 

.339 

•4-5a 

.5^55 
.678 

.791 
.904 

1.017 

U306 

2.260 

».3i4 
3 39 
4-5* 
4.63 

6.78 
6.94 
7.91 

9.04 

10.17 
1 1 . 306 

11.57 
H.43 
13.56 
13.88 
14.69 

»5.83 

16.20 

16.96 

18.09 
18.51 
19.22 
20.35 
20.82 
21.48 
22.61 

23.14 
23.74 

24.87 

»5.45 
26.00 

27.13 
27.76 
28.26 

29.39 
30.08 

30-5* 

SL65 



Preaaure 
peraq.inch. 



nia< 

.049 

.098 

.147 
.196 

.245 
.294 

•343 
.392 
.441 

.490 

.980 

1.00 

1.47 

1.96 

2.00 

»-45 
2.94 

3.00 

3.43 
3.92 

4.00 

4.41 

4.90 
5.00 

5.39 
5.88 

6.00 

6.37 
6.87 

7.00 

7.36 

7.8< 

8.00 

8.34 

8.83 
9.00 

9-32 
9.81 

10.00 

10.29 
10.78 

ILOO 

XI. 27 
11.76 

12.06 

12.25 

12.74 
13.00 
13.23 
13.72 



Preanm 
peraq.fbot. 



>lnmn of 
Mercury. 



Iba. 

7.07 
14.14 
21.21 
28.28 

35-35 
42.42 

49.49 
56.56 
63.63* 

70.70 

141. 

V 144 

212 

282 
288 

353 
424 
432 

565 

^76 

636 
707 
720 
790 
848 
864 
919 
990 
1008 

X)o6o 
i»i30 

I>152 
1>202 
I1272 
1,296 

i>343 

1*414 
1,440 

L484 

i»555 

1*584 
1,626 

1,696 

1,728 

1,767 
1,838 
1,872 
1,909 

1979 



Inchea. 
28.56 
29.00 
30.00 
30.60 
31.00 
32.00 
32.64 
33.00 
34.00 

84.68 

35.00 

36.00 
36.72 
37.00 
38 00 
38.76 
39.00 
40.00 
40.80 

42.84 

44.88 
45.00 
46.92 
48.96 
50.00 
51.06 
60.00 
70.00 
80.00 
90.00 

xoo.oo 
110. 

120. 
130. 
140.00 

150.5 
159.3 

168. a 
177. 

194.7 

212.3 

221.3 
230.1 
247.8 
265.3 
283.06 



BquiTalent 



^ 



of Water. 



Feet. 

32.39 
32.88 

33.92 

34-71 

35-05 
36.18 

37.02 

37.31 
38.44 

39.33 

39.57 
40.70 
41.62 
41.83 
42.96 
43.96 
44.09 
45.22 
46.28 

48.59 

50.90 
50.87 

53.21 
55- 5a 
56.53 
57.83 
67.83 

79.14 
90.44 

101.75 

113.06 

124.34 

135.67 

146.70 

158. 

170. 

180. 

190. 

200. 

820. 

240. 
250. 
260. 
280. 
300. 
320. 

350. 
400. 

450. 

500. 



Preaaure 
peraq.inch 



Iha. 

14.00 

14.21 

14.70 

16.00 

15.19 
15.68 

16.00 

16.17 

16.68 

17.00 

17.15 
17.64 

18.00 

18.13 

18.62 

19.00 

19.11 
19.60 

20.00 
2L00 

22.00 

22.05 

23.00 
24.00 

24.50 

25.00 

29.40 

34.30 
39.20 

44.10 

49.00 

53.90 
58.80 

63.70 
68.70 
73.78 
78.12 
82.46 
86,80 

95.48 

104.16 

108.50 
112.80 
121.50 
130.20 
138.80 
151.9b 
173.60 

i9i-30 

217.00 



pflraq.lbot. 



Iba. 
2016 
2050 
2121 
2160 
2191 
2262 
2304 

2333 
2404 

2448 

2474 

2»545 
2592 
2616 
2686 
2736 

2757 
2828 
2880 

3024 

3168 

3181 
3312 
3456 

3535 
3600 

4242 

4949 
5656 

6363 

7070 

7777 
8484 
9194 
9898 
10625 
11249 

11874 

12499 

13749 

14999 
15624 

16243 
17496 
18748 
19987 
21873 
24998 
28123 

31248 



59 



WEIGHT AND STRENGTH OF PIPES— Tablb 14 



■m 



WEIGHT PER TABO AHD 8A7E HEAD OW WATER JOR GA8T-IB0E 

PI?E8. 

Biaineten 8 to 48 inohet. 
KoTB^— The tp^JU indndM a proportten for tocket at everj 9 feet, anowing the clear 
length of each pipe when laid to make 8 yarda, thus each pipe woold be about 9 feet 6 
faicbea from ont to ont. The m/« h$ad la that to which the pipes may be constantly ex- 
posed. The proof head may be double the tabular amount tf tbfi drcnmstanoes require. 



Thiek. 



Weight 



8aft 
Head of 
Water. 



Boire. 



Thiek- 



Weight 



Safe 



Inches. 

3 



Inches. 



CWtSa (JTS. lbs. 

O I o 

o 1 14 

o a o 

o 2 14 



6 



O 

o 

o 
o 

o 
o 
o 
I 

o 
o 



8 



9 



10 



11 



18 



X 
I 

X 

3 

X 

2 

3 
o 



2 
3 



o 
I 

2 
o 

o 

2 

3 
I 

2 
o 
1 

3 

3 

o 

2 
o 



9 
25 
>5 

5 

18 
II 

4 



2 22 

3 a 

18 

1 18 



8 
9 



3 
o 

1 xo 

2 14 



3 20 

o 25 

» 3 

3 9 



4 
U 
20 

4 

16 
o 

12 
8 

>5 

4 

21 

12 

3 
17 

12 



feet. 
1000 
1500 
2000 

25CX> 

744 
X128 

1500 
1872 

600 
900 

X200 

1500 

750 

1000 
1250 
1500 

640 

857 

X068 
1284 

564 
750 

93<5 
1128 

500 

666 

832 

icxx> 

450 
600 

750 
900 

684 
816 
960 

500 
625 

750 
875 



inches. 

14 



15 



16 



18 



21 



24 



30 



36 



42 



48 



inches. 



f 

i 
i 



CWtSi QTS. lbs. 

2 2 17 

3 o x8 

3 * 19 

4 o 21 



2 
3 
3 

4 

3 
3 

4 
4 

3 

4 
4 
5 

3 

4 

5 
6 

4 

5 
6 

7 

6 
8 

9 
II 

8 
10 

IX 

»3 

9 
12 

H 

15 

11 

H 
16 

17 



3 8 

X X2 

3 19 

» *3 

o o 

a 9 

o 18 

3 o 



I 
o 

2 
o 

3 

2 
I 
I 

X 

1 

X 

o 

3 

3 
I 

o 



3 

2 

o 

2 

o 

X 

o 
o 



12 

o 

16 

a3 

18 

15 
»5 
H 

»9 
o 

o 

13 

H 

^4 
16 

7 



o 23 

2 21 

2 IX 

o 20 



O 

12 

7 

o 

>4 
17 

3 
o 



feet. 

535 
644 

750 
857 

500 

•600 
700 
800 

468 

5<55 
652 

750 

412 

500 

583 
666 

360 
428 
500 
572 

31a 

374 
400 

500 

300 
400 

450 
500 

249 
333 

375 
412 

216 
288 

3«a 
360 

187 
250 
280 
312 



60 



FLOOD DISCHAEOES.— TablkIS. 



SISCHASeE. 

tM CUBIC FSST PSR KIKUTB, 

For 1 to 100 Acres, with fhe following amounts of Bain-fidl 

in 24 hours. 



BafaL 
iaM 
Houn. 



1^ 



Cub. ft. 
perm 

.079771 

.X30 

•194 

•47* 

.630 
.700 
.788 



.150 
.938 



4.7*6 

S-5I4 
6.301 

7'«77 



1-16 



Cob. ft. 
per in. 

.15754 

% 

.78 
•94 

l.IO 

1.26 
i.4» 
«.57 



3 

t 



«5 
7* 
V* 
«7 



9-45 
11.03 

M.60 

14.18 

«5.75 



A 



Cub. ft. 
perm. 

.3i<o« 
.6301 

.945*1 
i.aAo 

1.575 

1.890 
&.105 
ft.5«o 
1.835 
3.151 

6.301 

9-45* 
».6o 

15.75 

18.90 
ftx.05 
ic.io 

*3.35 
31.51 



liL. 



Gnb. ft. 
perm. 

.630x6 
1.26 
1.89 
*.S* 
J. 15 

3.78 
4.41 

5.67 
6.30 

».6o 
18.90 
15.20 
31.51 

37.ti 
44.10 

50.41 
16.71 

63.01 



Cab. ft. 
perm. 



IlL 

M 



1.16 
1.51 

3.78 

04 

30 



I 



i: 



;.8i 
10.08 
II. 
11. 



k.6o 



15.10 
37. ti 
50.41 
63.01 

75.6a 
88.11 
100.8 
113.4 
116.0 



& 



Cnb. ft. 
perm. 



1.8903 




9-45* 



Cab. ft. 
per m« 

1.51 

7.56 
10.08 
11.60 



11.34 
13.13 
15.11 
17.01 
18.90 

37.ti 
56.71 
75.61 

94-5* 

113.4 
131.3 
151.1 

170.1 
189.0 



^ 



15.11 
17.61 
10.16 
11.68 
15.10 

50.41 
75.61 
100.8 
116.0 

151.1 

176.4 
101.6 
116.8 
151.0 



^ 



Cab. ft. 
perm. 

5.0413 

10.08 

15.11 

10.16 

15.10 

30.15 

J5.«9 
40-31 

45.37 
50.41 

100.8 

151.* 
101.6 
151.0 

301.5 

35*.9 
403.3 

453*7 
504.1 



Iu« 



Cab. ft. 
per m. 

7.5610 

15.11 

11.68 

30.15 

37.ti 

45.37 

75.61 

151.1 
ia6.8 
301.5 
37«.i 

453.7 
5*9 3 

S^l 

756.1 



Xu. 



Cnb. ft. 
permln. 

10.081 
10. 1 
30.1 
40.3 
50.4 

60.5 

2.6 
.6 

90.7 
ioo.S 

201.6 
301.5 

403.3 
504.1 

604.0 

a .4 
.1 



For 1 to 10 Square Xiles, with fhe Allowing amounts of 

Bain-&I1 in 84 hours. 



BafaL 
iaM 
Houn. 



-Is j 1-16 



In. 
1-* 



A 



IlL- 

1-2 



tk 



& 



Sqaire 



Cab. ft. Cab. ft. 
perm, jperm. 



50.413 
100.8 
151.1 

101.6 
151.0 
301.5 

35**9 
403.3 
453.7 
504.1 



100.81 

101.6 
301.5 

403.3 
504.1 
604.9 



.4 

.1 



Cab. ft 
per m. 

101.64 

403.3 

604.9 

806.6 
1008.1 
1209.9 

1411.5 
1613.1 

i8ii.9 

2016.4 



Cab. ft. 
per m. 

£1:1 

1109.9 

1613.1 
2016.5 

1419.S 

1813.1 

3**6.4 
3629.7 
4033.0 



Cab. ft. 
perm 

604.96 
1109.9 
1814.9 



Cob. ft. Cob. ft. 
pernLiperm. 



Cab. ft. 
per m. 



Cob. ft. 
perm 



806.65 10a8.26l1109.91l1411.57 
1613.1 1016.5 *4>9.8 1813.1 
1419.S ,30i4-» 30*9.71 4*34.71 



1419.S 

3014.7 
3619.7 

4*34.7 
4»39.7 

6049.6 



3126.4 4033.1 
4033.0 5041.3 
4839.6 ,6049.6 



4«39.7 
6049.6 

7*59-4 



5646.3 



Cnb. ft. 
permln. 

1613.13 

3**6.4 
4839.6 

^X 

9679.3 



<646.3 70J7.8 

6451.9 8066.1 

*50.4 9074*4^ 

5 10081.6 




01 



10889. 

12099. 



9881 

11191.6 

11704.1 
1II4I15.7 



1191.6 
12905.8 

14519.0 

16131.3 



61 
MEAN DISCHAB6E OF ANNUAL RAIN.— Tablb 16. 



DISCEABGES DUE TO SAIVFALL 

IN DBPTH VROM TWO TO IIXTT INOHBS PBR AHHUK. 



Bain per 
Annnia. 



CnUc feet per mlniite. 



For laere. 



For I iqiiara 
mile. 



CnUc feet per Diem. 



For 1 aere. 



For 1 aqnare 
mile. 



GallonB per Diem. 



Fori acre. 



Fori square 
mile. 



.oijSoa 
•017604 
.041406 
.0S5108 
.069011 

.0S181} 
.09661^ 
.110410 
.114119 
.13S011 

.10S626 

•>794»7 
.191 Its 
.107033 

.1177 
.148438 

.33115* 

:7^ 



8.83 

S.66 
.50 

I5«l| 
44.16 



00 



«.o 

61.8] 

70.60 

79.50 

88.33 



106. 



.16 
00 
114.81 
113.66 
13*.50 

Ui'7% 
159.00 
185.50 
111.00 
118.50 
165.00 



19.87 

J9-75 
59*61 
79.50 

99- 17 

119.15 
139.11 
159.00 

178.87 
198.74 

118.61 
138.50 

158.37 
178.14 
198.11 

317.90 
157-75 

4«7-J7 
477.00 

536.61 

596.15 



11,710 

*5»44o 
38,160 

? 0,880 
3,600 

76,310 

89,oio 

101,760 

114,480 

117,100 

I39> 

I6|,3< 

178,080 

190,800 

1x8,900 
*67,i40 
305fi8o 
343 > 440 
381,600 



113.8 
157.6 
37 « -4 
495.* 
619.0 

990.5 
1114.1 
1138.0 

1361.0 

1485.8 
1609.5 

1733.* 
1857.0 

1041.8 
1118.7 

1599.8 
1971.6 

334*.6 
3714.0 



79.*45 
158,49* 
*37,736 
116,981 
396,118 

475»473 
554.718 

633>9^ 
713,110 

791,456 

»7"f70i 

950,947 
1030, 193 

1109,438 

1188.684 

1307, 37* 
1416,410 
"09,437 
1901,894 
1139,630 
*177»308 



SUBSOIL DEAnrS.— Table C. 

UDTOTH OV DHAIH PIPBI BBQUIBBD UC ONB AOBB. 



Ko. of feet 


Lenfcth in 


Length in 
Itnds 


apart 


feet. 


of 16| feet.' 


g 


8,701 
7,j6i 


5*7-1 
440.1 


3 


5*445 


S30.I 


! 


4.}50 


163.6 


1 


3.631 


uo.o 


1.900 
*,640 


175.7 

160.0 


18 


1,411 


146.7 

115.6 


8^ 


*.073 


24 


1,815 


IIO.O 


|[ 


1,614 
1.450 


i;:l 


88 


1.314 


80.0 




1,110 


73.1 



1 



G2 



EXPENDITURE OF WATER.— Tabm 17. 



dischauge fob MiHxrrES 


, DATS AHS TRARS, 


IN 


CUBIC FEET AND IMPERIAL GALLONS. 1 


Fn 


ICunm. 


Pn Dux. 


Pie Airinni. 


CnUo 


CtaUons. 


CuMc Foot* 


QiUoni. 


CnMeFeeL 


Itet. 








Mmimit. 


1 


6.23 


1*440 


8.974 


.526 


2 


12.46 


2,880 


17,948 


1.052 


3 


18.69 


4.320 


26,922 


1.578 


4 


24.92 


5.760 


35.896 


2.104 


5 


31.16 


7,200 


4t.87o 


2.630 


6 


37.39 


8,640 


53*844 


3.156 


7 


43.62 


10,080 


62,818 


3.682 


8 


49.85 


11,520 


7i*79» 


4.208 


9 


56.08 

62.82 


12,960 


80,766 


4.734 


10 


14,400 


89,740 


6.260 


20 


124.64 


28,800 


179.480 


10.520 


as 


155-80 


36,000 


»a4.350 


13.150 


30 


186.96 


4J.200 


269,220 


15.780 


35 


218.12 


50.400 


314.090 


18.410 


40 


249 . 28 


57,600 


358,960 


21.040 


45 


280.44 


64,800 


403*830 


23.670 


50 


311.60 


72,000 


448,700 


26.300 


55 


34^.76 


79,200 


493*570 


28.930 


60 


373. 9» 


86,400 


538*440 


31.560 


66 


406.08 


93,600 


683,810 


34J90 


70 


436. H 


100,800 


628,180 


36.820 


75 


467.40 


108,000 


673*050 


39-450 


80 


498.56 


115,200 


717,920 


42^.080 


85 


5^9-72 


122,400 


762,790 


44*. 7 10 


90 


560.89 


129,600 


807,660 


47.340 


95 


59a -05 


136,800 


852.530 


49.970 


100 


623.21 


144,000 


897,408 


52.600 


200 


1,246.4 


288,000 


1,794.816 


105.200 


300 


1,869.6 


432,000 


2,692,214 


157.800 


400 


2,492.8 


676,000 


3,689,632 


210,400 


500 


3,116.1 


720,000 


4.487*040 


263.000 


600 


3.739. a 


864,000 


5,384,448 


315.600 


700 


4.362.4 


1,088,000 


6,281,856 


368.200 


800 


4,985.6 


1,152,000 


7*179*264 


420.800 


900 


5.608.9 


1,296,000 


8,076,672 


473.400 


1,000 


6,232.1 


1,440,000 


8,974.080 


526.000 


2,000 


12,464.0 


2,880,000 


17,948,160 


1,052.^00 


3,000 


18,696.0 


4,320,000 


26,922,240 


1,578.000 


4,000 


24,928 .0 


5,760,000 


35.896,320 
44,870,400 


2,104.000 
2,680.000 


6,000 


8U60.0 


7,200*000 


6,000 


37,392.0 


8,640,000 


53,844^^80 


3,156.000 


7,000 


43*625. 


10,080,000 


62,818,560 


3,682.000 


8,000 


49*857. 


1 1,520,000 


71,792,640 


4,208.000 


9,000 


56,089 . 


1 2,960,000 


80,766,720 


4,734.000 


10,000 


62,322. 


14,400,000 


89,740,800 


5,260.000 


11,000 


68,554- 


15,840,000 


98,714.880 


5,786.000 


12,000 


74*786. 


17,280,000 


107,688,960 


6,312.000 



WATER SUPPLY.— Tablb 18 



SUPPLY PER SAY, ASTi YAVTVALEST ttUABTlTIES 
PSaMUIllTE AID TSAS, 



^ Auk leqDtred to pTOrUto nieh Sopplf at 



i Intlm depUi oT Bals 



Px> Hunm. PuYm^ 






168^<& 















tuKSl 






119.1* 



MS-7I 
SOi.+i 






IJJ.70S 



IS 






' 4iX^ 



i'i 

I'i 
li 

41.665 

i:i 

p 

IK." 

1^:66^ 
S00.000 



',:S 



6.B1 

7'3S 



U:g 



VELOCITIES— TiBLEli 

fM p« KIinto^4nd Dia» 

rorfBet par Hnnd iUtMb bj M 
Fgrlnchi.puiW)nillU>ldBtT B 
ForinU«pwhonraiiltl[.ljbr.<UI»l 


GEADIEHT&— Tabu 20. 
BkttudTallfaiVMtpwlQltaadptr 

ForfMtFW lun, dJ.Ld* MM bf tha nta. 
FqrbMpwelulndMdB Khj'UMnu. 


TMt 


xn. 


«tnta 




Bate. 


PAJI. 


B«to. 


,^ II 


mrhrai 


D».iO 


'sr 


'Sff' 


omln 


'5r 


'ST 


» 

ii 

» 

i 



3 


ito 

100 

'i 

X 
i 

6{o 

i 

gjo 
goo 

1 


4 

( 

1 

s 

,s 

ij 
3 


i 

2* 

1 
i 

11) 


i 

! 
i 

ii 
i 

1 

il 

1' 


■a: 
a- 

MO 
»91 

is:: 
1 

ii; 

l;l 

JT-o 


'iis 
11 

;l 

i:K 

1 


Ito 

i* 

MO 

44=' o 

ii 

iS:l 
.8 


«9.| 

II 

1 


.114 

;«? 
:g 

■|j» 

1 



66 



COMFABATTVE MEASURES.— Table 21 



CEAnrs, TABSS, AHS FEET, 

With th«lr Saeiprocal Bqaivalente, and a Tabla of Radmetioiui 

tor napes. 

Umi — 7 .9S iMhm, CJiaim — 799 Ineket. 



Ghaina iatoFaet 



9 


a, 






J 




Ytfda. 


Feet. 


§ 


^ 






0. 


I 


.22 


.66 


o. 


2 


•44 


1.32 


o. 


3 


.66 


1.98 


o. 


4 


.88 


a. 64 


o. 


5 


1. 10 


3.30 


o. 


6 


1.32 


3.96 


o. 


7 


'•54 


4.62 


o. 


8 


1.76 


5.28 


o. 


9 


1.98 


5.94 


0. 


10 


2.20 


6.60 


o. 


20 


4.40 


13.20 


o. 


30 


6.60 


19.80 


o. 


40 


8.80 


26.40 


o. 


50 


11.00 


33.00 


o. 


60 


13.20 


39.60 


o. 


70 


15.40 


46.20 


o. 


80 


17.60 


52.80 


o. 


90 


19.80 


59.40 


I. 


od 


22.00 


66.0c 


2 




44.00 


132 


3" 




66.00 


198. 


4" 




88.00 


264. 


5- 




110. 


330. 


6. 




»3*. 


396. 


7. 




154. 


462. 


8. 




176. 


518. 


9- 




198. 


594. 


lO. 




220. 


660. 


20. 

30 


• 


m 


1320. 
1980. 


35- 




770. 


2310. 


40. 




88c. 


2640. 


45- 




990. 


1970. 


50. 




IIOO. 


3300. 


55- 




1210. 


3630. 


60. 




1320. 


3960. 


65. 




1430. 


4290. 


70. 




1540. 


4620. 


75. 




1650. 


4950. 


80 


» 


1760. 


5280. 



Faet into Ghaina. 



Jor aaali 100 o& Slopa. 



Feet 


Tarda. 


Uhkiu 


.10 


.033 


0.15 


.20 


.066 


0.30 


.25 


.082 


0.38 


.30 


.010 


0.45 


.40 


.133 


0.60 


.50 


.166 


0.76 


.60 


.200 


0.91 


.70 


.233 


1.06 


•ii 


.250 


1.13 


.80 


.266 


L21 


.90 


.300 


X.36 


1.00 


.33 


i.5» 


2.0 


.66 


3.0 


3.0 


1.000 


4.5 


4.0 


1.33 


6.0 


5-0 


1.66 


7.5 


6.0 


2.00 


9.1 


7.0 


a-33 


10.6 


8.0 


2.66 


12. 1 


9.0 


3.00 


13.6 


10. 


3.33 


»5.t 


15.0 


5-00 


".7 


20.0 


6.66 


30.3 


24.0 


S.oo 


36.3 


27. 


9.00 


40.9 


30. 


10.00 


45.4 


33. 


11.00 


50.0 


36. 


12.00 


54-5 


39- 


13-00 


^0.6 


40. 


13.33 


4». 


14.0 


^3.3 


45. 


15.00 


68.2 


48. 


16.00 


7*. 7 


50. 


16.66 


75.7 


5». 


17.00 


77.3 


54- 


18.00 


8i.8 


57. 


19.00 


86-3 


60. 


20.00 


90.9 


63. 


21.00 


95-4 


66. 


22.00 


100. 



Ratoaf 
FaH. 



I in 20 
»> 19 



18 



19 
ft 

n 
If 

19 



17 
16 

»5 
H 

13 



1 in 12 

» II 

M 
M 



10 

9 
8 



M 



7 
6 



1 in 5 



1 m4 



1 in 3 



1 m 2 

9> 
M 

I in lA 
1*>1 



Ajigle. 
Deg.HIn. 



Dedaet. 



1.0 
2.0 

a.5a 
3.01 

3.11 

3." 

i-5S 
3-49 
4-0} 

4.24 

4.46 
5.12 

5.45 
6.20 

7.10 

8.10 

9.30 

10.00 

11.20 

12.00 

13.00 
14.02 
15.00 
16.00 
17.00 

18.00 
18.26 
19.00 
20.00 

2L00 

22.00 
23-00 
24.00 
25.00 
26.00 

26.34 
27.00 
28.00 

33.41 

45.00 



.015 
.061 
.126 

.137 
.153 

.173 
.198 

• 225 

.254 

.297 

.343 
.406 

.503 
.610 

.781 
1. 014 

J.373 

1.519 
1.950 

2185 

a.5<53 
2.980 

3.408 

3.874 
4.369 

4.894 

5.130 

5-448 
6.031 

6.642 

7.282 

7.949 
8.645 

9-369 
10.120 

10.570 
10.900 
11.645 
16.667 

129.290 



USEFUL WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.— Table 23 



loohw and Fractloiu ezprei 



■lU 



i^ ^ 



Ant -JnUofbMdxhelglit 

MCnb*_it>»xIieuht 

Tr.Sur.'-iirin.Dfiisnxiluitbelgbt 



In Iho CnMc Koot .. 



MllMln I De^™ =69-044 

L«agtli of SKDDdi Fgnd. LU. !l*=)9-')9l' 

i =9.785 

:: .: a:a 



Beduotion of roreign Meatnrei into Ttngl'T**. 

;lui4) -■ •• =v9f J»riifae« 































































ma,. ^a» 


-.';'2t''£^.'JS™ 



DHlRTUnmA 
KJLofnunme 



:l.J&77j 






67 



USEFUL WEIGHTS AND MEASURES.— Table 22a. 



Areas of Segments of a Circle, and Lengths of Circular Arcs, 

Taking diameter €U unity for Areas, and base of segments as 

unity for Lengths, 

Bdls vob Abka& — MuUIply the DIft» of the clrele of which the given segment 
Ib ft part, by the tabular area, the result will be the area required. 



V.Sla 



.01 
.ox 

.0} 

.04 
.05 

.06 
.07 
.08 
.09 

■ lO 

.11 

.IZ 

•14 

•'1 

.16 

•"7 



Area. 



.0013 
.0017 
.0068 
.0105 
.0147 

.019X 
.0141 
.0294 

.0J50 

.0409 
.0470 

.OJJ4 
.0600 
.0668 
.07J9 
.0811 
.0885 



Length. 



•006 
.018 
.014 
.ozo 
.ojl6 
.03Z 

.038 
.044 
.o$i 

•059 

.067 

.075 



V.Sin. 



.18 
.19 
.zo 

.ZI 

.*! 
.Z4 

•as 

.z6 

:3 

.*9 
.30 

.3Z 

• 31 

• 34 



Area. 



.0961 
.1039 
.1118 
.1199 
.IZ81 

.I3&4 

• 1449 
.«5J5 
.i6z3 
.1711 
.1800 

.1890 
.1981 
.Z074 
.Z167 
.zz6o 



Length. 



1.084 
1.093 
1.103 
1. 114 
1.IZ4 

1.135 
1.147 
1.159 
1. 171 
1.184 
1.197 

i.ziz 
1.ZZ5 
1.Z39 
i.z«4 
1.269 
1.Z84 



V.Sin 



.11 

:li 

•39 

.40 

.41 
.4Z 

•4J 
•44 

% 

•49 
.50 



Area. 



.2450 

.a545 
.164Z 

•*7J9 

.Z836 

•a9H 
• jojz 

.3130 
.3Zt9 
.3J« 

.J4Z8 

•35Z7 
.36Z7 

.37*7 
.38Z7 

•39*7 



Length. 



l.|QO 

1.316 
1.33Z 

■•349 

1.366 
1.383 
1. 401 
1.418 

^•437 
'•455 

1.474 
'.493 
1.51Z 
1.531 
1.551 

1. 571 



Length of Degnei and Klnutes 
of an Azo/ 

BADIU8 BSINO UMTXT* 



Height of Apparent above Itae Level. 



The Correctian /br BtfraetUm ii to be i|f)pliei 
wAefi necesgarp. 



Deg. 



Length. 



Min. 



Length. 



Dist. 
Chns. 



Subtract 
Feet 



Diet. 
Chna. 



Subtract 
Feet 



Diet 
Chne. 



Subtract 
Feet 



I 

z 

3 

4 

I 

I 

9 
10 



o-0'745|| 
0.0349066 
0.0523599 
o.o698i)Z 
0.0872665 
0.1047198 
0.IZ21731 
0.1396264 
0.1570797 
0.1745330 



I 

z 

3 

4 

I 

I 

9 
10 



0.0002909 
0.0005818 
0.0008727 
0.001 i6}6 
0.0014545 
0.0017454 
0.0020363 
O.OOZ317Z 
0.0026181 
0.00Z9090 



I 

z 
3 
4 

I 

7 
8 

9 
10 



aoo 

0.00 

0.001 

o.ooz 

0.003 

aoo4 

0.005 

aoo7 

aoo8 

a 010 



If 

IZ 

13 
M 

19 

20 



aoiz 
0.015 
0.018 
o.ozo 
0.0Z3 
0.0Z7 
0.030 

0.033 
0.037 
a 041 



ZI 

zz 

43 

M 

U 

Z9 

JO 



0.045 
0.050 
0.055 
0.060 
0.065 
0.070 
0.075 
0.080 
0.085 
ao9o 



Square Tarda in Seeinula of an Aere. 



BBICEWORK. 

Rod takes 4,200 to 4.600 Bricks; 
270 to 800 Bricks = 1 ton. A 
rod Is 906 c. fU, or 11.88 c yards. 



Sq. 
Yards 



Dedmal 



I 
% 
3 

4 

I 
i 

9 

lO 



of 
an Acre. 



> 000x06 

,000^1 

.ooo6z 

.00083 

.OC103 

.001Z4 

.00144 

.00165 

.ooi8| 

•OOZ06 



Sq. 
Yards 



zo 
30 
40 

90 
100 



Decimal 

of 
an Acre. 



.00^1 
.oooz 
.0063 
.0103 
.0124 

.0144 

.0165 
.0185 
.0206 



Sq. 
Yardd 



zoo 

300 

400 

500 

600 

?oo 
00 

900 

1000 



Decimal 

of 
an Acre. 



WaU 
sup. fiset 



.0113 
.0619 
.0820 
.1033 
•IZ39 
.1x46 
.1653 

.zooo 



I 
z 

3 

4 

I 

I 

9 
10 



Contains Bricks. 



At 1 Brick. 



11 

zz 
33 

44 

II 

U 

99 
110 



Mil Brick. 



16 
33 

n 

8z 

99 
"5 
13Z 

165 



68 
Table 23. 



TABLE wm CQWEETJSQ THE SCA LES Qg EA HBEHH EIT, 
CEimOBASE AHS BEATJMUB THERMOMETERS. 

BVLR—For ooBTwrtliic- dtgnm Fahrenh«tt tote Ontifnwto or Smmmwr, dadnct ar thoroftvB, and look ftr 

4ha Toln* of iho rennlndor ta tho Toblo. 
KaamjOt—To eonron 7b* Fahr. 7S*-3x'WM" ; thon In oolnmn 9» oppodlo 4 In Iho oolumn of toni, vttl bo 

found U* M Condg. or »•* 44 Hoaum. • 
A'«toi-.Wbon tho dogrooB Fahr. an ten than Sr all r«adln«s aro mCrnw, or bdow awo ofCoatis. and Boanm. 
For oonrorting Contig or Koaan. into Fahr —To tho ralu« of tho dogrooo CenUf or Reaam. obtatnod from tho 

romoetire Tabl« u aboro, add 31* and tho >am will b« tho cquiralont dogroM Fahr. 
mpM— To oouTort 6>f Oentl^ or 40* Bcaum. into rahr.— In oolumn 0, oppoolto S in tho oolnmn of ••■• 

for Oontig or I for lUaun. wiU bo found 90.V0, to vhioh add Si* and dM nun US* !■ tho oqoinUnt 

roading in dogrooo Fahr. 

Fahrealieit into Centignida. 



TODB. 



O 
I 

X 

3 

4 

I 

7 
8 

9 
lo 



Decimlp 



UNITS. 



0.00 
5.56 
II. TI 
16.67 
11. Zl 
17.78 

44-44 
50.00 

55- 56 



00.00 



0.56 
6. II 
11.67 
17.11 
11.78 
18.33 

3389 
39-44 
45.00 

50.56 
56.11 



.0 



iH 



2 



I. II 

6.67 

II. u 

17.78 

«3-33 
18.89 

34-44 
40.00 

45. $6 

51. II 

56.67 



3 



1.67 

11.78 
18.13 
13.89 

»9-44 
3500 

40-56 
46.11 
51.67 
57.1a 



.III 



.167 



a. 11 

7.78 

13-33 

18.89 

X4-44 

30.00 

35-56 
41. II 
46.67 
51.11 
57-78 



.111 



1.78 

8.33 

13.89 

19-44 
15.00 
30.56 
36.11 
41.67 
47.11 
51.78 

58- 33 



.178 



6 



1:^ 

14.44 
10.00 
15.56 
31. II 
36.67 
41.11 

47- 78 
53-33 
58.89 



333 



3.89 

9-44 
15.00 
10.56 
16.11 
31.67 
37.11 
41.78 

48-33 
53.89 
59-44 



389 



8 



4.44 
10.00 
15.56 
II. II 
16.67 
31.11 
37.78 

43-33 
48.89 

54-44 
00.00 



9 



5.00 
10.56 
16. II 
11.67 
17.11 
31.78 

38.33 
43-89 
49-44 

60.56 



.500 









Centigrade 


into Fahrenlieit 






• 





0.0 


1.8 


Jj 


5.4 


7.1 


9.0 


10.8 


11.6 14.4 


16.1 


I 


18.0 


19.8 


11.6 


13.4 


15.1 


17.0 


18.8 


30.6 


31.4 


34.* 


1 
3 


36.0 
54.0 


37.8 
55.8 


39.6 
57.6 


41.4 
59-4 


43. » 
61.1 


45-0 
63.0 


^8 


U.6 


68.4 


51.1 
70.1 


4 


71.0 


73.8 


75.6 


77-4 


79.1 


81.0 


81.8 


84.6 


86.4 


88.1 


i 


90.0 


91.8 


93.6 


95.4 


97.1 


99.0 


100.8 


101.6 


104.4 


106.1 


108.0 


109.8 


III. 6 


"34 


115.1 


117.0 


1 18. 8 


110.6 


111.4 


114.1 


I 

9 


116.0 


117.8 


119.6 


131.4 


133.1 


135.0 


136.8 


138.6 


140.4 


lAl.l 
160.1 
178.1 


144.0 
161.0 


145-8 
163.8 


165.6 


'49' 4 

167.4 


151. 1 
169.1 


153.0 
171.0 
189.0 


154.8 

171.8 


156.6 
174.6 


158.4 
176.4 


10 


180.0 


181. 8 


185.6 


185.4 


187.1 


190.8 


191.6 


194.4 


196.1 


Decimla 


0.000 


.18 


-■■??- 


..•5tl— J»- 


• 90 


i.oS 


1.16 


1.44 


1.61 









Fahrenheit into Seanmnr. 











0.00 


•44 


.89 


».33 


1.78 


1.11 


1.67 


3. II 


3.56 


4.00 


I 


^i* 


4-89 


5.33 


5.78 


6.11 


6.67 


7.11 


7.56 


8.00 


8.44 


1 


8.89 


9*33 


9.78 


10.11 


10.67 


II. II 


11.56 


11.00 


"-44 


14.89 


3 


13.33 


13.78 


14.11 


14.67 


15. II 


15.56 


16.00 


16.44 


16.89 


17-33 


4 


17.78 


18.11 


18.67 


19. II 


19.56 


10.00 


10.44 


10.89 


11.33 


11.78 


1 


11. u 


11.67 


13.11 


13.56 


14.00 


M.44 


14.89 


»5-33 


15.78 


16.11 


16.67 


17.11 


17.56 


18.00 


18.44 


18.89 


49.33 


19.78 


30.11 


30.67 


7 


31.11 


31.56 


31.00 


8».44 


31.89 


33.33 


33-7« 


34" 


34.67 


35.11 


8 


35- 56 


36.00 


36.44 


36.89 


37.33 


37.78 


38.11 


38.67 


39" 


39.56 


9 


40.00 


40.44 


40.89 


41.33 


41.78 


41.11 


41.67 


43.11 


43.56 


44.00 


10 


44-44 


44.89 


45-33 


45.78 

- 


46.11 


46.67 


47.11 


47-56 


48.00 


48.44 


Decimls 


o-ooo 


.044 


'^. 


-illJL 


.178 


.111 


_:^ 


.311 


'}^ 


.400 



Beanmnr into Fahrenheit. 



o 
I 
1 

3 

4 

I 

7 
8 

9 
10 

J DedmlB 



0.00 

11.50 

45.00 

67.50 

90.00 

111.50 

135.00 

157. 50 

180.00 

101.50 

115.00 

0.000 



1.15 

H.75 
47- *5 
69-75 
91.15 

"4-75 
»37-a5 
'59-75 
181.15 

104.75 
117.15 

.115 



4.50 

17.00 

49-50 
71.00 

94.50 
117.00 
139.50 
t6i. 00 
184.50 
Z07.00 
219.50 

.450 




•675 



9.00 
31.50 
54.00 
76.50 
99.00 
111.50 

166.50 
189.00 
111.50 
*34-oo 

• 9(^ 




1. 115 



13.50 

36.00 

58.50 

81.00 

103.50 

116.00 

148.50 

X71.00 

»9|-50 
116.00 
138.50 

1.350 



"5.75 
38. 45 

60.75 
83.15 
105.75 

118.15 

150.75 
173.15 

«95-75 
118.15 

*40'75 
1-575 



18.00 

^•50 

63.00 

85.50 

108.00 

130.50 

153.00 

175. 50 

198.00 

110.50 

143.00 

1.800 



ao.15 

4*. 75 
65.15 

87-75 
110.15 
131.75 

>55 »5 

»77-75 
200.15 
111.75 
H5.*5 

1.QI5 



69 

« 

Table 24. 



TABLE FOB COHVEBTDTO fNOUSH ANB FBEHCH 

MEA8UBES. 

VoTB.— TIm tkIom of vniti onlf are ctrvi la UiJf TtUU ; ft>r higher nnmben moltiply the T»Ia« of Iho unite 
of which th« Bumbor to oampoMd by 10» 100, Ao., ha maj bo naooiiory, and add (ogothor Iho NTOial xmilu. 
TbaMf valooinBMnaoflMllMt:— 

in /I K IW =■ .80«7P XlOO s 80L47900 

^'^ = \6 X 10 a LASSr X 10 8.1&tS»70 

6X 1 s 1.82877 

47.B47^mMrak 



UnftB. 



1 
X 

3 

4 

i 

I 

9 
xo 



Unite. 



X 

X 

3 

4 

I 
I 

9 
lo 



Feet into 
mMres. 



•|0479 
.60959 

.91438 
1.A1918 

>. 5*397 
1.81877 

*.>3356 

a. 43836 

a. 743 » J 

3-04794 



Siitreftinto 
fbet 



6.561$ 

9- 84*7 
i|. 1x36 

16.^5 
19.6854 
xa.9663 
36.X47X 
&9.5Z81 
11.8090 



Inches into 
jentimMres. 



1.5400 

5-0799 
7.6199 

X0.1598 

11.6998 

>5-»397 
17.7797 
10.3196 
11.8596 

M.3995 



Centimetres 
into inohfls. 



•3937" 
.78741 

1.18111 

«. 57483 
1.96854 

1.3611$ 

a. 755? 
3.I4 

3-54337 
3.93708 



Inches into 
F. lines. 



11.1594 
11.5188 

33-7781 
45- 0374 
56.1968 
67.5561 
78.8155 
90.0749 
101.3341 
111.5936 



F. lines 
into inches. 



.088814 
.177618 
.166441 
.355156 
.444070 
. 531884 
.611698 
.710511 
.799316 
.888140 



B. inches 

into 
F. inches. 



X' 



766 
1.8149 

3-753* 
4.6914 

5.6197 
6.5680 

•5063 
.4446 
9.3819 



I 



Miles into 
kilomtoes. 



1.6093 
3. 1186 

4-8179 
6.4371 

8.0464 

9- 6557 
11.1650 

".«743 
1^4836 
16.0919 



Chains into 
mitres. 



10.1165 
^.1319 

60-3494 
80.4659 
100. 5813 
110.6988 
'40-8153 
160.9318 
i8i.o28i 
201.1647 



F. inches 

into 
B. inches 



1.0658 
1.1315 

3- "973 
4.1631 
5.3188 
6.3046 
7.4604 
8.5161 

9|9'9 
xo. 6577 



Kilometres 
into miles. 



.6114 
1.1^8 
1.8641 
1.4855 
3. 1069 
3.7183 

4*3496 
4.9710 

5.59M 
6.1138 



Mitzesinto 
chains. 



.04971 
.09941 
.14913 
. 19884 

.»4855 
.19817 

.34798 

•39769 
.44740 

-497" 



Un£t» 



Bq.fl3et 

£ito 

sq. metres. 



Sq. inches 

mtosq. 
ocntLmetres. 



6 

I 

9 
10 



0.0929 
0.1858 
0.1787 
o. 3716 
0.4645 

0-5574 
a 6503 

0.7431 

o. 8361 

0.9190 



6.4516 
11.9031 
19. 35^8 
15.8065 
31.1581 
38.7097 
45- 1613 
51.6119 
58.0615 
64.5161 



Acres into 
hectares. 



.40467 
.80934 
t.11401 
1. 61868 
1.01335 
1.41801 
1.83169 
3.13736 
3.64203 
4-04670 



Sq. miles 

intosq. 

kilometres. 



Cubic feet 

intocabio 

metres. 



Oallons into 
decalitres. 



1.5898 

5»797 

7-7695 

10. 3594 

11.9491 

15- 539" 
18.1189 

10.7188 

13.3086 

15.8985 



.oi8|i5 

.056030 

.084945 
.113160 

.»4'575 
.169890 
.198105 
.116510 

.»54»J5 
.183150 



.45435 

.90879 
1.36304 

X. 81738 

1.17173 

1.71607 

3.18041 

J. 63476 

4. 0891 1 

4*54345 



Units. 



6 

I 

9 
10 



Sq. metres 

into 

sq. foet 



Sq. centi* 
metres into 
sq. Inches. 



10.7643 
11.5186 
31.2919 
43-0571 
53.8115 
64.5858 

S.3501 
.1144 
96. 8787 
107.6430 



. "5501 
.31001 
.46501 
.61003 

.77504 

•93005 

X. 08 506 

1.14006 

1.39507 
X. 55008 



Hectares 
into acres. 



S.471X 

4-94*3 
7-4n4 
9.8846 

«*-3557 
14.8169 

17. 1080 
19.7691 
11.1403 
14.7114 



Sq. kilo- 
metres into 
sq. mUes. 



CqUo 
metres into 
cubic liMt. 



Decalitres 

into 
gallons. 



.3861 

.7711 

1.1583 

"-5444 
1.9305 
1.3167 
1.7018 
3.0889 

3.4750 
3.861X 



35-317 
70.633 
X05 950 
X41.166 
176. 583 
111.900 
147. 116 
181.533 
317.8- 
353 



;.i66 



1.1010 

6.0019 

8.8039 

11.0048 

13.1058 

"5 4068 
17.6077 
19.8087 
11.0097 



70 



FRENCH MEASURES INTO ENGLISH.— Table 25. 



xirSES CUBES. 




hectolubes. 


Hdtras 


Gallons 


Cnbic Feet 


Eeot*Iita«es 


Gallons 


Cnbic Feet 


Gubee 


per Diem. 


per "M^iw, 


per Diem. 


per Diem. 


per Min. 


per Diem. 












I 


220.0 


.02 


z 


22.0 


.002 


2 


440.0 


.05 


2 


44.0 


.005 


3 


660.0 


.07 


3 


66.0 


.007 


4 


880.0 


. xo 


4 


88.0 


.0x0 


5 


tylOO. X 


. X2 


5 


ixo. 


.0x2 


6 


1,320.1 


.X4 


6 


13*. 


.0x4 


7 


1,540.1 


•'7 


7 


X54.0 


.0x7 


8 


1,760. 1 


.X9 


8 


176.0 


.0x9 


1^ 


1, 980. 2 

2,200.2 


.22 

.26 


1^ 


198.0 

220.0 


.022 

.025 


20 


4,400.4 


.50 


20 


440.0 


.050 


30 


6, 600. 6 


• 73 


30 


660.0 


•073 


40 


8, 800. 8 


1. 00 


40 


880.0 


. 100 


50 


11,001.0 


X.22 


SO 


1, 100. 1 


.Z2 


60 


13,201.2 


1.47 


60 


X,320. I 


•H 


70 


15,401.4 


1.7X 


70 


1,540.1 


.17 


80 


17,601.6 


2.00 


80 


X, 760. X 


.20 


90 


19,801.8 


2.20 


90 


1,980.2 


.22 


100 


22,002.0 


2.45 


xoo 


2, 200. 2 


.24 


200 


44,004.0 


4.90 


200 


4,400.4 


.048 


300 


66, 006. 


7-35 


300 


6, 600. 6 


• 73 


400 


88,008.0 


9.80 


400 


8, 800. 8 


.98 


500 


1x0,010.0 


X2. 25 


500 


xx,oox.o 


Z.22 


600 


X32,OX2. 


14.70 


600 


X3,20X.2 


Z.47 


700 


154,0X4.0 


X7.I5 


700 


X 5, 407.0 


Z.7X 


800 


X76, 016. 


X9. 60 


800 


X7, 60X.6 


Z.96 


900 


198,0x8.0 


22. OX 


900 


X9, 80X. 8 


2.20 


1,000 


220, 020. 


24. 50 


x,ooo 


22, 002. 


2.45 


VALUE 


OF'THElckl 


BE CUBE, 


VALUE 


OF THE EEC 


TOLITBE. 


Price per 


Price per 
100 Mdtres G. 


Price per 
1,000 GaUons. 


Price per 
Hectolitre. 


Price per 
l.OOOHectolitres 


Price per 
1,000 Gallons. 


Cube. 












Fr. Cents. 


Fr. Cents. 


Pence. 


Fr. Cents. 


Fr. Cents. 


B. d. 


I 


xo 


•433 


X 


xo 


4.3 


2 


20 


.866 


2 


20 


8.6 


3 


30 


1.299 


3 


30 


z 0.9 


4 


40 


2.1^6 


4 


40 


lU 


5 


60 


5 


60 


6 


60 


2.598 


6 


60 


2 Z.9 


® I 


70 


3.03X 


7 


70 


2 6.3 


8 


80 


3.664 


8 


80 


3 0.6 


9 


90 


3.89 


9 


90 


3 »-9 


xo 


100 


4-33 


xo 


zoo 


3 7-3 



71 
WEIGHT, STRENGTH, &c. OF MATERIALS Table 28 



METALS, BTJILDnrO MATEBIALS, ELTUDS^ &o. 



TABIaBS OF VARIOUS PROPERTIES. 



Hie dlflisrent qiuUltlea of materials In these tables express an aTeranfe, from the best 
aathorlties, and in many cases from original experiments. Allowance most be made, in 
many cases, for the nature of the materials, when applying the tables, ss many are In their 
nature rarlable. 

Tenacity rariea as the sectional area. 

Transverse strength as the square of the depth -r by the length for reetangolar beams ; 
or as the cube of tlw diameter •^ by the length in cylindric beams. 

Beslstance to cmshlng increases generally in a mnch more rapid ratio than the area. 

The multipliers for transrerse strength give the breaking weight for rectangular beams, 

fixti at one end and loaded at the other i thus. Tab. No.xbxda . sf,r^.uQg weight in lbs. ; 

When fitted at one end and umfomd^ loaded, take tunee the tabular number. 

When tupported at both ende and loaded in the middle^ take four timet the tabular number. 

When eupporied at both ends and umfomUy loaded^ take eight timet the tabular number. 

KOTS.— Safe load should not be more than one-fourth to one-sixtb of the breaking weight. 



1CEIAI8. 



Antimony, Cast 

Bismuth, Cast 

Brass 

Copper 

Gold, Pore 

Gold Coin 

Iron, Cast (variable) 

Iron, Swedish 

fron. Malleable, best 

Bar 

Lead o, 

Merenry, Flnid 

Flatinnm, Purified... 

Silrer, Standard 

Steel, Soft 

Tin 

Zinc 



Specific 
GraTlty. 



Weight 

of a 

cubic 

Foot in 

Ibsjivds. 



-1- 



6.600 
9.810 

8.399 
8.607 

»9-a53 

17.647 
7.104 

7.600 

7.700 
11.446 

13-5^8 
20.250 

10.300 

7.800 

7.291 

7.028 



418 

613 

SH 

538 

1203 



481 
717 

848 

1219 

644 

490 

455 
439 



Melting 

Point. 

Fah. 



810® 

47* 
1869 

2548 
2590 



3479 



612 



wire 
1280° 

442 
7000 



Tenacity 

per 

Bq. Inch 

in lbs. 



1066 

3250 
17968 

19072* 

20450 



$ ^3440? 
\ 230003 



I 



i 



60000J 
X824 



56000 

40900 

120000 

532a 
16090) 

20000 { 



Cmshlng 
Force per 
Sq. Inch. 



10304 



TONB. 

40 to 50 



20 to 30 



Expansion 
32>to212«. 



I.OOII 
I .0014 
1 .0020 

I. 0018 
I. 0016 



1. 001 If 



I.OOI2 
1.0028 

i.oi6o§ 

1.0009 

1.0019 

I.OOII 

1.0022 
1.0029 









• Wrought Copper Tenacity 83,000 lbs. t Shrinks, when cast, \ inch per foot 

t Tenacity of Common Bar (say) 15 tons per sq[uare inch ; Elastic Power (say) two-thlids 
of nltimate strength ; Best Iron one-half. Compression begins at 10 to 12 tons. 

Multipliers for transverse strength. 
Out Iron arerage 8,000. 
Wroufiht Iron arerage 16,000. 

{Boils at 660* ; expansion of glass tube 32° to SI2o=1.0006. 



72 
WEIGHT, STRENGTH, &c OP MATERIALS.— Tablb 26 



BUILDIKQ AVS 
XATEBIAI8. 



Spedilc 
GniTlty. 



Alabaster 



Brick 

Brickwork, in Cement .. 

Do. in Mortar .. 

Concrete, Portld. Cement 

Do. common Iiime. . 
Cement, FortUnd 

Do. Boman 

Chalk 

Claj, Medwaj 

Do. common 

Coal, Newcastle 

Do. Welsh 



Da Cannel 

Coke 

Earth, rammed 

Flint 

Flooring < 

Glase, plate 

Gravel 

Granite, Cornish 

Do. Aberdeen 

Da Bed I^ptian ... 

lime^ of Stone 

Do. ofChalk 

limestone, Bolsover .... 

Da Blue lias 

Da PlTmouth 

Do. Statuary marble. 

Da Purbeck 



Marl 



Mortar 

Oolite, Bath 

Do. Portland 

Forpbyiy 

Pozzolano 

Sand, BtTcr 

Boofing 

Sandstone^ Bramley Fall 
Do. DarleT Dale 
Da Craigleith .. 
Do. York Landing 

Serpentine, Green 

Shingle 

Slate, Welsh and Valencia 

Do. Westmoreland .... 

Sulphnr 

TUe 



Weight 

ofaCobio 

Foot In 

Ibt. 



i 



i 



2.699 
2.864 
1-557 

2. 168 

1.680 
X.568 
2.272 
1.900 
1.280 
1.040 

a-3i5 
1.440 

2.000 
i.a57 
1-337 
1.300 
1.400 

•744 
1.584 
2.630 



. • 



{ 



a -453 
1.900 

2.662 

2.625 

2.654 

.483 
.704 
2.316 
2.467 
2.677 
2.638 
2.601 
1.600 
2.800 

i.75» 

1-839 

^'HS 

a. 765 

1-44 
1.886 

. . 

2.506 

2.628 

2.266 

a. 3*0 

a. 574 
1.424 

2.888 

2.79« 

a. 033 
1.815 



168 

179 
97 

135 
105 

98 

14a 
120 

80 

65 
145 

90 
"5 

78 

83 
81 

89 
46 

99 
164 



53 
20 

66 

64 

66 

53 



45 

54 
69 

«5 

63 
00 

70 
07, 
»5 
34 

73 
90 

18 

• . 

64 
4a 
45 
64 
89 
80 

74 
17 
J3 



No. of 

Foot In a 

Ton. 



Cnuhing 

finpoe per 

Square 

Inch, in 

Ibi. 



«3-3 
12.5 

23.0 
16.6 
21.4 
22.9 
15.8 
18.6 
28.0 

34-4 

15.4 

25.0 

17.0 

28.7 

27. 

27.6 

25.2 

22.6 



8.6 
3.5 



•5 

•5 
42.2 

51.0 

5.4 

4-5 
3-a 

3.5 

3.7 

22.4 

3-a 
1.0 

9-5 
6,6 

2.9 

25.0 

9-a 

4-4 

3.^ 

5-8 

5-4 

3.<5 

5-a 

a.4 
2.7 

7.6 
0.0 



1500 
2000 



«;oo 



8000 



6400 



37a9 



5800 



Cnuhing force of 
flre-brlckB as high 
asS/MO lbs. 
CBoduunan.) 

Mortar. 

eleet 

1 DorUng Lime 

3 Sand 

I Water 

ft Total, will make 
S.9 cnUc feet of 
Mortar, or dry 
materials toMor- 
tar, as 4 to 3, 
nearly. 

nooring. 

80 lbs. per Coot 
superficial. 

Olait. 

Expansion 32" 
to Sli»— .00066. 

CntaUxiff 

Weight* 

are probably a 
miuJmiun, as 

strength increases 
more than ss 

the square of the 
dimensions. 

70 lbs. p. hah. Stone 
56 lbs. H Chalk 

Shrinks one-third 
if vetted. 



Booflng. 

For force per 
of wind »q/t* 
take ..40 lbs. 
suiting .. IS „ 
PUdn tiling 17 „ 

Great WTOTight- 
iron roof of Lkae- 
itreet railway sta- 
tioo,168.6ft.span; 
length 874 feet; 
principals ilJb ft. 
apart; weight of 
iron in each prin- 
cipal 10 tons ; cost 
JESS per square; 
proof load 72 Iha. 
per foot sup. 



73 
WEIGHT, STBENGTH, fcc OF MATERIALS.— Tabui 26 



Spedfle 
Qnrity. 



Alder 

Ash 

Beech 

Birch 

Box 

Ebony 

Cork ... 

Elm 

Larch 

Lance Wood 

Lignani Vita 

Mahogany, Spanish .... 
Do. Honduras . 

Oak, English 

Do. Canadian 

Do. DanUic 

Do. African 

Qreen Heart 

Pine, Red 

Da American Yellow... 

Plane Tree 

Sycamore 

Teak 

Wahiot 



TLTHM* 

Alcohol, Commercial. 

Ammonia 

Ether, Snlphnric .... 

Mak 

Muriatic Add 

Kaptha 

OUYeOil 

Sperm Oil 

Sulphuric Add 

Tnn>entine, Spirit .... 

Water, Bain 

Do. Sea 

Ice 



Air 

Ammoniacal Gas 

Carbonic Add 

Chlorine 

Carburetted Hydrogen ... 

Hydrogen 

Oxyeen 

Sulphureous Add 



.800 
.767 

.777 
.79a 
.960 
1.250 
.240 
.588 

•5" 
1.022 

1.220 

.800 

.560 

.934 
.872 

.75^ 
.972 

1. 000 

.657 

.461 

^.640 

.690 

.657 
.671 



.837 
.897 

•739 
1.032 

1.194 

• . 

•915 
.872 

1.841 

.870 

1.000 

1.026 

.940 



1. 000 
0.596 
1.524 
C.470 
0.420 
0.069 
1.103 
2.234 



Weight 

QfaCnUe 

Foot in 



50.0 
49.0 

43-" 

49-5 
60.0 

70.4 

15.0 

3*^-7 
32.6 

63-9 
76.2 

50.0 

35'0 
58-3 
54-5 
47.2 
60.7 

62.5 
41.0 
28.8 
40.0 

43.1 
41.0 

41.9 



5»-3 
56.1 
4^-3 
64-5 

75 -o 

. • 

57.2 

54.5 
115.6 

54-9 

62.5 

64.1 
58.7 

Qrains. 
5215.0 

319.8 
800.1 

246.7 
220.5 

43-7 

627.8 

1207.9 



No. of 
Feet in 
a Ton. 



44.8 

45.7 
51.0 

45.» 

37.3 
30.0 

. . 

61.0 

68.6 

35.1 
29.3 
44.8 

64.0 

38.3 
41.1 

47.4 
36.8 

35-0 

54.5 
77.7 
56.0 

52.0 

54.5 
53-4 



Boiling 
Point. 



173'* 

. . 

lOO* 

• • 

222* 

. • 

3>6» 

212* 
2I3*.2 






Tonaclty 

per 
•qnare 
inch in 

Ibe. 



14186 
17207 
16817 
15000 
19891 



13489 
10220 

24696 

11800 

16500 

8700 

17300 

10253 

12780 



11700 

13000 

15000 

8130 



Expan* 
don 83* 
to 21S«. 



1. 110 

. . 
1.070 

. . 
1.060 

. . 
1.080 
1.080 
1.060 
1.070 
1.047 



1.375 
Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Do. 

Da 

Do. 



Cnubing 

force per 

square 

inch in 

lbs. 



6895 

9023 
9048 

45<57 
10299 



«033i 



8198 

a . 



5375 
5445 



12101 
6645 



Multiplier 

for 

Trans- 

Terae 

Strength. 



2026 
1560 
1900 



1030 
900 

. . 

a . 

• . 
. . 

1800 
1760 
1450 
2000 
2700 
1340 

• • 

2460 



RWfAlTli 



at77*e3Lp.i.0C3 



To conyert moist 
air or gas into 
dry: — 

Hum. 
Dtg. Beg. pl7 
53 to 57 - .986 
57 to 63 - .980 
64 to 69 - . 976 

69 to 73 - -974 






74 



WEIGHT OF IRON, &c Tablb27 



XALLEABLE IRON, FOB ONE FOOT UT LESQTR. 



For weight of east troo,maltipljl)j .95 
,, steel M 1*03 

t( copper ,t 1 . 18 



For weight of hnat miiltlplj bj 1 . 08 

n lead M l*M 

dne „ .91 



BOUHD AND SQUABE BAB. 



FLAT BAB. 




75 



WIRE AND ANGLE IRON.— Table 28. 



WEIGHT OF WIRE FEB 100 FEET, 



WHh Diameter and Area of the BirmiTi^hain Wire Oanges, and Tensile Breaking 










weignt. 










Binn. 






ntov. 


STEEL. 


COPPEB. 


Wire 


Dlam. 


Area. 














Gaoge. 


Weight 


Ten Rile 
Bk^. Wt 


Weight. 


Tensile 
Bkg. Wt. 


Weight 


Tensile 
Bkg. Wt. 


iZL. 


ina. 


sq. ins. 


Ibe. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


lbs. 


I sq. in 


I.OOO 


1. 00000 


5J4.00 


80,000 


'j^r, 


110,000 


389.66 


33.000 


icir.in 


I. 000 


.78J40 


161.40 


61,831 


94,148 


5°4i* 


25,918 




.454 


.16189 


54-07 


11,951 


54.88 


«9.4*7 


62.80 


5,34* 


000 


•^5 


.14186 


47- J8 


11.349 


48.09 


17,013 


55.02 


4,681 


oo 


.}8o 


.11341 


37-77 


9.073 


38.45 


13,609 


43.98 


3.74a 


o 


.340 


.09079 


30.53 


7,163 


30.78 


10,895 


35.20 


4,996 


I 


.300 


.07068 


M-54 


5.654 


13.96 


8,481 
7,601 


27.40 


a, 33* 


X 


.184 


.06335 


11.10 


5,068 


11.48 


14.56 


1,090 


I 


.159 
.138 


. 05628 


»7.54 


4,501 


19.08 


6,753 


20,43 


l::is 


4 


.04449 


14.81 


3>559 


15.08 


5,339 


17.23 


5 


.110 


.03801 


11.17 


3.041 


11.89 


4,561 


14.74 


»,a54 


6 


.103 


. 03136 


10.66 


1,589 


10.97 


3,883 


11.55 


1,068 


i 


.185 


.0168S 


8.60 


1,150 


9. II 


''^1 


0.89 
f.59 


887 


.167 


.01190 


5.76 


i,75» 


7.41 


1,628 


7*3 


9 


.148 


.01710 


1.376 


5-83 


2,064 


6.67 


6h 


lO 


.U4 


.01410 


4.78 


i»iz8 


4.78 


1,692 


5.46 


46s 


II 


.110 


.01131 


3.77 


905 


3.83 
3.16 


1.357 


ru 


^S 


11 


.109 


.00933 


3.10 


7^ 


1. 119 


n 


.005 

.083 


.00709 


»-35 


567 


1.40 


851 


1.70 


»34 


14 


.00541 


1.80 


433 


1.83 


649 
488 


1.56 


178 


>5 


.071 


.00407 


1.35 


J15 


X.38 


134 


i6 


.065 


.00331 


1. 10 


165 


X. 11 


isfi 


1.15 


no 


'Z 


.058 


.00164 


.87 


III 


.89 


316 


1. 00 


s 


i8 


.049 


.00180 
.00138 


.63 


151 


.64 


•127 


.71 


61 


19 


.041 


•45 


no 


.47 


165 


.30 


46 


to 
11 


.035 
.031 


.00096 

.00080 


.16 


S 


.33 
.17 


"^ 


Vi 


11 


.018 


.00061 


.10 


49 


.11 


73 


.»3 


10 


»3 


.Q15 


.00049 


.16 


39 


.>7 


59 


.18 


16 



flpediie Gra^tj^-Water 1.000; Iron 7.70; Steel 7.816; Copper 8.91 



WEIOHT OF EttXTAL SIDED AHGLE AND T IBON 

PEB rooT nr lekoth. 



Thlck- 
MetaL 



of \ 



Inch. 



Bides. 



1 
** 

II 

1* 



Area 



Wgt 



Inch. 



Area 



Wgt 



i 

Inch. 



Area 



Wgt, 



Inch. 



Area 



Wgi. 




\ 



Inch. 



Area 



Wgt. 



i 

Inch. 



Area 



Wgt. 



Inch. 



Area 



Wgt 



21.79 7.73 
13. 89^ 8. 19 



18.17 
10.79 

13.11 
15.83 
18.35 



76 



SUSPENSION BRIDGES.— Table 28 



z 



LEFGTH AND TEVSIOV OF CHAnTS. 

Wltb Blaes and OosiiMS of tlM Ancles of Diroetloa tur gi 

Deflectloiui. 



Rule, — For TenBion — ^Multiply the total weight to be inspended by the 
factor opposite the defledtioii or yersed sine of the Chains ; the product is the 
total tension at the middle, or point of snspensioQi as may be required. The 
nse of the other columns are obvious. 



Anffle at 

Point of 

Sospentlon. 



5- -43 
II. .19 

13. -52 
H.-55 
»5--57 
17.. 06 

18. .33 

I9-.59 
21. .48 



VenedSine 

or 
Deflection. 



Length of 

Chain, 

Chord line 

being Unity. 



I -40th 

I -20th 

i-i6.a8 

I-I5th 

i-i4th 

i-i3th 

I- 1 2th 

i-iith 

i-ioth 



1.012 
1.015 
1.018 

I.C20 
I .0246 
1.0288 
1.0349 



Tension at 

the Middle 

»• cdKht sue 

pended being 

Unity. 



4-995 

a. 485 
2.003 

1.877 

1-753 
1.625 

1.490 

1-373 
1.252 



Tension at 
each p int of 

Snapension. 
Weight sus- 
pended being 
Unity. 



5.200 

2.536 
2.080 

1.943 
1.823 

1.700 
1.572 
1.463 

1-349 



Sine of the 
Angle at 
Point of 

Suspension. 



0.0996 
0.1962 
0.2396 
0.2574 
0.2747 
0.2940 
0.3181 
0-3417 
0.3714 



Corine of 

Angle at 

Point of 

Saspenrion. 



0.9950 
0.9805 
0.9708 
0.9663 
0.9615 

0.9558 
0.9480 

0.9398 

0.9285 



GENERAL RULES FOR CATENARY CURVES. 

To find angU (^ direction (x) qf curve at point qf euepauion, when the 
chord line and versed sine are given ? 

2 ▼. sine 

"^ ^ *=-i/(2 V. 8ine«+semichord«) 

7b JInd the teneion at each point qf nupeneion (T) when the angle of 
direction (x) at such points is given ? 

^ Tot^ weight suspended. 

2 sine jr. 

7b JInd the teneion at the loweet point of the curve (Q when the angle 
of direction (;r) at the point of suspension is given ? 

t B i the weight suspended x cosine jr 

sine jr. 

NoTB. — ^For an easy rule, although not precisely accurate, take — 

t sschord X weight 

8 Y. sine 

Horizontal pull on the pointe qf eutpeneionssTX^ eoeine x ; therefore if 
chains are unbalanced, this will represent the tendency to upset the towers ; 
and if the chains pass back at an unequal angle, the cUfTerence of the cosines 
of the angles of direction is the measure of resistance on each. 

Vertical preaeure on the pointe qf auapenaion =sT x aine x. This pressure is 
additive in any case, for both sides of the point for the tension on the backstay 
must balance the main chains, the difference of pressure on each side is there- 
fore only as the sine of the angle jr. — (J>reuny, on 8. Brxdgee,) 



HOOPS AND LOCK GATES.— Tablb 90 



Tabu of the Pioportloiul Tanslim or Ooiucmiloa a 
- - tha rlie or pitch btiag glvsn. Ths Load 
fc_ ^-j *i>^ i..»^is - ^ — imlty tor "-" ~'"" "~ 



Wtf rttt, »ad the lanjtUi 



>«2«tiof» 



MO 






IliJ 



ts 



::S 



r T, 



ftlRAJS Ain> BUENSIOirS 07 LOCK QATES. 




78 



CAST IRON BEAMS.— Table 81 



TABLE OF 8APE LOAD, 


Ur SQUAIXT DI8TRIBDTED, EXFBE8SBD IN 0WT8. 


For Bemn 


ui 6 to 16 Inches deep. i 


£iiJ^.— Multlplj fhft aroa which a proposed heam haa to support, by the weight of the floor 


or bridge, and the greatest load, due to such area, all in cwts. ; find the neareit 


corresponding number in the table, haying the required depth and length, and the 


proper dimensions of the bottom Flange will be found at top of thecolumn. The tables 


alM giro the safe weight to be borne hy beams of any of the stated dlmenslosa. 


Jirol«.-~Floor8 should generally be reckoned to cany %A cwts. per ibot saperllda]« 


• indudiii^ their own weight. 


Road Bridges „ » t> S-O cwts. „ „ 


Railway Bridges „ » » lOX) cwts. „ „ 


but for railway gliders of cast Iron, beyond 18 feet qmu, only half the tabular numbers 


should be used. 


Beam 6 inohet deep. 


"^•"^"^ 1 


DimcBBlBiii ol 




















I 


bouom PlaBga 


4X1 


5x1 


6x1 


Sxii 


9Xii 


4x1 


5x1 


6x1 


8xxi 


9X1* 


ininehn. 






















Length, feet 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts 


Cwts. 


Cwto. 


CwU 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


ft 


113 


166 


100 


333 


39' 


12 


222 


266 


444 


5*' 1 


6 


III 


'39 


166 


277 


326 


185 


222 


370 


435 


8 


!5 


104 


"5 


208 


»44 


III 


«39 


166 


277 


JJJ 


10 


<6 


83 


100 


166 


'95 


»9 


III 


'33 


222 


260 


13 


55 


69 


83 


138 


'63 


Z* 


9* 


III 


'85 


*i7 


14 


47 


59 


V 


119 


140 


63 


z? 


tl 


'^2 
138 


187 


16 


4» 


^5 


6z 


104 


122 


55 


59 


163 


18 


J7 


46 


55 


9» 


108 


49 


62 


74 


'*3 


'44 


Beam 10 indhee deep. 


WI«i«*Md.^ 1 


IHinM«ioo« of 




















1 


bottom Flange 


$XI 


6x1 


Sxii 


9Xii 


lOXli 


6xx 


8xii 


9X1* 


loxii 


XXX I* 


in inches. 






















Length, feet. 


Cwte. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


6 


4J1 


277 


n 


5»i 


578 


333 


"1 

416 


6*5 


694 


t^ 


8 


'73 


ao8 


391 


434 


250 


469 


5" 


10 


'39 


166 


»78 


'i* 


347 


200 


333 


375 


417 


550 


13 


"5 


«39 


*30 


260 


289 


166 


278 


31* 


347 


458 


U 


UK 


119 


198 


22} 


248 


109 


2|8 


s68 


2! 


193 


16 


104 


171 


«95 


217 


125 


208 


234 


IS 

*75 


18 
SO 


S 


1! 


138 


'^1 
156 


'93 

'73 


III 

100 


:^ 


208 
187 


2J2 
209 


Beam 14 inoltea deep. 


Beam 16 inofaes deep. 1 


Dimentioni o( 






















bottom Planffl 


8xii 


9xxi 


loxxi 


iixii 


I2XI| 


8xii 


9Xii 


loxii 


iixii 


I2Xli 


in inehea. 






















Length, feet. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts 


8 


486 


547 


607 


802 


875 


555 


625 


694 


916 


1000 


10 


389 


438 


486 


642 


700 


444 


500 


'M 


733 
611 


803 


13 


3M 


365 


405 


515 


584 


370 


4'7 


667 


14 


178 


3»3 


347 


459 


501 


3'7 


357 


397 


5*4 


57* 


16 


M3 


a74 


304 


401 


437 


278 


3'3 


347 


45« 


500 


18 


Z16 


»44 


*70 


357 


389 


246 


278 


i^ 


td 


444 


90 


'95 


ai9 


M3 


3" 


350 


222 


250 


400 


3t 


177 


199 «" 1 


291 


3 '8 


202 


227 


a5o 


333 


364 


1 



79 





CAST IRON BEAMS.- 


-Table 81 






TABLE OF SAPE LOAD. 


For Beams 18 to 80 Inches deep. 


Beam IB Isehet deep. 


Beam 81 indhee deep. 1 


bottom Fteace 


9x1* 


lOXli 


»XI| 


ijxii 


i4Xi| 


lOXll 


IXXX| 


14X1J 


15x1* 


i6xii 


iawebei. 






















Length, feet. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


10 


5& 


6*5 


900 




1050 


875 


1050 


1x25 


1312 


1400 


IS 


469 


Si 

390 


750 


875 


719 


875 


1021 


1094 


1167 


U 
16 


401 
351 


5^ 


V^ 


fi 


v^ 


n 


12 


1000 

875 


18 


Ji* 


347 


500 


54* 


583 


486 


583 


681 


l^ 


778 


SO 


181 


3" 


450 


4»7 


s^s 


g 


5»5 


613 


^i^ 


SS 


*56 


*^ 


409 


^ 


477 


477 


557 


596 


S4 


»34 


161 


375 


406 


437 


437 


510 


547 


583 


Beam 84 indiBe deep. | 


Dimnwiauof 
bottoBFtaafB 


loXii 


itxii 


14x1! 15x1* 


i6xii 


16x1 17x1} 


17x2 


i8xi| 


18x2 


LengtluflMt 


Cwti. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


IS 


8« 


1000 


1166 


1150 


»353 


1778 


1416 


X819 


X500 


2000 


14 


^t 


857 


xooo 


X071 


143 


15M 


1114 


1560 


1286 


1714 


16 


m 


»7^ 


937 
833 


QOO 


1333 


io6i 


1365 


1 125 


1500 


18 


55S 


777 


889 


1x85 


944 


1213 


1000 


1333 


SO 


500 


600 


700 


750 


800 


1067 849 


1092 


900 


1200 


S3 

S4 
S6 


454 
384 


545 

500 

461 


636 
53« 


661 
6*5 

577 


615 


!p 


77* 
708 
656 


99* 

US 


818 


1091 

XOOO 


S8 


J57 


4^ 


*5? 


535 


57« 


761 


607 


780 


643 


ao 


3n 


400 


467 


500 


534 


711 566 


728 


600 


800 


Beam 87 indhee deep. | 


bottom Pla^pe 


»XI| 


MX I* 


X4XX 


15x11 


15XA 


i6xi| 16x1 


17x11 


17x2 


18x2 


Lengtbtfeet. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts 


Cwts. 


14 


964 


IIXJ 


I^OO 


1205 


i6c7 


1286 


X714 


1366 


182 1 


1928 


18 


740 

5i' 


863 


1 166 


937 


1*49 


1000 


1333 


1062 


1416 


1500 


SS 


g 


750 


707 


IO£X 


818 


109X 


869 


"59 
1062 

911 


1227 


S4 

S8 


48* 


i^i 


SI 


?S 


XOOO 

857 


SI 


"^ 


ao 


4$o 


5*5 


lie 


56* 


750 


600 


800 


^^Z 


850 


t^i 


8S 


4" 


^2 


5»7 


7o» 


56* 


750 


598 


797 


M 
86 


397 
375 


618 

5«3 


$5 


66x 
615 


530 
500 


lS$i 


531 


750 
708 
638 


794 


40 


337 


5*5 


4*1 


563 


450 600 


478 


Beam 80 inohee deep. | 


DbMMiOOSOl 

bottom Plofo 

biiMbflc 


14X1J 


i4Xft X5xi| 


15x1 


16x1} 


i6xx 


iSxz 


10x2 


22X2 


24x2 


Length, feet 


Cwts. 


Cwts. . Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


Cwts. 


18 


97» 


1206 
1060 


1041 


1380 
1136 


iiii 


1481 


1666 


1852 


^ 


22Z2 


SS 


795 


«5» 


tti 


X2ia 


X363 


1515 


1667. 


X8i8 


S4 


714 
6x1 


gfj 


^ 


1041 


IIII 


1250 


1388 


1526 


1664 


S8 


89a 


679 


Ui 


1071 


1190 


1309 


'-^ 


80 


57« 


761 


&tS 


S33 


1000 


IIII 


1*45 


1358 


8S 


536 


^^ 


586 


780 


6m 


833 


HI 


X040 


"44 


1248 


84 


^ 


5St 


734 


589 


783 


979 


1080 


1 178 


86 


648 


5*1 


S?5 


555 


606 


«3) 


757 


1019 


IIIO 


40 
44 


4^ 
397 


570 
519 


» 


m5 500 
56« 454 


w. 


017 
833 


XOOO 

908 1 



80 
MARINE SURVEYING.— Table 8« 



AVGLES OF THE POnriS 07 THE COXPASS WITH 

THE XSRIDIAH. 



Varlatton of nutgnetie needle 1850, latitade 5 1« s 
D!p. 



ti 



North. 


Soath. 


Polnta. 


Deg. Min. 


Korth. 


South. 






Add for ^ 


2.. 48.. 45 










»» r 


5-'37..30 










,. '.■ 


8.. 26.. 15 






N. by W. 


S. by W. 


1 


II.. 15 


N.bjrB. 

N.N.B. 


S.byE. 


N.N.W. 


s.aw. 


2 


a*. . 30 


S.S.E. 


N.W.byN. 


S.W. 


3 


33.-45 


N.E. by N. 


S.E. ^ S. 
S.E. 


N.W. 


4 


45.. 00 


N.E. 


N.W. byW. 


S.W. byW. 

W.S.tT . 


5 


5^-. 15 


N.K by E. 
E.N.B. 


S.E. by E. 


W.N.W. 


6 


67.. 30 


E.S.E. 


W. by U. 


W. by S. 


7 


78.-45 


R.byN. 


E. by 8. 


West 


Wert 


8 


90. .00 


Eart 


Eort 



HUES TS A DEGREE OF LONGITUDE AT ETERT 

DEGREE OF LATTTUDK 



Deg». 




Dejfs. 




DegB. 




Dcffs. 




Degs. 




P 




Lat. 


Ullee. 


Lat. 


lines. 


Lst. 


Miles. 


Lat. 


Miles. 


Lat. 


MOes. 


Lat. 


Miles. 


I 


59-99 


16 


57.67 


3* 


5«-43 


4^ 


41.68 


61 


29.09 


76 


14.52 


2 


59 96 


17 


57.38 


32 


50.88 


47 


40.92 


6z 


28.17 


77 


"3.50 


3 


59-9* 


18 


57.06 


33 


50.32 


48 


40.15 


63 


27.24 


78 


12.47 


4 


59.85 


19 


5<5.73 


34 


49.74 


49 


39.36 


64 


26.30 


79 


11.45 


5 


59-77 


20 


56.38 


35 


49.15 


50 


38.57 


65 


25-36 


80 


10.42 


6 


59.<57 


21 


56.01 


36 


48.54 


<i 


37.76 


66 


24.40 


81 


9-39 


7 


59-55 


22 


55.^3 


37 


47.92 


52 


36.94 


67 


23 -44 


82 


8.35 


8 


59.4a 


i3 


55.23 


38 


47.28 


53 


36.11 


68 


22.48 


83 


7.31 


9 


59.a<5 


24 


54.81 


39 


4^.63 


54 


35.27 


69 


21.50 


84 


6.27 


10 


59.08 


25 


54.38 


40 


45.96 


55 


34.4» 


70 


20.52 


85 


5-23 


•II 


58.89 


26 


53.93 


41 


45-28 


56 


33.55 


71 


19.53 


86 


4.19 


12 


58.68 


27 


53.4<5 


42 


4f-59 


57 


32.68 


72 


"8.54 


87 


3->4 


13 


58.46 


28 


52-97 


43 


43.88 


58 


31.80 


73 


17.54 


88 


2.09 


H 


58.22 


29 


52.47 


44 


43-16 


59 


30.90 


74 


16.54 


89 


l.O^ 


15 


57.95 


30 


51.96 


45 


42.43 


60 


30.00 


75 


>5.53 


90 


0.00 



24856 miles 

79»« M 

SAi 180 feet 
|1i8o „ 
60756.6 
1.15068 to 1 
39.01 jx6 ins. 
39.118x0 ,. 
J9.IJ93 ins. 

J9.I5J5 M 
3x. 1948 feet 
11.1041 (• 
365.242x45 dajrs 



mean circumference of Earth. 

„ diameter of Earth, 
radlns of the Equator, 
polar seml-azls. 

length of Qeogr. or nautical mile, 
ratio of nautical to English mile, 
length of pendulum at the Equator. 

n at latitude 4d. 

length of pendulum at London. 

„ «, Edinburgh, 

force of graTity at London, In feet per second. 

„ ., Edinburgh » ^ 

tropical year. 



MARINE SURVEYING.— Table 82»,b, o. 



TaUaSSb. 
flndlng tba Ed^t 
r lUs &t Bnf pariad 
Iter High WaUr. 



TIDE8 <Ka 
DliiDica. Wbeu 
EquUrutlHin 



et la nnerMd. InUldian: 



»from 


UnlHFU^. 


n. HID 








.. 30 




975 


.. 30 




«4. 

7+' 


-■ 30 










500 


■■ 30 




''S 


.. JO 

.. 30 




015 



rblcb tlie belght Ib nqqlrwL 



Table 32c. 

SHownro the iekoth in vebt op om e uhute 
OF LoirammE ahs latitude, 



;w 


mil 69.1 


mlla. 














Tatl- 












I«t1- 




MlQDUot 










Longired*. 










































670- » 




i 


g:i 




IS 


SB:: 




3 


as 

MIO-4 




;i 


i;| 


&«j.7» 


41 


a; 


611 I.« 


1! 


S;i 


.61J0.I 


u 


Si;;:! 




2 






.(i. 


^;:i 




•1 


S-! 


&>9i.u 


S 


«9-J 


6«S.l 


1 


S". 


6.JJ.6 



82 



MOUNTAIN BAROMETER.— Tabm 88 



1 TABLE B. 




TABLE 


1 


Bifbrenoe of Temperatnre.- 


For radvetion to TreoiiBf Point | 












Corrections for the Barometer at 1 


Diff.of 
Tamp. 


Oorrec* 
tloss. 


pur. of 

Temp. 


Oorre&> 

tions. 


Temp. 




II 




















27 Inches. 


28 Inches. 


29 Inches. 


ao Inches. 


Cent. 




Gent. 




Fah. 










degs. 


foet 


degs. 


foet. 


dnn. 


inch. 


Inch. 


inch. 


inch. 


0.5 


2.46 


10.5 


50.69 


32 


.0086 


.0088 


.0091 


.0094 


1.0 


4.92 


II. 


53.15 


34 


.0134 


.0138 


.0143 


.0148 


"•5 


7.21 


II. 5 


55.44 


36 


.0183 


.0188 


.0194 


.0201 


2.0 


9.51 


12.0 


57.74 


38 


.0231 


.0238 


.0246 


•0255 


».5 


11.97 


".5 


60.20 


40 


.0279 


.0288 


.0298 


.0309 


3.0 


14-43 


13.0 


62.66 


42 


.0327 


.0338 


.0350 


.0362 


3.5 


16.89 


13.5 


65.12 


44 


•0375 


.0388 


.0402 


.0416 


4.0 


«9.35 


14.0 


67.58 


46 


.0423 


.0438 


.0454 


.0470 


4-5 


21.81 


14.5 


70.04 


48 


.0471 


.0488 


.0506 


0523 


5-0 


24.27 


15.0 


72.50 


50 


.0519 


.0538 


.0558 


•0577 


6.5 


26.57 


»5.5 


74.80 


5^ 


.0568 


.0588 


.0609 


.0630 


6.0 


28.87 


16.0 77.10 


54 


.0616 


.0638 


.0661 


.0684 


6.5 


3»-33 


16.5 ! 79.56 


56 


.0664 


.0688 


.07x3 


.0738 


7.0 


33.79 


17.0 


82.02 


58 


.0712 


.0738 


.0765 


.0791 


7.5 


36.25 


17.5 


84.48 


60 


.0760 


.0788 


.0817 


.0845 


8.0 


38.71 


18.0 


86.94 


61 


.0809 


.0838 


.0868 


.0898 


8.5 


41.00 


18.5 


89.40 


64 


.0857 


.0888 


.0920 


.0951 


9.0 


43.30 


19.0 


91.86 


66 


.0906 


.0938 


.0971 


.1005 


9-5 45.76 


»9.5 


94.32 


68 


.0954 


.0988 


.1023 


.1058 


10. 48.22 


20.0 ' 96.78 


70 


.1000 


.1037 


.1075 
.1126 


.1112 
.1165 


Table A eon be applied to any ba- 


rometer, dednctlntr the number for 
the temperature from the observa- 


72 


.1049 


.I087 


74 


.1097 


.1137 


.1178 


.1218 


tions for heights. 
Tftble B fflves ttie amount to bo 


76 
78 


.1146 


.1187 


.1229 
.1281 


.1272 
.'325 


deducted from the height, aooording 


.1194 


• *237 
.1286 


to the difforence of the attached 


80 


.1241 


.1332 


.1378 


thermometers— or to be added^ if the 


82 


.1289 


.1336 


.1384 


.1432 


upper station should be wanner than 
the lower. For correction due to ex- 


84 

^ 


.1338 


.1386 


•^ e 

.1435 

^ 


.1485 


pansion of air, &c. see ** Rnles." 


86 


.'385 


•'435 


.i486 


.1538 


TftUe C gives the amount to be 


88 


.H33 


.1485 


.1538 


.1591 


added for frnrlty A» centrtftagal force. 


90 


.1482 


.1535 


.1589 


.1644 




TABl 


:jb c. 




Qxa^tj 1 


ind Ch 


Atrifiigal fbroe. 




oomis 


cnom 


TO MM ADOBO. 


% 


LatLtnde. 


toW 


W 


20^ 


26- 


30* 


36* 


40* 


46* 


«)• 


66^ 


Approx. height. 






















fioet. 


feet 


fleet 


feet 


iiBCt. 


fbet. 


fbet. 


fiBet. 


fbet. 


feet 


feet 


600 


3.9 


3.3 


S'i 


3-3 


Z.6 


2.6 


»-9 


1-9 


'•9 


1.3 


1300 


7.9 


7.i 


6.5 


6.5 


5-9 


S'6 


4.6 


3.9 


3 3 


1,6 


2000 


II. 1 


10.5 


9.8 


9.2 


8.5 


7.9 


6.5 


5.9 


S*'' 


3.9 


2600 


>4.7 


14.1 


14.0 


12.4 


"•5 


10.2 


6.1 


7.8 


6-5 


5.5 


3300 


20.1 


17.5 


17.3 


>5.7 


14.1 


12.4 


II. I 


10. 1 


8.5 


7.2 


4000 


22.9 


20.9 


19.7 


19.0 


16.7 15. 1 


13.7 


II. 8 


10. 1 


8.5 


4600 


26.9 


24.9 


23-3 


22.0 


20.0, 17,7 


'5.7 


13-7 


II. 8 


9.8 


5300 


30.2 


28.9 


26.9 


24.9 


22.9 20.3 


18.3 


15-7 


14.0 


II. I 


5900 


34. « 


32. » 


30.8 


38.2 


3,6. i 22.9 


20.6 


17.7 


15.1 


12.4 


6600 37. 7| 


36.1 


34. » 


31.5 


28.9 25.7 


22.9 


19.7 


17.3 


13.7 



83 



MOUNTAIN BAROMETER.— Table 33 a 



Tabk D. 

lABUE 07 THE ELASTIC FOBCE 0^ AQUEOITS YAFOTJB, 

WITH THA WnOHT, IIT OlAIMS TBOT, OW A CUBIC FOOT, 

At the fbllowlng Temperaturet of the Dew Point, in Degrees Fahrenheit 



Temp. 

cf 

Dew 

Point. 


Force of 
Aqneons 
Vaponr. 


Weight In 
0ms. Troy 
of Cub. Ft. 
of Vapour. 


Temp. 

of 

Dew 

Point 


Force of 
Aqueous 
Vapour. 


Weight in 
Gms. Troy 
of Cub. Ft. 
of V^)onr. 


Temp, 
of 

Dew 
Point 


Force of 
Aqueous 
Vapour. 


Weight in 
Gms. Troy 
of Cub. Ft 
of Vapour. 


Fah. 


Inches. 


Grains. 


Fah. 


Inches. 


Grains. 


Fah. 


Inches. 


Grains. 


5* 


.074 


0.9J 


31" 


0.191 


2.19 


$10 


.386 


4.41 


lO 


.oKo 
.090 


I. II 


ja 


.199 


»-37 


5* 


.400 


4.56 


IZ 


;:JI 


n 


.107 


*.45 


53 


•-♦'i 


4.7« 


M 


.104 


14 


.114 


1.01 


54 


.4*8 


4.86 


»J 


.108 


I.Jl 


11 


.111 


55 


.44* 


5.01 


i6 


.111 


I-J7 


.130 


1.71 


56 


.458 


5.18 


>7 


.116 


1.41 


a 


.138 


1.80 


57 


.473 


5-34 


18 


.lao 


1*47 


.146 


1.89 


58 


.48Q 
.500 

.5*3 


J.69 
5.87 
6.15 


»9 

20 


.115 

.119 


1.51 

1.58 


39 
40 


:UJ 


1.99 
3.09 


g 


11 


.H4 


1.63 


41 


.174 


3.19 


61 


.559 


U 


.139 


1.69 


4^ 


.183 


3.30 


u 


.597 
.638 


6.65 


»l 


.«44 


^'V 


43 


.193 


3.41 


7.08 


»4 


.150 


1. 81 


44 


.304 


3.51 


68 


.681 


8.00 
8.50 


^ 


.155 
.161 


X.87 
1.93 


5 


.310 


3. 6a 


70 
7* 


•7*7 


17 


.167 


1.00 


S 


.337 


? 


9.04 


18 


•"71 


1.07 


.361 


4.01 


.881 


9.60 


«9 


.170 
.186 


1.14 


49 


4.14 


S 


.940 


10.19 


JO 


i.ii 


50 


.373 


4.18 


X.OOI 


10.81 



Table F. 
COBBECTIOE8, 

To be added to the XeronxUl Ck>limm 
for Capillary Attraetion. 



Dlam. 
of Tube. 



Inclu 
.10 
.11 

:;« 

.18 

.10 
.*5 



Correction 



Inch. 
.140 
.113 

.094 

19 



.058 
.041 



Diam. 
of Tube. 



Inclu 
.30 

.35 

.40 

.45 

.50 



Correction 



Inch. 
•019 
•oil 
.01$ 
.011 
.008 
.006 
.004 



^Toie.— This correction Is practically un- 
necessary, excepting Ibr sciontiflc reduc- 
tion of ob^rvations. 

Mountain Barometers, when varying in 
rfze, when nsed for simultaneous obser' 
Tations, should iiave their comparative 
erron determined by inspectton. 



Biile for TaUe D. 

This Table sliows the amount to be de- 
ducted flrom the mercurial column, to 
obtain the true pressure of dry air; the 
dew point having been previously com- 
puted by Table £. fhmi observations of the 
erdhiary dry and wet bulb thermometer. 

£8(unp^ 

The Barometer stands at *9-*75 

Mhea the dew-point by calculation, 
is 16.1*, the pressure = 117. 



Table E. 

DBT AHB WET BULB THEB- 

XOMETEBS. 

Factors for deducing the Dew Point from 
the Tonperature of Evaporadon. 



Readings of the Dry Bulb 
Thermometer. Fah. 



Between 18* and 19° 

«9 » 30 

30 

31 

3a 

33 

34 

35 

40 

45 

50 

II 

.2°. 



ft 
t* 

If 
If 
»> 
» 
I* 
t> 
»t 
>> 



» 

n 
*> 
*t 
*f 
»» 
tt 
If 



3< 
3» 
33 
34 
35 
40 

45 
50 

II 



Factor. 



5-7 
5.0 
4.6 
3.6 

3.t 
1.8 
1.6 

*.4 
».3 

1.1 
i.i 

5:2 



True pressure of airs 19.158 



Bvle finr TaUe E,- 

Hultlply the dlflterence between the two 
thermometers by the /actor corresponding 
to the temperature of the dry bulb ther- 
mometer; the product subtracted fh>m 
the latter, gives the temperature of the 
dew point. 

ExampU. 
Dry bulb thermometer s= 66* 
Wet bulb thermometer s 57 

DiffBrence ......= o 

Factor for 66<» .. s i.l 

Product.... =si6.i 
66»-«-i6.i» = 49.8* temp, of dew point 



CIRCLES.— Tabu M 



ABBA AHS CISCVKFZBSirCE 01 CISCLZ8. 



at »/ iMt Ana li IIU lUf if a* 



■[ 


I 


007 




S. 


M-7J 


;*;■« 


:» 


*9- 


•I 














44-77 


19.11 


•4 

:l 


' 


i 


I 


ir' 




S:S 


19.( 


■i, 


I 


18< 

s 

785- 
7* 


! 


ii 

Mil 


IS:? 


in:l? 


1 

s\'.l\ 


£" 


:" 




40 


1 


s 


.6.71 


S:^ 


Si.&t 
S(-40 


)i. 


'>s 




97 














l'" 


H 


9° 


! 

9 


1 


a" 


£s 


ill 


K" 














«56.i» 










6i 




i 




KU.So 


ssiii 




■7J 


.1 


i 




19. 


3t:;i 


S8.90 

1^1 


ii:" 




If 




\\ 




'9->I 


aa 


M^I 


li" 


s 


i 


;; 


s 


1." 


1^:11 


i:tt 


a." 






s 


16 




10.1 J 


(11,06 


6j.6. 








li 






lla.nA 


&4.«3 














i;S.i6 


65.18 


!!-7f 




)■: 


1 




g 


:;:„ 


'P' 


S:S 

6714 


ll? 


■ »s 


11 




u 


5 


£,■" 


JSB.SI 
!97-fc 


68. ]i 

6,..! 


fe" 


:" 


11 


s 

45 


»i 




J»-7J 


406.49 
4IS-47 
4»4.il 


7r<H 


1: 


.^: 


i 

6l 


si 


16 


i 


s." 




as 

7i-19 


g8.{ 




*7 










461.S6 


7<5.T8 


















76.56 


19-1 


■7J 






i 


6j 








!9-7> 




7f 










490.87 


7S- ! 




'f' 


H 


J' 




!« 


ill' 




g:; 


40.15 


.'^' 


90 






a." 


12: j6 

10. 9J 


St:S 


1" 


:r 


roj 


40 


11 


!< 


ifi.ii 


il'.H 


S|:J? 


S:" 




■o! 




J6 


i 


>6.u 


S6l.«> 


84-°! 




-tl 




s 


1! 


»7->I 


S;:2 


1;:^ 


Ji:-s 




IJi 


g 


♦0 


si 


1" 


g:B 

61s. 7 J 


1" 



CIRCLES.— Table 34 



AREA AKO CISGVKFEBENCS OF 

SUmsMn 43,as to lOO. 

T»* Stnart Rail 0/ anf Ana it (** lUt tfiat ntttteleiil 



m' 



ii" 



iSilJ 


jK 


S:? 


1664 


t 


IS:!! 


l\-V 


lyt-io 




iB-7I 




aj 


.84)6 


ii-i! 




i!b!ii 


19- 




n 


ffi:l! 




:ii| 


U9.0I 


»•>! 


I7S7 






S9-I 


i7to 




186.9. 






\'XTi 


£:" 

6ci,ij 


^t 




1S7.71 


74-75 


l:n 


141- 15 


t8!T 


^ 


i'^'l 


;i-;' 








"74 


7S 






'.tV' 


£" 


liUjS 
1911 


iS 


191. 6] 


1" 


T«»a.oi 


ii 


St .If 


1946 


^ 


7^"S, 


76. f 


1*S" 


fil'Jj 


E 


77 




77-1 


'7J*-« 


35 

149.11 


St. 

I" 


to 19 

12 


5 
96 


M 


;::. 

79- 


179°-7J 




61. TJ 






J97-U 


B.' 


>»69.si 




03. 




14 




iai»« 


iji.f« 


6l»I 


!:s 


ot 


.98.70 


So.t 


n£:i 


151, i6 


6).{ 

6t.7! 


7^ 


sl 


slij 


I»I- 4 




64. 










Kj.JO 


P 


is; 


■7 


Zil 


S'-^ 


il 


1(6.19 


St" 


IS 


»J 


S:£ 


Ii.' 




:s:S 

IS:S 

161. on 


1 


IS 

411 




»4.9« 

2:5 

107. !4 


St:' 

86. [ 


«*!.=? 


161.79 










87. 




:S3 




499 


i9 




i'.'s 




bt'. 


f»S 


fij 


110.4B 


SB. 


:;«:;; 


S:;; 


$:;■ 


'"s 


47 


i.ii-S 


":* 


s?-li 


;a:g 


1" 


IS 


68 


Jl^'ftl 


89( 
90. 


«DO,u 


1^:64 


to" 


IS 


u 


ii 


&' 


ti;;:£ 


170.41 


p 


17M 


£ 


"S:n 


91.1 


1114-lS 




}8ii 




119.11 






171! 78 








•B 


94- 


li^'S 




7^1' 


»7I 


n 


94- J 


3*1:2 


ni^ 


a" 


9» 


16 
■9 


itji'i 


i' 


MaT-°4 


176.71 


71. 1! 


19*7 


,1 


11]. (4 


96. J 


1507.1l 

160.07 


3;S 

ill 
i!;:S 


7|-7S 

S" 


1 




si 





iiS:i! 
■':;i:S 



-^,.Jo 



ijSr.Tl 
14! 1.60 

;i7S-H 
-647-61 



K:S 



66 



POWERS AND ROOTS.— Table 86 



SaXTABES, CUBES, SaXTABE BOOTS, CUBE BOOTS, 
FIFTH POWEBS AHD BEdPBOCALS. 



From 1 to 50. 



Num. 



Squares. 



Cubes. 



I 


I 


I 


2 


4 


8 


3 


9 


27 


4 


16 


64 


5 


25 


"5 


6 


36 


ai6 


7 


49 


343 


8 


64 


5" 


9 


81 


729 


10 


100 


1000 


II 


121 


I33I 


la 


'44 


1728 


U 


169 


2197 


H 


196 


2744 


>5 


225 


3375 


i6 


256 


4096 


17 


289 


49U 


i8 


324 


5832 


«9 


361 


6859 


20 


400 


8000 


ii 


441 


9261 


az 


484 


10648 


aj 


529 


12167 


H 


576 


13824 


as 


625 


15625 


2( 


676 


i757<5 


27 


729 


19683 


28 


784 


21952 


29 


841 


24389 


30 


900 


27000 


31 


961 


29791 


32 


1024 


32768 


33 


1089 


35937 


3+ 


1 156 


39304 


35 


1225 


42875 


36 


1296 


46656 


37 


1369 


50653 


38 


I4H 


54872 


39 


1521 


^§li!2 


40 


1600 


64000 


4» 


168 1 


68921 


4* 


1764 


74088 


43 


1849 


79507 


44 


1936 


85184 


45 


2025 


91125 


4« 


2Il6 


97336 


47 


2209 


103823 


48 


2304 


I 10592 


49 


2401 


II 7649 


50 


2600 ] 


26000 



Sq. Roots. 



1. 000 
1. 414 

1.732 
2.000 
2.236 

2.449 
2.645 

2.828 

3.000 

3.162 

3-316 

3.464 
3-605 

3-741 

3.873 
4.000 

4-123 
4.242 
4-359 

4.472 

4-58* 
4.690 

4.796 
4.899 
5.000 

5-099 
5.196 

5.291 
5-385 

6.477 

5-567 

5-744 
5.831 
5.916 

6.000 
6.082 
6.164 
6.24 

6.3 

6.403 

6.480 
6.557 

6.633 
6.708 

6.782 

6.855 
6.928 
7.000 

7.071 



Cube Roots 



1. 000 
1.260 
1.442 

1.587 
1. 710 

1. 817 

«-9i3 
2.000 

2.080 

2.164 

2.223 
2.289 

2.351 
2.410 

2.466 

2.520 I 

2.571 
2.620 

2.668 
2.714 

2.759 

2.802 
2.844 
2.884 
2.924 
2.962 
3.000 
3-036 
3.072 

3.107 

3.141 

175 
207 

239 
271 
302 

332 
3.362 

3-391 



Fifth Poirer. 



Rodprocals. 



3 
3 
3 
3 
3 
3 



3.448 
3-476 

3-503 
3-530 
3.557 

3.583 
3-609 

3-634 
3-659 



32 

243 
1024 

3125 

7776 
16807 
32768 

59049 

100000 

I6I05I 

248832 

371293 
537824 

759375 
1048576 

1419857 
1889568 
2476099 

3200000 

40841 01 

5153632 

6436343 
7962624 

9765625 

11881376 

14348907 

I 72 10368 

205 II 149 

24300000 

28629151 

33554432 
39135393 
45435424 
52521875 
60466176 

69343957 
79235168 
90224199 



3.420 102400000 



115856201 
130691232 
147008443 
1 649 1 62 24 
184528125 
205962976 
229345007 
254803968 
282475249 



.021739130 
.021276600 
.020833333 

j.^jy T/3-T7 .020408163 

3.6841312600000 1.020000000 



.100000000 

.500000000 

•333333333 
.250000000 

.200000000 

.166666667 

.142857143 

.125000000 

.itiiiiiii 

JOOOOOOOO 

.090909091 

-083333333 

.076923077 
.071428571 

.066666667 
.C62500000 
.058823529 

-055555556 

.052631579 
.060000000 

.047619048 

•045454545 

.043478261 
.041666667 
.040000000 

.038461538 
.037037037 
.035714286 
.034482759 

.033333383 

.032258065 

.031250000 
.030303030 
.019411765 
.028571429 

.027777778 
,027027027 
.026315789 
025641026 

.026000000 

.024390244 

.023809524 
.023255814 

.022727273 
.022222222 



] 



POWERS AND ROOTS.— Tabi.« 36 





KOOTB, CUBE EOOTB, 11 


nFTH POWERS AND BECIPBOCAia || 


rrom «i to loo. 




Num. 


SqnUB. 


CON* 


Sq.Bcot.. 


Cte.«» 


Fifth PawM. 




SI 


1601 


'3»«5' 


7.141 


3-708 


3450»S>51 


.0196078+3 


51 




Ha«o8 




3-73» 


38010+031 


.019230769 


53 


2809 


148877 


7 '180 


3-756 


+18195+93 


.018B67915 


54 


1916 


157464 


7.348 


3.780 


+5916501+ 


.018518519 


55 


3015 


16637s 


7.4.6 


3.803 


50318+375 


.01S1S181B 


P 


3136 


I7s6i6 


7-483 


3.8J6 


550731776 


.0178571+3 


57 


3^9 


i8S'93 


7.549 


3-S48 


601691057 


.0.JS+386O 


58 


3364 


i9S"i 




3-S7. 


656356,68 


.0171+1379 


i 


3+81 

8S00 


2r6'a 


7.746 


3-893 
3.91fi 


77^e«g 


.6l6ll^'7 




37" 


ii«98> 


7.810 


3-936 


84+596301 


.016393++3 


61 


3844 


138318 


7.874 


3.958 


916131831 


.0161190J1 


63 


39«9 


JS0047 


7.937 


3-979 


991+365+3 


.015873O'* 


64 




161144 




4.000 


'0737+1814 


.015615000 


6^ 


4"ii 


»74*i5 


8!o6i 


4.011 


t 1601906)5 


.01538+615 




435* 


187496 




4.041 


1151331576 


-oi5'5'5'5 


67 


4489 


300763 


8. .85 


4.061 


1350.15.07 


.01+925373 


«8 


iTii 


3 '443* 


8.146 


4.08. 


1453933568 


.014705881 


f^ 


4761 


3j8S09 


8.306 


4.. 01 


156403 1349 


.01+49175+ 


4W0 


M3000 


8366 


4-121 


1B8070000O 


.014286714 




5041 


3579" 


8,4j6 


+.1+1 


'804119351 


.01+08+507 




5'^ 


373H8 


8.485 


+.160 


1934917631 


.013888889 


73 


S319 


3890.7 


8.5+4 


4.179 


1073071593 


.013698630 


74 


547* 


405' H 


B.6ai 


4.198 


n.90O«6i+ 


.01351351+ 


75 


5615 


+2.875 


8. 660 


+ .1.7 


i3T30+fi87S 


.0.3333333 


u 


I776 


438976 


B.7T8 


+ .136 


15355^5376 


■013.57895 


77 


59*9 


4S6S33 


8.775 


4- =54 


'^S'^**'5Z 


.011987013 


78 


608, 


474551 


8.83. 


+.171 


1887174368 


.0.18105.3 


& 


«14I 

6400 


sS^ 


8.888 

8-944 


4^9 


,A°iic& 


.011658118 
.012600000 


81 


6561 


53>44. 


9.000 


+.326 




■0113+5679 


Si 


67H 


551368 


9.055 


+ ■344 


3707398+3* 


.0111951" 


ej 


Ms; 


571787 


9.110 


+ .36* 


39390+06+3 


.0110+8193 


4 


70J6 


S917'H 


9.165 


+■379 


41811.9+1+ 


.01190+761 


85 


7"S 


6«4"5 


9.219 


+.397 


4437053115 


.01176+706 


sS 


7396 


636056 


9.173 


4-4'4 


+70+170176 


.011627907 


87 


7569 


658503 


9-3»7 


4-43' 


+98+109107 


.0"494'53 


88 


7744 


68.iji 


9.381 


4.447 


5177319168 


.011363636 


IS 


81^ 


7» 


/^7' 


4-464 
4-481 


»»»» 


iomiilM 


91 


8^ 


753571 


9.539 


4.498 


61+0311+51 


.010989011 


91 


841S4 


778688 


9.591 


4-514 


65908.5132 


,01086956s 


93 


8«49 


B043ST 


9.6+3 


4-S30 


6956883693 


.010751688 




88j6 


830584 


9.69s 


4-547 


73390+011+ 


.01063S198 


J5 


9015 


857375 


;.746 


4.563 


7737809375 


.0.0516316 


;« 


^116 


884736 


9.798 


4-579 


8.53726976 


.010+16667 


97 


9409 


9"673 


9-849 


4-594 


85873+0157 


.010309178 


98 


9604 


94" 9" 


9.899 


+.6.0 


9039107968 


.01010+081 


1^ 


980. 

LOOOO 


Ok 


lOWO 


+.61-S 
4641 




■oiooImJow) 



POWERS AND ROOTS.— Tabu 35 



ifS 


11881 

12100 


10. +40 
10.488 


mi 


i^g 


zsloo 


12.M9 


iM 




1J311 


IO.S3S 


4,Bc6 




i5v" 


l3.6gB 


5 -440 




115H 


10.583 


4.820 




16144 


.1.718 


S-45' 


113 


,.769 


10.630 


4834 


'63 


16569 


11.767 


J. 46. 


"14 


11996 


10.677 


4.849 


,64 


16896 




5-474 




13»»S 




4.863 


16s 




I1.B45 


5.485 




I345« 




4.877 


166 




.1-884 


5.496 


117 


,5689 




4.B9. 


167 




11. 91) 


S.507 


118 


•39H 


10.B63 


4-905 


l6S 


i8ii' 


■1.96. 


5-518 


q 


14161 
14400 


i»'i 


4.91a 

4.932 


a 


iB^6l 

28900 


■3.000 

13.038 


i:^ 




14641 




4.946 




19141 


13.07S 


5-550 




14S84 


11.045 


4-959 




19584 


13.115 


5-561 . 


"J 


iS'iS 


11.0^0. 


4-973 


■73 


19919 


'3. '53 


S-S71 


114 


15576 


11135 


4.986 




30176 


13.191 


5-583 


115 


'5615 


ii.iSo 


5.000 


'75 


30615 


13.119 


5-593 




1(876 


11.115 


5'Oi3 


176 


3°976 


IJ.166 


5.604 




1 6. ,9 


ii.;6si 


5016 


177 


31319 


13.304 


5.6.4 


118 


16384 


ii.3'3 


5 039 


■ 78 


31684 


'3-34' 


5-615 


13S 


16641 


11-358 


5.051 


■79 


31041 


■3-379 


5-636 


16900 


11.402 


6.065 


180 


32.400 


13.416 


5.646 


■i> 


17'6' 


11.445 


5.078 




31761 


13-453 


5-656 


'ji 


'7414 


I '■489 


5-09' 


181 


33 H4 


13-490 


5-667 


m 


17689 


ii.53> 


j-'04 


.83 


33489 


13-517 


5-677 


IJ4 


17956 


■1-576 


J. ■'7 


J84 


33856 


13-564 


5.688 


'35 


iSiiS 


11.619 


5-'30 




H"S 


.3-601 


5.698 


136 


18496 


11.661 


5.141 




34596 


■3-638 


5,708 


137 


18J69 




5.15s 


187 


34969 


■3-675 


5.7.8 


'38 


19044 


■1.747 


5-'67 


188 


35344 


■3-7'i 


5.718 


'i^ 


'93" 


11.790 


5.180 


■ 89 


357" 


13-747 


h'il 


19600 


11832 


9.192 


190 


36100 


13,784 






M.S74 


5.304 


191 


36+81 




5-759 


'4> 


io.ej. 


1..916 


5.117 


191 


36864 


\llT6 


5.769 


'43 


20449 


...958 


5-119 


■93 


37149 


13.B91 


5.779 


144 


10736 


11.000 


5i4< 


194 


37636 


13.918 


5.7B9 


'45 


11015 


11.041 


5-»^3 


195 


38015 


13.964 


5.799 


1+6 


113'6 


.1.083 


5.^65 


196 


38416 


14,000 


5,809 


1+7 


11*09 


11.11+ 


5.i77 


197 


3BB09 


■4 035 


5,818 


.48 


1.904 


11.165 


5.^89 


.9S 


39104 


.4.071 


5,818 


'49 






IM 


'99 


39^01 


14.107 


5.8,8 


ISO 


22WD 


12.a47 


300 


40000 


14.142 


5.848 





POWERS AND ROOTS.— Table 36 




1 Knm 


Sqnma. 


SqunRooti 






Bq-OM. 




Cuba Booti.l 


JOI 


40401 


'4- "77 


5-858 


*5i 


63001 


.5.843 


6.308 




40S04 


14.111 


5.867 




63504 


15-874 


6.316 


103 


+1109 


■4- '48 


5-877 


153 


64QO9 


15-906 


6.315 


104, 


4i6ifi 


.4-»83 


5.887 


154 


64516 


'5-937 




J05 


41015 


14.318 


5.896 


155 


65015 


15.969 


6.341 


106 


41436 


'4-353 


5.906 


^56 


65536 


.6.000 


6.349 




41849 


14.387 


5-915 


157 


66049 


16.031 


6.358 


>og 


431*4 


14.412 


5-915 


158 


66564 




6.366 


i^ 


i^a 


itUi 


l^ 


iVS 


676W 


iff 


im 




44511 


'4-5>« 


5-953 


i6i 


68111 




6.390 




44944 


:4.S6o 


J. 961 




6S644 


lelise 


6.399 


113 


45369 


14-594 


5.971 


»6j 


69169 


16.117 


6-407 




4579* 


14.619 


5.981 


i4 


'h 


16.148 


6.+.5 


"5 


46115 


14.661 


5.991 


165 




16.179 


6. +13 


116 


4«5fi 


14.697 








.6.309 


6.431 


i'7 


47089 






167 


7-189 


.6.340 


6-439 


118 


475 H 


'4-765 


6.018 


168 


7.8.4 


.6.371 


6-447 


l»!'^ 




ii^il 


6.017 
6.037 


iV3 


7^9i)0 


leilli 


iM 






14.866 


6.0+5 


171 


73441 


16. +61 


6.47. 






'4-899 


6.055 


171 


73984 


.6. +91 


6.479 




497'9 


'4-!'33 


6.064 


173 


745*9 


.6.511 


6.487 


»H 


SO.7S 


14.966 


6.073 


174 


75076 


.6.551 


6.495 


"5 


SO«'S 


15.000 


«.o8i 


175 


75615 


T^.583 


6.503 


ii« 


51076 


15 033 


6.091 


176 


J6176 


.6.6.3 


6.5" 


117 


S'S^H 


15.066 




177 


76719 


'6.6+3 


6.518 


118 


5 '984 


•5.099 


6.;^ 


178 


77184 


.6.678 


6.516 


230' 


6l9% 


U:m 


6.118 

6126 


§, 


77841 
78400 


16.703 

16.733 


^1^ 


»JI 


533fii 


15-198 


6.13s 




7896. 


.6.763 


6 550 


»3» 


5381+ 


15-131 


6.144 




795'4 


.6.793 


6.557 


»» 


£+189 


.5.164 


«'53 


183 


80089 




6.56S 


^34 


54756 


15.197 


6.161 


=84 


806 c6 


.'6:85! 


6.573 


^iS 


SS"£ 


'5-3JO 


6.. 7. 


185 


8. 115 


.6.881 


6.58. 


136 


SS696 


■i-36» 


6.179 


186 


81796 


.6.9.. 


6.5S8 


»37 


56169 


'S-39S 


«.i3g 


»87 


81369 


.6,94. 


6.596 


ij8 


56644 


I 5.417 


6.197 


188 


81944 


.6.970 


6.604 


2^ 


57600 


ufJI 


6.21! 


,^ 


6^i)0 


17.000 

1.7029 


6.6.1 

6.619 


141 


58081 


'5 514 


6.113 


191 


846B. 


.7.058 


6.617 


141 


585';4 


'5-;56 


6.131 


191 


85 164 


.7.088 


6.634 


^43 


59049 


.5.588 


6.140 


193 


85849 


.7. ..7 


6.641 


144. 


595J6 


15.610 


6.149 


194 


86+36 


17.1+6 


6.649 


145 


6Q0.5 


15 651 


6-157 


195 


87015 


■ 7. .75 


6.657 




605.6 


.5.684 




196 


87616 


.7.104 


6.664 


»47 


61009 


15.7"6 


6^174 


197 


S8109 


17.133 


6.671 


048 


6.504 


15-748 


6.iai 


198 


88804 


.7.261 


6.679 


2aS 


6100c 


iliu 


6.191 


199 


89401 


'7.19' 


6.687 


62500 


6.299 


300 


90000 


17320 


6.694 



P0WEK8 AND ROOTS.— T4BL1M 



Nun. 


SqiuiM. 


94iunB«b 


Cll1»B«t. 


Nod 


SqnUH. 




CDbeBoottl 


jei 


90601 


17.349 


6.70* 


351 


■ 13101 


■8.735 


7.05+ 


JOl 


91104 


17.37a 


6.709 


35» 


113904 


18. 76^ 


7.060 


303 


51B09 


17.407 


6.716 


353 


114609 


1S.788 


7.067 


3°* 


91416 


'7-435 


6.714 


35+ 


1153 '6 


1S.815 


7-07+ 


305 


9301s 


17.464 


6.731 


355 


116015 


■8.8+1 


7.080 


306 


S36j6 


17.493 


6.738 


JS« 


■16736 


18.S68 


7.087 


307 


94H9 


»7.5" 


6.7+6 


357 


"74+9 


18.B94 


7-094 


308 


94864 


17.550 


6-753 


358 


11816+ 


18.911 


7. .00 


M 


9548' 


17.578 


6.760 


359 




18.947 


7. .07 


96100 


17.607 


6.786 


3€0 


129600 


18.973 


7.114 


i" 


96711 


■7.63s 


6-775 


36. 


130J11 


19.000 


7.110 


311 


97344 


.7.663 


6.781 


36^ 


1J1044 


19.016 


7.117 


3 '3 


979*9 


17.691 


6.7-89 


363 


13'769 


.9.051 


7.133 


3H 


93596 


■7.710 


6.797 


36+ 


■3H96 


19.078 


7.140 


3'S 


99"5 


■7.748 


6.B04 


365 


'S3i»5 


■9.105 


7.146 


316 


99856 


'7-776 


6.8ii 


366 


•33956 


■9.131 


7-153 


3'7 


100489 


17.804 


6.8i8 


367 


.34689 


■9.157 


7 .'59 


3>8 


11)1114 


17.831 


6, Sis 


368 


i35+»4 


■9.<83 


7.166 


319 


,o<76i 


17.86a 


6.833 


3$ 


.3616. 






320 


1024OO 


17.888 


6.840 


136900 




7.179 


3H 


10J041 


17.9'6 


6.847 


371 


■376+1 




7. '85 


3" 


.0368+ 


17.94+ 


i-'^i* 


371 


U83B+ 


19.187 


7.19; 


3J3 


■04319 


17.971 


6.S61 


373 


■39'19 


■9.3'3 


7.I98 


3»4 


104976 


18.000 


6.863 


J74 


■39876 


'9.339 


7.10J 


3»S 


■05615 


18.01S 


6.875 


375 


.4061s 


.9.36s 




3-fi 


105276 


18. OSS 


6.881 


376 


■41376 


.9.39' 






106919 


18.083 


6.889 


377 


141129 


.9.416 


7.114 


3»S 


10758+ 


1S.111 


6.896 


378 


.4.884 




7 -.30 


^l 




18.166 


li^ 


a'^ 




19.468 

19.493 


m 


33' 




■8.193 


6.917 


38- 




.9.S'9 


?-H9 


33> 




■8.111 


6.914 


38t 


■459'+ 


19.545 


7.156 


333 


110889 


18.148 


6.931 


383 


1+6689 


■9.570 


7.161 


334 


"'556 


18,175 


6.93B 


38+ 


1+7+56 


■9.596 


7.16B 


335 


111115 


18.303 


6-9+5 


385 


.+8115 


19. 6i^ 


7-175 


336 


1.1896 


18.330 


6.951 


386 


1+B996 


■9.649 


7.181 


33T 


"J569 


■6.357 


6.959 


387 


149769 


■9.671 


7,187 


338 


"4J44 


|B.3SS 


6.966 


3SB 


1505+4 


19.698 


7-»93 


^ 


IIHOO 


wM 


6.^ 


3'S 


162100 


19.713 

19.748 


7.»M 


34' 




18.466 


6.9B6 


391 


151881 


19-77+ 


7.311 


3+» 


11696+ 


18.493 


6-993 


39* 


153S64 


■9.799 


7-3.8 


343 


1.76+9 




J. 000 


393 


15+4+9 


■9.81+ 


7-315 


344 


..8336 


18:54: 




394 


155^36 


19.8+9 


7-331 , 


34£ 


119015 


18.574 


7-0'3 


395 


.56015 


19-874 


7.337 1 


346 


It97i6 


ig.60i 


J. 010 


396 


.S6B.6 


19.900 


7.3+3 1 


347 


110409 


i8.6i3 










34S 


IlllQt 


18. 6SS 


7.034 








349 


III80I 


1S.681 


7.040 








360 


i^tsoo 


18.708 


7. 


i 











PC 


WEBS AND ROOTS.— TablbSB 






KDm. 


Squ». 




nrauL 401 to soo 




Btu»B«t. 


CabeKoob 


H<m. 


Squre.. 


«ru»B«t. 


Cute Root.. 


401 


160B01 


10.015 


7-374 


4" 


103401 


11. .36 


7.669 


401 


1616C4 


10.050 


7.380 


451 


104304 


ji.i5o 


7.674 


403 


161409 


10.075 


J.J86 


453 


105109 


1. .184 


7.680 


404 


163.16 




7-39* 


454 


1061.6 


11 307 


7.686 


405 


.64015 


10. H4 


7.398 


455 


107015 


1..331 


7.691 


406 


164836 


10.149 


7.4°S 


456 


107936 


11-354 


7.697 


407 


.6564!. 


10.174 


7.411 


457 


108849 


11. 377 




♦08 


166464 


10.. 99 


7.4'7 


458 


109764 


11.401 


7-708 


¥>9 






7.4'3 


459 


110681 




7.719 


410 


168100 


20.248 


7.429 


160 


211600 


21.447 


7.719 




.6B911 


10.173 


7.43s 


46. 


111511 


11.471 


7.715 


+n 


169744 


10.19S 




461 


113444 


11-494 


7.730 


4' 3 


170569 


10. JU 


7.447 


463 


114369 


11.517 


7-736 


4't 


1713915 


10.547 


7.453 


464 


115.96 


11.540 


7.7+1 


415 


I7"»5 


10.371 


7.459 


465 




11-56+ 


7-747 


+.« 


173056 


10.396 


7.465 


466 


i'.rVsl 


Wfxl 


7.753 


4'7 


.73889 




7.471 


467 


I 18089 




7-758 


♦'! 




"■44S 


7.477 


468 




"'.6l°3 


7.764 


41% 


1755^1 


10.469 


7.4S3 


469 


1.996' 


11.656 


7.769 


420 


176400 


20.494 


T.489 


470 


220900 


21.679 


7.778 


4" 


177141 


10-5.8 


7 -495 


471 


11. 841 


.1.701 


7.780 


4ii 


1J8084 


10.541 


7.501 




111784 


.1.715 


7.786 


4>3 


17S919 


10.567 


7.506 


473 


.13719 


11.748 


7.791 


+H 


179776 


10.591 


7-S'l 


474 


114676 


11.771 


7-797 


415 


180615 


10.615 


7.51S 


475 


1.5615 


11 -79+ 


7.801 


416 


181476 


,0.640 


7.514 


476 


..6576 


.1.817 


7.808 


4»J 


.8.).9 


10.664 


7-S30 




..75.9 


.1.840 


7-8.3 




igji84 


10.688 


7.536 


478 


..8484 


,..86j 


7-819 


§ 


.840+. 




7-54» 




J19441 


11.886 


7.8.4 


184900 


20.738 


7.648 


180 


230400 


21.909 


7.830 




185761 


10.7S0 


7-S53 


481 


I3'36i 


11.931 


7-835 


431 


1S66J4 


10.784 


7-559 


4B1 


.3.3.4 




7.840 


433 


187489 


10.808 


7-565 


483 


133'89 


11.977 


7.846 


+34 


18SJ56 


10.831 


7-57' 


4S4 


.34.56 


11.000 


7-85. 


43S 




10.856 


7.577 


485 


.3i"5 


11.0.3 


7-85! 


436 


190096 


10.880 


7.583 


486 


136196 


1..045 


7.861 


43? 


190969 


10.904 


7-588 


487 


137.69 


.1.068 


7.867 


43S 


191844 


10.918 


7-594 


488 


138144 


11.091 


7-87) 


4^ 


191711 
193600 


€i 


7.600 
7.606 


1^^ 


24^1M 


22.136 


7.878 
7.884 


44' 


;9448; 




7.61. 


49; 


^'°ll 


i;-;s8 


7.889 



POWERS AND BOOTS.— TiBLB 38 



sauA] 














n™. 


S,,.^ 




CBboEooB, 


n™. 


Sqium. 


aiumRooU 


CubeRcoto, 


50 > 


251001 


"■383 


7.941 


551 


303601 


^3.473 


8.198 


501 


151004 


11.405 


7-947 


551 


30+704 


13.494 


8.103 


50J 


153009 


11.417 


7-953 


553 


305809 


13.516 


8.108 


504 


.5401* 


11.450 


7-958 


554 


306916 


13-537 


8.113 


S°S 


J55015 




7.963 


555 


308015 


13-558 


8.218 


S06 


156036 




7.968 


556 


309136 


13-579 


8,113 


5°J 


257049 


il.5'6 


7.974 


557 


310149 


33.601 


8.118 


JoS 


158064 


11-539 


7.979 


658 


311364 


13.611 


8.1)3 


a 


ee^ioo 


22.^3 


;.&•«* 


^ 


311481 

313S00 


&^ 


l^i 


5" 


:6iill 


11.60s 


7-995 


561 


314711 


=1.<S! 


8.147 


5'» 


161144 


11.617 




56» 


315844 


.J.?o< 


8, ill 


S'3 


163169 


11.649 


8.00s 


5*3 


316969 




8-157 


5'4 


164196 


.1.671 


8.010 


SH 


318096 


'i-Ti 




J>S 


165115 


21.69) 


8,01s 


s«s 


3'91'5 


1J-770 


8:167 


5.6 


166156 


2i.7"5 




s« 


310)55 


i3-?9i 




5'? 


167189 




8:016 


.«; 


311489 




8^177 


518 


168314 


11-759 


B.oji 


id 


311614 


'3-8J3 




a 


270400 


11.7B1 

22.803 


i.a' 


^,% 


324900 


U:i,t 


s'.Ws 
B.291 


Si' 


171411 




8.046 


57' 


3160+1 


13.89s 


8.296 


S^i 


171484 


ii:847 


8.051 


571 


317'84 


23.916 


8.301 


S^J 


i73S>9 


11.86S 


8.057 


573 


31B319 


13-937 


8.)o6 


S14 


174576 


11.891 


8.061 


574 


319475 


13-958 




5'5 


1756J5 


ii,9'3 


8-067 


575 


330615 


13.979 


8^315 


S16 


176676 


11.934 


B.071 


576 


331776 




8.310 


*'J 


177719 


11.956 


8.077 


577 


331919 




8.325 


5»8 


178784 


11.978 


8.081 


578 


334084 




8.330 


i^-a 


280900 


23.032 


8.087 

8.092 


M^ 


3ill9o 


14.061 

24.083 


8.3II 


i3> 




1J-0+) 


9.098 


58' 


337561 




8. 344 


5J» 


18)014 


2). 06 J 


8,103 


581 


338714 


14,114 


8')49 


S33 


18+089 


13.087 


8.10B 


583 


339889 


14- 145 


8.3S4 


5J+ 




2) . lOB 


Ills 


584 


341056 


14. 166 




£35 




13.130 




585 


341115 


14,187 


8^363 


5J6 


1871S6 


13.151 


sill) 


;86 


3+3396 


14. 107 


8-36B 


537 


188369 


13 -'73 


a.n8 


587 


3+4569 




8.373 


53S 


189444 


13.195 


8.133 


<88 


345 7+4 


14-1+9 


8,378 


539 




i).ii6 


8.138 


^89 


346921 




8,381 


540 




23.238 


8.143 


590 


348100 


sli.290 


B,387 


54' 




13.159 


8.148 


59' 


349181 


14.310 




54i 


193764 


13.181 


8.153 


591 


350464 


14-33' 


8:396 


543 


194849 


13-301 




593 


351649 


14-351 


8,401 


54t 


195936 


i3-3>4 


8.;63 


594 


351836 


14-371 


8,405 


545 


-gi'^iS 


13.345 




595 


35+015 


14.391 




545 


198. [6 


13.366 


8^173 


596 


355116 


1+413 


8-4>5 


^*l 


199109 


13.388 


8.17* 


597 


356409 


»+-+33 


8.ii5 


sas 


300304 


13-409 


8.183 


598 


357604 


1+.4C4 


8,415 


^ 


3026^ 


&£i 


8-188 

8^93 


£^ 


3«0 


&& 


.'4^ 





POWERS AND BOOTS.— TablbM 




BaUABES, SaUABE BOOTS, AHD CUBE BOOTS. 




From aoi ti> 700 




n™. 


Bqiuri. 


S4<»niR«.(. 


CobgRoaU. 


Nnia. 


Sqiun. 




CnteRooU. 


60. 


36.IO. 


H-5'S 


8-439 


"^ 


413801 


ij.5'5 


8.667 


601 


361404 


H'535 


8,443 


651 


415104 


15.534 


8.671 


60J 


J6J609 


^■556 


8.44a 


6S3 


4,6409 


15.554 


8.675 


6<H 


364816 


14-576 


S-453 


654 


417716 


15-573 


8.680 


605 


jfieojs 


14-597 


8-457 


6SS 




15-593 


8.684 


606 


3S7i3e 


Z+.617 


8.461 


656 


430336 




8,689 


eo? 


368443 


14.637 


8.467 


657 


431639 


15.63, 


8.693 


608 


369664 


14.657 




658 


431964 


15.65. 


8.698 


609 


37oaai 


14.S78 


8.476 


659 


ii& 


15-671 


8.701 


m 


372100 


Um 


8.481 


360 


26.690 


8.70S 




3733^' 


14.718 


8, +85 


661 


4369H 




8.7M 




374544 


H.738 


8.490 




438144 


15.719 


8.7"5 


6'J 


3757*9 


14.759 


8.495 


663 


439569 


15.749 




«i4 


J76996 


14 -779 


8.499 


664 


440B96 


15-768 


8.714 


6.5 




14'799 


8-504 


665 


44i"S 


15-787 


8.718 


«i6 




,4.819 


8 508 




443556 


15-807 


8-733 


617 




14.839 


8.5,3 


667 


4+4899 


15.816 


8.737 


«IS 


H 


14.859 


8-5.8 


668 


4461,4 


15-845 


8.741 


6^ 


61 


14.8^0 




669 


447561 


15.865 


8.746 


31 to 


24900 


8.S27 


sro 


1^900 


2d.&84 


8.760 


611 


»i 


14.910 


8-53' 


67, 


450141 


15-903 


8-754 


611 


. 34 


14.9+0 


8.536 


671 


451584 


15.913 


8-J59 


«1J 


388129 


14-960 


8- 54' 


673 


4519^9 


15-941 


8-763 


fiH 


389376 


14-980 


8-545 


674 


454176 


,5.961 


8.768 


fiij 


3906,5 


15.000 


8-55° 


675 


45J';iS 


15.98. 


8-771 


«i6 


39-876 


15.010 


8-554 


676 


456976 




8.776 


61? 


393'19 


,5.040 


8-559 


677 


458319 


i6;oi9 


8.781 


6.B 


3943B4 


,5.060 


S-563 


67B 


459684 


,6.038 


8-785 


6^'^ 


3^^*0 


15.080 
85.1U0 


S.'672 


679 

380 


461041 
462400 


26.077 


IJ^ 


6i> 


398.6, 


,5.1,0 


8.577 


681 


463761 


,6.096 


8-798 


61. 


3994H 


15.140 


8.581 


68, 


465114 


,6.115 


8.801 


6J! 


400689 


,5.159 


8.586 


683 


466489 


16..34 


8.806 


«!4 


401956 


15.179 


8.591 


68+ 


467856 


i6-'53 




<Ji 


403115 


15 -'99 


8.595 


68s 


469115 


26.17, 


8.815 


SjS 


404496 


15.119 


S.fioo 


686 


470596 


16.191 


S.819 


6J7 


405769 


i5-i!9 


8.60+ 


687 


471969 


16.110 


8.81+ 


638 


407044 


,5., 58 


8.609 


688 


473344 


16.130 


8.818 


^ 


408,11 




8.613 


689 




16 , 149 


88. 31 


loeeoo 




8.618 


3»0 


476100 


26.268 


8.836 


6+1 


410881 




8.611 


691 


477481 


16., 87 


8.841 


641 


41,164 


^5 338 


8.617 


691 


478864 


16.306 


8.845 


643 




15-357 


8.631 


693 


48otf9 


16.315 


8.849 


6« 


414736 


15-377 


8.635 


69+ 


+8 1636 


16,344 


8-85d 


64s 


4161,5 


15-397 


8,6+0 


69s 


483015 


,6.363 


8.8is 


646 


417316 


15-416 


8.6+4 


696 


48++16 


,6.38, 


8.861 


647 


418609 


15.436 


e.649 


697 


485809 


16.401 


8.866 


648 


419904 


15.456 


B.653 


698 


487K)4 


,6.419 


8.870 


^ 


411101 

42260J 


&^ 


8.662 


» 


488601 

49a000 


j».^ 


ii^ 



POWERS AND HOOTS.— TiBLi35 



l»" 


3q.i»>. 


BtunBooti 


CntoRooU 


n™. 


SqoiM.. 


j^DueEooM 


CnbgRootL 


—^ 


491+01 


16. +76 


8.883 


75' 


56+001 


17.404 


9-089 


701 


+92804, 


16.495 


8.8g'7 


751 


5*5504 


1J.411 


9.093 


70J 


49+109 


16.5,4 


8.891 


753 


J67000 


17.441 


9.098 I 


?04 


495* ■* 


*6.S3i 


8.89S 


754 


568 J. 6 


^7-459 


9.:ci 


505 


497015 


16.5S» 


8.900 


755 


570015 


17-477 


9.106 1 


706 


4S84J6 


16.570 


8.90+ 


75« 


571536 


17-495 






499849 


16.589 


8.908 


757 


573°49 


17-SI3 


9. 11+ 


708 


5QH64 


16. 60S 


8.9.3 


758 


574564 


17-531 


9. .18 


709 

710 


fi6^oo 


16.617 

26.646 


8,917 

8,621 


7I 


576081 

577600 


17-550 
27.668 


m 


711 


505511 


16.664 


8,915 


761 


579111 


17-5B6 


9-130 


711 


5069+4 


16.683 


8,919 


7tfi 


5806+4 


17,60+ 


9-'34 


713 


J08J69 


16.701 


8.933 


763 


581.69 


17.611 


9-'38 


714 


509796 


16.711 


8.9J8 


76+ 


583696 


17.640 


9.1+1 


715 


511115 


16.739 


8.941 


765 


5e5"5 


17.658 


9.146 


7.6 


5 "^5* 


16.75B 


8.946 


766 


58S756 


17.677 


9.150 


717 


51+089 


16.777 


8,950 


767 


588,89 


17-695 


9-154 


718 


5'55H 


16.795 


8-954 


768 


S89814 




9.158 


719 




16.81+ 


8,958 


769 


59'3«' 




S.165 


780 




26.833 


8.ff63 


770 


692000 


27.749 


71" 




16.85. 


8,967 


771 


59444' 


17-767 


9.169 


7:j 


511719 


16.870 


8,97. 
8,975 


771 
773 


595984 
5975'9 


17-785 
17-803 


9-173 
9-'77 


7=4 


524176 


16.907 


8,979 


774 


599076 




9, .81 


715 


S^S^'S 


16.916 


8-983 


775 


600615 


17-839 


9-'8s 


716 


517076 


16.94+ 


8-987 


7J6 


601176 


17-857 


9, .89 




S'Sji? 


16,963 


8.991 




603719 


17-875 


9'9i 


718 


S>9!.84 


i6.98> 


8-996 


77a 


60S18+ 


17-891 


9-'97 


^ 


6^^0 


27.016 


iim 


^ 


606841 
608400 


27.928 


9-iO( 

6.206 


Ji' 


S343*' 


»7.0]7 


9-008 


781 


609961 


17.946 


9 109 


7}i 


535814 


17.055 


9-ou 


781 


61.51+ 


17-964 


9-i'J 


73J 


S37'>89 


17.07+ 


9.016 


783 


6130S9 


17-981 


9.117 


7J+ 


53875* 


17.091 


9-010 


784 


6,4656 


18.0D0 


9.111 


7J5 


S40"5 




9-01+ 


785 


616115 


18.018 


9-115 


7J6 


54.696 




9.019 


786 


617J96 


18-035 


9,119 


737 


S43""9 


17.1+8 


9-033 


787 


619369 


18.053 


9-131 


7J8 


54464+ 


17 -'66 


9 -037 


788 


61094+ 


18.071 


9,136 


7^ 


si^loo 


»7!20^ 


i^ 


789 

790 


62^00 


18.089 
28107 


li^ 


741 


5+9801 


17.111 


9,0+9 


791 


61568. 


18..15 


9.148 


741 


550564 


17.139 


9-°5i 


791 


61J61+ 


18.141 


9-'S' 


743 


55*049 


17.158 


9.057 


793 


6188+9 


18.160 


9.156 


7+4 


553536 


17-176 


9.061 


794 


630436 


18.178 


9.160 


7^5 


555015 


17.194 


9.065 


795 


631015 


tl'lf 


9.164 


74* 


556516 


17.3'3 


9.069 


796 


633616 




9-167 




558009 


>7.33' 


9.073 


797 


635109 


18.131 


9-171 


748 




17-349 


9.077 


798 


636804 


1B.147 


9-175 


7^ 


H2fW) 


27.!^ 


9-oSi 
9.066 


M 


«^ 


18-16S 
28.264 


i^ 



POWERS AUD BOCflS.—liBusM 



Soi 


641601 


iS.joi 


9.187 


85' 


714101 


19.171 


9-476 


Soi 


4 


18.319 


9.191 


851 


7^5904 


29.189 


9.480 


803 


,9 


18.337 


9 -196 


853 


717609 


19.106 


9-484 


804 




18.35s 


9.198 


854 


719316 


19.113 


9.487 


805 


5 


18.371 


9-301 


855 


73101S 


19.140 


5.491 


806 




18.390 


S.jofi 


856 


731736 


19.157 


9-495 


B07 


9 


18.408 


9.310 


857 


734449 


19.174 


9.498 


S08 


;♦ 


18.415 


9.31* 


858 


736164 


19.191 


9.501 


s'll 


ft 


A^ 


i:i& 


is, 


T&So 


iiM 


^.1^1 


811 




18.47B 


9.31s 


861 


74I3II 


"9-343 


9-5'3 


Sli 


4 


»8.49S 


9-319 


861 


74304+ 


19.360 


9-5.7 


8'J 


■9 


>8.5'J 


9-333 


863 


744769 


19.J77 


9-5" 


«H 


.j6 




9-337 


86+ 


746496 


19.394 


9-5*4 


815 


66411s 


l8;i^ 


9- 3+' 


8S5 


74811s 


19. 4H 


9.518 


8i6 


665B56 


18.566 


9 344 


866 


74995* 


19,418 


9-53* 


817 


667+85 


18.583 


9-348 


867 


7516B9 


»9-445 


9-535 


818 


6S91H 


18.600 


9-35^ 


868 


753+1+ 


19.461 


9-539 


^ 


' Si 
ff 10 


18.618 

28.635 


9'.3'^ 


i^ 


T^Sbo 


>m 


m 


811 


tl 


18.653 


9-364 


871 


758641 


19-S13 


9.550 


Sii 


H 


18.670 


9-367 


871 


760384 


19.5*9 


9-554 


613 


»9 


18.688 


9-371 


873 


761.19 


19 -5+6 


9-557 


814 


?6 


18.705 


9.375 


874 


763876 


19-563 


9.56. 


8*5 


>5 


18.713 


9-379 


875 


765615 


19-580 


9- 5*4 


816 


?6 


18.740 


9-38-' 


876 


767376 


19-597 


9.568 


8»7 


683915 


18,757 


9.386 


877 


769119 


19.614 


9-571 


8i8 


68558+ 


18.775 


J. 390 


878 


770884 


19.631 


9-575 


^ 


68714' 

688900 


28.sfo 


m 


^ 


Trffl 


^.& 


SS 


■j, 


69956. 


18.817 


9-401 


881 


77616. 


19.681 


9-586 


.J. 


6911H 


18.844 


9 -40s 




7779H 


19.698 


9- 590 


m 


693889 


18.861 


9.409 


88j 


779*89 


19-715 


9-594 


834 


SS-SSJS 


18.879 


9-413 


884 


78.456 


19. 73* 


9-597 


«iS 


*97"S 


18.896 


9+'« 


885 


783115 


19.749 


9.60. 


836 


698896 


18.91J 


9.410 


886 


78+996 


19.766 


9.604 


■3> 


700569 


18.931 


9 414 


887 


786769 


19.781 


9.608 


.J. 


7012++ 


18.948 


9.418 


888 


788544 


19.799 


9.611 


i& 


7039" 
70M00 


^.^ 


m 


.'^ 


7^rii» 


S».833 


W 


841 


707M1 


19.000 


9-439 


891 


79388. 


19.849 


9.611 


•4. 


708964 




9-443 


891 


795664 


19.866 


9.616 


»43 


710649 


19 034 


9-44* 


893 


7974+!) 


19.883 


9.630 


844 


7"3J6 


19.051 


9. +50 


894 


799136 


19.900 


9.633 


84! 


714015 


19.069 


9-454- 


•9! 


801015 


19.916 


9.637 


846 


7'57l6 


19.086 


9+58 


S9« 




19-933 


9-640 


847 


7' 7409 


19.103 


9.461 


897 


804609 


19-950 


5.644 


848 


719104 


19.no 


9465 


8,1 


80S404 


J J. 966 


5.648 


^ 


710801 
722600 


&M 


i:i7l 


«i8 


S08101 

810000 


m'.& 


l&\ 









POWERS AND ROOTS.— Tabu W 



90J 


8ii6;9 


]o II* 


9.680 


957 


9'S8;9 


30-935 


9-854 


908 


814464 


30.133 


9-*83 


958 


9|7764 


30.95. 


9,858 


no 


8i«i8i 

S28I0O 


30.166 


B^eBO 


»%' 


0^600 


&'u 


9,861 
9.865 


911 


8.99»> 


30,183 


9.694 


961 


91351' 


31.000 


9.868 




831744 


10.199 


9.69' 


961 


915444 


31.016 


9-871 


9'3 


833569 


30.116 


9.701 


96J 


917369 


31-031 


9-875 


9>4 


835396 


30131 


9.70s 


964 


91911,6 


3.-04S 


9,878 


9H 


" — s 


30.149 


9.708 


965 


931115 


J 1 .064 




9X6 


S 


30.165 


9 711 


966 


933156 


3.. 080 


9^885 


Ji'7 




JO. 181 


7.JI5 


967 


935089 


31.096 




9.8 




30.198 


9-719 


968 


9370Z4 


31.111 


9:89' 


919 




30-J15 




969 


91896, 


3. .119 


iSi 


920 


» ) 


30.331 


B.rae 


970 


940900 


31.146 


911 




30.348 


9.719 


971 


941841 


J'. 16. 


9,901 


9ja 




JO. 364 


9-733 


971 


944784 


31-177 


9.906 


9»3 


851919 


30.381 


9.736 


97J 


94<'7i9 


31.193 


9-909 


9'* 


851776 


30.397 


9-74° 


974 


948676 


31.109 


9.911 


D'S 


855615 


JO. 4,4 


9-743 




950615 


31.115 


9.9,6 


916 


857476 


30-430 


9-747 


976 


951576 


31-141 


9.919 


917 


859319 


30.446 


9.7.W 




954519 


31.257 


9-9»3 


giS 


861,84 


30.4S3 


9-754 


978 


9564*4 


3'-J73 


9.916 


919 




30.479 


m 


979 


951.44, 


3L»)I 


9-919 


030 


994900 


30.409 


980 


960400 


9.833 


93' 


866761 


30.511 


9.764 


981 


961361 


31-311 


9-936 


9JI 


B68614 


30.518 


9.768 


981 


964314 


31-337" 


9-939 


933 


8J0489 


30-545 


9-77' 


9S3 


9661S9 


3>-355 


9-943 


934 


871356 


30.56. 


9-77S 


984 


96^1(6 


31.569 


9.946 


93S 


874115 


30.57« 


9-778 


985 


97oi"iS 


31.385 


9-950 


9J6 


876096 


30 59+ 


9-781 


986 


971196 


31-400 


9-953 


937 


877969 


jo.6.0 


9-785 


987 


974169 


31.4,6 


9-956 


938 


B79844 


30.627 


9-789 


988 


976144 




9,960 








9.791 


989 


978111 


3' -448 


9^96^ 


040 


883600 




9.7B6 


eeo 


980100 


31.464 


941 


88548' 




9-799 


991 


981081 


31.480 


9.970 


941 


88J364 


30.69. 


9,803 


991 


984064 


31.496 


9-973 


943 


889149 


30.708 


9,806 


993 


986049 


3i-5i» 


9-976 


944 


891.36 


30.714 


9.810 


994 


988036 




9.980 


945 


893025 


30-741 


9.81J 


995 


990015 


3' -543 


9-983 


! 94* 


894916 


JO. 757 


9.816 


996 


991016 


J 1-559 


9.986 


1 947 


8ySac9 


30-77) 


9 810 


997 


99*009 


31-575 


9.990 


94S 


898704 


JO -789 


9.813 


99S 


996004 


3'. 59' 


9.993 


949 


90060. 






999 


998001 


31-607 


9-996 


960 


902600 


30.822 


9.m 


1000 


LOOOOOO 


3L623 


10.000 





POWEES AND ROOTS.— Table 3S 






SquUM. 


^""'^ 


Ciit»B«Ki 




aqiu*. 


BqunBooli 


CnbeBaotLl 


lOOl 


1000101 


31.638 


10.003 


1051 


II 04601 


31 419 


10-167 




1004004 


31 .654 


10-006 




iio6?04 


31.434 


10.170 




:oo6oo9 


J. .670 






..08809 


J1.450 


10. .73 


1004 


iop8oi« 


3. .686 




105+ 


11109.6 


31.465 


.0..76 


loos 


1010015 


31,703 






1113015 


31-48. 


to- 180 


1006 


1011036 


3.-717 




.056 


.115136 


Jl-496 


10.183 




10140+9 


3'-733 


10.013 


'05; 


11171+9 


31.5.. 


.0 .86 


lOOf 


1016064 


31 -749 




105a 


11.9364 


31-517 


.0..90 




1018081 


ailre^ 


lo!o^3 


1(^0 


1111481 


31-541 


.0..9) 


I'au 


1020100 


1123600 


SR.IHW 


10.196 






31 ■796 


.0.036 


1061 


1115711 


31.573 


.0..99 




1014144 


31.8.1 


.0-03^ 




..»78h 


Jl-588 






1016169 


3>.8i8 




1063 


1119969 


31.603 


■0 . 105 






3.. 843 


.0:046 


1064 


1131096 


31-6.9 


10.109 


101; 


1030)15 


3.. 359 


■0.050 




■ '3+"5 


31.634 






10J11S6 


3.-875 


.0.053 




» '36356 


31.650 


10.115 


lOIJ 


1034189 


3. 890 


.0.056 




1.38489 


,,-665 




1018 


10363:4 


3.. 906 


.0.059 




n 40614 


31-680 




1019 


."3a36> 


3. .911 


.0.063 


1069 


1141161 


31-696 


laii!^ 


102( 


L040400 


31.937 


10.066 


1070 


1144900 


32.711 






Ji.«3 


.0.069 


1071 


1147041 


31.716 


10. 1)1 




104+484 


31.969 


10.073 




11+9.84 


31-741 


.0.134 


1033 


10+6519 


31.984 


.0.076 




.15.319 


31-757 


10.1J7 


1 014. 


10+8576 


31.000 


10.079 




1.53476 


31-771 




101s 


1050615 


31.016 






..55615 


31-787 


.0.144 


.Oi6 


1051676 


31.031 


io!o8e 




1T57776 


31.801 




101 J 


105+719 


31.047 


.0.0S9 




1159919 


,1.8.8 


.0.150 


10:.8 


.05678+ 


31.061 


10.091 




1161084 


Ji-913 


10-153 


id 


■0588+1 


31.078 






1164141 


31.848 


10.157 


1060900 


32.091 


lo!c|9 


LOBO 


Ue6400 


32.B83 


10,260 




1061961 


31,109 




108 > 


..68561 


31.879 


Io"i66 




106501+ 


ji-'^5 


10.105 


.081 


1.7071+ 


31-894 




103: 


.06708; 


J1..40 


10.109 


1083 


..71889 


31-909 


lo:i6!, 




1069156 


JI..S6 




1084 


.175056 


31.91+ 






1071 u5 


3»-'7i 


10.115 


1085 


..77"5 


31-939 


10.176 


m6 


1073196 


3.-<87 


10.118 


T086 


1.79396 


31.954 


lo'i" 


'017 


1075269 


31.101 






..8.569 


31-970 






1077444 


31.118 




.088 


11837+4 


31-985 




iH 


1079511 
1081600 


£^ 


■0.118 
10.131 


1089 
1090 


usiloo 


Mlms 


10.OT1 


1041 


■083681 


31.16+ 


10.1 34 


1091 


.19018. 


33.030 


10.195 


1 IC4» 


.085764 


31.180 


.0.138 


■ 09i 


.191+6+ 


33.0*5 
33.061 


.0.198 


1043 


.087849 


3».29J 




■ 093 


1.94649 


10. JO. 


104* 


10899J6 


3»-3ii 


10.144 


.09+ 


..96836 


33-0J6 


10-304 


">*i 


1091015 


31.316 


10.. 48 


1095 


1.99015 


33-091 


.0.J07 


IO+6 


109+116 


3i.34» 


10. .5. 


.096 


<io.i.6 


3j.io6 


10.3.0 


1047 


1096109 


31.357 


10.. 54 


1097 


1103409 


33-'ii 


.0.313 


1 l°4l 


109830+ 


31-373 


10.157 


1098 


.105604 


33-'36 


.0.317 




1100+01 


31.388 


10.160 


■ 099 


.10780. 


33-'5' 


10.310 


\im 


1102500 


^404 


10.164 


1100 


1210000 


33.166 


10.323 



LOGARITHMS OF NUMBERS.— 100 to lOOO— Table 38 



<.. 


Lag- 


Mf. 


No, 


Log. 


5° 


1760JI 


289 

»87 
l8« 
183 
281 


200 


301030 


S' 


178977 




303196 


s» 


18.844 




30535" 


S3 


I84fi9' 


loj 


307496 


54 


187J1I 


204 


309630 


55 


19OJ31 




105 


3'l754 


5*! 


193 "S- 




106 


313867 
3159?° 


5' 


195900 


176 




58 


.98657 


174 


. 208 


3 1 806 J 


59 


»oi397 


109 


310146 


Go 








321119 


6i 


2o68j6 


169 
167 




314181 


6i 


109 5' 5 




3i633'5 


63 


111188 


"3 


3183B0 


64 


11+844, 


264 




3304'4 


65 


J 17484 




"5 


331438 


66 


110 loB 






334454 


67 




156 


217 


336460 


68 


11SJ09 


118 


338456 


6j 


i»78B7 


»'9 


340444 


70 


130449 


155 
153 
151 
250 
149 


210 


341413 




2ji99« 




344391 




135518 




3463SJ 


73 


238046 


"3 


348305 


74 


140549 


11+ 


350148 


7S 


243038 


148 
146 
145 

Hi 
141 


"S 


351183 


7S 


^455' 3 


226 


354'o8 


77 


147973 


227 


356026 


78 


150410 


128 


357935 


79 


151853 


119 


359835 


So 


155173 


141 

i'i 

1(7 
135 


130 


361 7>8 


Si 
Si 


160071 


131 
232 


363611 

365488 


83 


1614s 1 


»33 


3*7356 


8i 


264B1S 


134 


369116 


8; 


267171 


134 

133 
131 
130 
229 


135 


37.068 


86 


^hs'} 


136 


372912 


8? 


>7'842 


137 


374748 


8S 


174158 


138 


376577 


89 


2764*1 


^i9 


378398 


90 


17B75+ 




240 


380111 


91 


18 103 J 




141 


381017 


9» 


18330' 




2+1 


3838.^ 


93 


1^5557 




143 


385606 


94 


iSjBoi 


113 


144 


387390 


95 


290035 




145 


389166 


96 


292156 




146 


390935 


97 


194466 




147 


391697 


98 


196665 




248 


39+451 


99 


=98853 


I'l 


149 


396199 



;~ 


004321 




008600 


103 


0.1837 


104 


01 703 J 


105 


oil. 89 


106 


01530* 


■07 


019384 


108 


033414 


109 


037416 


lie 


04' 393 


III 


045313 


"3 


053078 


11+ 


056905 




060698 




064+58 




068.86 




07.882 


119 


075547 


110 


07918. 




081785 




086360 


'I3 


0B99OS 


"4 


093421 


115 


0969.0 




.00371 


117 


.03804 


129 


1.0590 


130 


"3943 


'31 


' 10574 


'33 


'13851 


134 


.17.05 


•35 


'30334 


ij6 


'33539 


'37 


.36711 


138 


139879 


»39 


143015 


140 


1+6118 


141 


149119 


141 


1511S8 


■43 


'5533S 


"44 


.58361 


'45 


16136S 


.46 


■64353 


'47 


'673 '7 


143 


170161 


'49 


173 '86 



11 Lot. d( IM ^ MIU»I<. L(« 



LOGAEITHMS OF NTIMBEES.— 100 to 1000— Table 36 



















= 


■- 


Luc. 


Dur. 


s«. 


w. 


SK 


K^ 


I^. 


DBT. 


ISO 


39794° 




JOO 


477"' 


'45 
'44 

'44 
'43 
'43 


350 


544068 


114 
114 
'13 


151 


399674 


'73 


301 


47*566 


35" 


545 J07 


iS» 


401401 


'73 


301 


♦80007 


J5» 


546543 


»53 


403 i»l 




303 


481443 


353 


S4777S 


»54 


404*34 


1?1 


304 


4818J4 


354 


549003 


'ij 


»5S 


40*540 




305 


484300 


'41 


355 


550118 




»i6 


408140 


169 


306 


+857»' 


356 


551450 




»57 


409933 


307 


487138 




357 


551668 




158 


4.l6»o 


I08 


488551 


'41 
140 


358 


553883 




^59 


4'3J<» 


167 


309 


489958 


359 


SSS094 


III 


16a 


4 '49^3 


if? 
166 

.65 

.65 

164 


3'o 


4913<1 


140 


360 


55*303 




161 


416641 


311 


4917*0 


361 


557507 




i6i 


4183S. 




494155 


»39 


361 


558709 




i6j 


419956 


3>3 


495544 


363 


559907 




26+ 


4*1 604 


3>4 


4*6930 


^8 


364 


561101 


"9 


i<5 


4»3»4* 


164 

'«3 


315 


498311 


138 
•37 

ill 


36s 


561193 




166 


414881 
416511 


316 

3'7 


499687 

JO'09S 


366 


56348' 
S6466 


"9 

118 


168 


418135 




318 


J0H»7 


368 


565848 


118 


26, 


4»975» 


161 


319 


503791 


3«9 


567016 


111 


170 


43 1 3*4 


l6t 


3>o 


505150 


>3< 
'35 
135 


370 


568101 






431969 


3" 


506505 


371 


569374 




IJl 


434569 


»59 


3" 


S07856 


371 


570543 




i?3 


4l6.«3 


313 


509103 


373 


571709 


116 



100 
LOGARITHMS OF NUMBERS.— 100 to 1000— TABt« ST 



Nr). I Los. I DW. I Ko. j Log. I Dur. I No. I Log. [ I 



101 
LbOABITHMS OF NUMBERS.— 100 to 1000— Tistl 86 



R>. 


hf. 


»« 


«. 


LOS. 


" 


si° 


7403«J 


,. <" 


778151 




SS' 


7+115^ 


>> '"■ 


778874 


J 


S5» 


74'939 




77959* 




55} 


74i7'5 


It *"> 


780317 




554 


7435 "> 


,1 '°* 


78.037 




555 


744»9J 


« '»5 


?8i7S5 




55S 


745=75 


?S '^ 


781473 




557 


745855 


i ^' 


783.8s 




55S 


746*34 


« ^ 


783904 




SS9 


7474" 


It <«> 


?8+6.r 




5fo 


748188 


„ 610 


785330 




|«. 


74896J 


" «„ 


786041 




5«» 


749?3« 


" «H 


78*75" 




561 


750508 


» 6'3 


7874*0 




s4 


75 "79 


" '■< 


7B8168 




Sis 


75104! 


7, '" 


788875 




!«« 


75»8.6 


" «iti 


789581 




5*7 


753583 


" <.J 


790185 




5« 


754348 


« •" 


790988 




5*9 


755"* 


;' '" 


791691 




sro 


755875 


,i <■" 


79>39» 




57 • 


75«36 


?« '" 


793091 




JJl 


75739* 


*s *" 


793790 




573 


758155 


!« »" 


79448B 




574 


7589" 


' '" 


T95>es 




575 


759«*S 


,. «" 


795880 




57* 


7604" 


A '" 


79*574 




577 


7*117* 


n «»7 


79716B 




578 


7(ii!lrf 


" "> 


7979*0 




S79 


762679 


n "< 


79865" 




5B0 


7«34»e 


' '!•> 


799341 




iai 


764176 


", «ji 






5B1 


7*49 '3 


„ '" 


800717 




SBJ 


7*5**9 


" til 


801404 




s4 


7*^4.3 


M '" 


8010S9 




.<SS 


7*7156 


„ >3J 


801774 




k86 


767898 


?1 «J« 


803457 




587 


7*8638 


;♦ «" 


804139 




S88 


769377 


;♦ ')< 


80481. 




5B9 


770»5 


74 '» 


805501 




590 


7708s* 


,, «40 


S061S0 




591 


771587 


„ S41 


806858 




59> 


77i3>» 


'1 "^ 


807535 




593 


773055 




*43 


80811. 




594 


773786 


73 


644 


808886 




595 


77+5 '7 




«+5 


8095*0 




596 


775H* 




646 


8'oi33 




597 


77597+ 




6+7 


8.0904 




598 


776701 




648 


811575 




S99 


7774»7 


71 


649 


811145 


^ 



. I as. I Mc I J 



102 
LOOABrrHHS OF NtlUBIiBS^lOO to 1000— TlBuSe 



II Do. I La» I SW. I Ro. I idfL I ns. I 1 



LOGABITHUS OF Nm£B£BS.--100 to 1000— Table 36 



f— 
















!JS-| 




Ko. 85(^ Log 2.929419 to No. 999, Log 2.999565 \\ 


No. 


Lgg. 


D». 


Ho. 


Lag. 


BUT. 


S. 


Lo<. 


46 

1 


850 


91941s 




900 


95+H3 


48 
48 

+8 
48 
48 


950 


977714 


8St 


919930 




901 


954-JiS 


95' 


978181 


8si 


93'H40 




901 


955107 


95» 


978637 


SJ3 


■1301)49 




903 


955*88 


953 


979093 


854 


931458 


5' 
51 


904 


9S«i68 


95+ 


979S+8 


8SS 


931966 




90s 


95(649 


48 
48 

48 


955 


980003 


45 
45 


856 


93 ^J4 




906 


957 "8 


95* 


980458 


857 


93 1981 




90; 


957*07 


957 


9809. 1 


8s8 


933487 




908 


9i8o86 


958 


98.366 


45 


8s? 


93J993 


|, 


909 


9S85«4 


959 


981819 


*^ 


S60 


934498 


SO 


910 


9590+1 


48 
48 

47 


960 


98117' 




S61 


93S<W3 




9595 '8 


961 


981713 


45 


S61 


935507 




911 


959995 


961 


983175 


8S3 


nsoii 


50 


913 


960471 


9*3 


983618 


45 


864 


9365>+ 


JO 


9>4 


960946 


96+ 


984077 


45 
45 


865 


9370'6 




9>5 


961411 




9*5 


98451J 




866 


9375'8 




9.6 


961B9S 




966 


984977 


45 


867 


938019 




917 


961369 




9*7 


935416 


4S 


868 


938510 




918 


961843 




968 


98S87S 


45 


869 


9390" 


SO 


919 


9*33'* 


Ji 


9*9 


986314 


+5 


870 


9395 '9 


SO 


910 


9637S8 




970 


986771 




871 


94W18 


911 


9*4160 




97' 


987119 




87X 


9405.6 


50 
SO 


911 


9*473' 


47 


97i 


98766S 


+S 


873 


941014 


913 


965101 




97) 


98811 J 




874 


94151' 


50 
50 


914 


9*5*7. 


47 


974 


988559 


45 


8?5 


941008 


SO 
SO 
4? 


915 


9661+1 




975 


98900s 




876 


94^504 


9»6 


9666U 


47 


97* 


989450 


4S 


877 


94)000 


9»7 


967080 




977 


98989; 


4+ 


878 


943495 


918 


9*7548 




978 


990339 


++ 


8J9 


943989 


49 


919 


968016 


+J 


979 


990783 


4+ 


880 


944483 




930 


968483 




980 


991116 




83 1 
881 


94497fi 


49 


93 » 


9*8950 


47 


III 


99^6*9 


44 



104 



LOGARITHMIC SINES AND COSINES.— Table 87 



SINES O* to 45" 50', for each 10 minutes. 



Dega. 



O 
I 

2 

3 

4 
5 

6 

7 
8 

9 

io 

II 

12 

13 
14 

15 

i6 

17 
i8 

«9 

20 

21 
22 

23 

24 

»5 

26 

27 
28 

29 
30 

31 
32 
33 
34 
35 

36 

37 

38 

39 
40 

4> 
42 

43 
44 
45 



Degt. 



O' 



8 



241855 
542819 
718800 

843585 
940296 

019235 
085894 

H3555 
194332 
239670 

280599 

317879 
352088 

383675 
412996 

44^5338 

465935 
489982 

512642 
534052 

554329 

573575 
591878 

609313 
625948 

641842 

657047 
671609 

685571 
698970 

711839 
724210 

736109 
747562 
758591 
769219 

779463 
789342 
798872 
808067 

816943 

825511 

833783 

841771 
849485 



60* 



10' 



463726 

308794 
577566 

742259 
861283 

954499 

031089 
096062 

152451 
202234 

246775 

287048 
323780 

357524 
388711 
417684 

444720 
470046 

493851 
516294 

537507 

557606 
576689 

594842 
612140 
628647 

644423 
659517 
673977 
687843 

701151 

713935 
726225 

738048 

749429 
760390 

770952 

781134 

790954 
800427 

809569 

818392 
826910 

835134 
843076 

850745 



20' 



764754 
366777 
609734 

764511 
878285 

968249 

042625 
105992 
161 164 
209992 
253761 

293399 

329599 
362889 

393685 
422318 

449054 

474115 
497682 

519911 
540931 

560855 

579777 

597783 
614944 

631326 

646984 
661970 
676328 
690098 

703317 

716017 
728227 

739975 
751284 
762177 

772675 
782796 

792557 
801973 
811061 

819832 
828301 

836477 

844372 

.851997 






50' I 40' 



30' 



940842 

417919 
639680 

785675 
894643 

981573 

053859 
115698 
169702 
217609 
260633 

299655 

335337 
368185 

398600 
426899 

453342 
478142 

501476 

523495 
544325 

564075 
582840 
600700 
617727 
633984 

649527 
664406 
678663 

692339 
705469 

718085 

730217 
741889 

753128 

763954 

774388 

784447 
794150 
803511 

812544 

821265 
829683 
837812 
845662 
853242 



30' 



40' 



8 



065776 
463665 
667689 
805852 
910404 

994497 

064806 

125187 
178072 
225092 

267395 

305819 
340996 
373414 
403455 
431429 

457584 
482128 

505234 
527046 

547689 

567269 
585877 

603594 
620488 

636623 

652052 
666824 
680982 
694564 
707606 

720140 

732193 
743792 
754960 
765720 

776090 
786089 

795733 
805039 

814019 

822688 
831058 
839140 

846944 
854480 



50' 



8 



20' 



162681 

505045 
693998 
825130 

925609 
007044 

075480 
134470 

»8628o 

232444 
274049 

311893 

346579 
378577 
408254 

435908 

461782 

486075 
508956 

530565 
551024 

570435 
588890 

606465 

623229 

639242 

654558 
669225 
683284 

696775 
709730 

722181 
734157 
745683 
756782 

767475 

777781 
787720 

797307 
806557 

815485 

824104 
832425 

840459 
848218 

855711 



Deg*. 



10' 



89 
88 

87 
86 

85 
84 

83 
82 
81 
80 

79 

78 
77 
76 

75 
74 

73 
72 

71 
70 
69 

68 

67 
66 

65 
64 

6s 
62 

61 

60 

59 

58 
57 
56 
55 
54 

53 
52 
51 
50 

49 

48 
47 
46 
45 
44 



DegK. 



COSINES 44* 10' to 90», for each 10 minutes. 



105 



LOGARITHMIC SINES AND COSINES.— Table 37 



SINES 46"* to 90*9 for each 10 minutes. 



4<^ 

47 
48 
49 
50 

5> 

5* 
53 
54 
55 

58 

59 
60 

61 
61 

63 
64 
65 

66 

67 
68 

69 
70 

71 
7* 
73 
74 
75 

76 
77 

78 

79 
80 

81 

8a 

83 
84 
85 

86 

87 
88 

89 
90 



Dqgi. 



O' 



9.856934 

.864127 

.871073 
.877780 
.884254 

.890503 
.896532 

.902349 
.907958 

•9»3365 

.9 "8574 

.913591 
.928420 

.933066 

•937531 

.94x819 

•945935 
.949881 

,953660 

.957*76 

.960730 
.964026 
.967x66 
.97015a 
.972986 

.975670 
.978206 
.980596 
.982842 

•984944 

.986904 
.988724 

•990404 
.991947 

•993351 

.994620 

.995753 
.996751 
.997614 

.998344 

.998941 
.999404 

.999735 

•999934 
10.000000 



60' 



10' 



9-858151 
865302 
872208 

878875 
885311 

8915*3 
897516 

903198 

908873 
914246 

919424 
924409 
929207 
9338aa 
938258 

942517 
946604 

9505*2 
954*74 
957863 

961290 
964560 
967674 
970635 

973444 

976103 
978615 
980981 
983202 
985280 

987*17 
989014 
990671 
992190 
99357* 

994818 
995928 
996904 

997745 
998453 

999027 
999469 

999778 

999954 



60' 



20' 



9.859360 
.866470 

.873335 
•979963 
.886362 

.892536 

.898494 
.904241 

.909782 
.9151*3 

.920268 
.925222 
.929989 

•934574 
.938980 

.943*10 
.947269 

.951159 
.954883 

.958445 

.961846 
.965090 
.968178 

•971113 
.973897 

.97653* 

.979019 
.981361 

.983558 
.985613 

.9875*6 
.989300 
.990934 

.99H30 
.993789 

.995013 
.996100 
.99:1053 
.99787* 
.998558 

.999110 

.9995*9 
.999816 

.999971 



40' 



80' 



9.860562 
867631 
874456 
881046 
887406 

893544 
899467 

905179 
910686 

915994 

921 107 
926029 
930766 
9353*0 
939697 

943899 
9479*9 
951791 
955488 

9590*3 

962398 
965615 
968678 
971588 
974347 

976957 
979420 

981737 

983911 
985942 

98783* 
989582 

991193 
992666 

994003 

995203 
996269 
997199 

997996 
998659 

999189 

999586 
999851 

999983 



80' 



40^ 



9.861758 
868785 

875571 
882121 
888444 

894546 

900433 
9061 II 

911584 

916859 

9*1940 
9*6831 

931537 
936062 
940409 

94458* 
948584 

95H19 
956089 

959596 

96*945 
966136 

969173 
97*058 

97479* 

977377 
979816 

982109 

984259 

986266 

988133 
989860 
991448 
992898 
994*1* 

995390 

996433 

997341 
9981x6 

998757 

999*65 
999640 
999882 

999993 



60' 



862946 

869933 
876678 
883191 

889477 

89554* 
901394 

907037 

912477 

917719 

922768 
927629 

93*304 
936799 
941117 

945*61 
949*35 
95304* 
956684 
960165 

963488 
966653 
969665 

97*5H 

977794 
980208 

982477 
984603 

986587 

988430 
990134 

991699 
9931*7 
994418 

995573 

996594 
997480 

998*3* 
998851 

999336 

999689 
999910 

999998 



20' 10 D6gi. 



pegB. 



43 
4* 
41 
40 
39 

8 

7 

6 

5 
4 

3 

2 

1 

o 

9 

8 

7 
6 

5 
4 

3 

2 

1 

o 

9 
8 

7 
6 

5 

4 

3 

2 
1 
o 

9 

8 

7 
6 

5 

4 

3 

2 

X 

o 



COSINES 0* to 44% for each 10 minuteB. 



106 



TBIGONOMETBIO RATIOS.— Tabu 38. 



i 


NATURAL 8IHIIS, TAVOEHTfi 


, AHD SECASTS, 








ooumi, oarA«oBim> akb ooooari, 1 




To ev«ry degree of the Qudnuit, xadiiif being LOOOOOCk | 


JToA 


r.— Fromo 


t0 4$de8ree8tlienaiiieof tfaeoolamn IsatfhelieidefttieiNire: ftom 1 


45to< 


^ degrees the name of the oolaina is at tbe foot of the pogo. | 


Are. 


Sine. 


Ooeino. 


TUigent. 


Ootan. 


Secant. 


Ooaec. 


Are. 


.ooooocJ 


I. 000000 


•oooooo 


Infinite. 


I. oooooo 


Infinite. 


90* 


I 


.01745* 


.999848 


.017455 


57.28996 


I. 000152 


57.29869 


89 


1 


.034899 


.999391 


.034921 


28.63625 


1.000609 


28.65371 


88 


3 


•052336 


.998630 


.052408 


19.08114 


I. 001372 


19.10732 


87 


4 


.069756 


.997564 


.069927 


14.30066 


t .002442 


14.33559 


86 


5 


.087156 


.996195 


.087489 


11.43005 


r. 003820 


11.47371 


85 


6 


.104528 


.994522 


.105104 


9.514365 


I .005508 


9.566772 


84 


7 


.121869 


.992546 


.122784 


8.144346 


I. 007510 


8.205509 


83 


8 


•«39«73 


.990278 


. 140541 


7.115370 


I .009828 


7.185297 


82 


9 


•156434 


.987688 


.158384 


6.313752 


1.012465 


6.39H53 


81 


10 


.173648 


.984808 


.176327 


5.671282 


1.015427 


5-758771 


80 


II 


.190809 


.981627 


. 194380 


5.144554 


1.018717 


5.240843 


79 


12 


.207912 


.978148 


.212557 


4.704630 


I. 022341 


4.809734 


78 


«3 


•224951 


.974370 


.230868 


4.331476 


1.026304 


4.445411 


77 


14 


.241922 


.970296 


.249328 


4.010781 


I .030614 


4-133566 


76 


15 


.258819 


.965926 


.267949 


3.732051 


I 035276 


3.863703 


75 


16 


.275637 


.961262 


.286745 


3.487414 


1.040299 


3^627955 


74 


17 


.292372 


.956305 


.305731 


3.270853 


I .045692 


3.420304 


73 


18 


.309017 


.951056 


.324920 


3.077684 


I. 05 1462 


3.236068 


72 


19 


.325568 


.945519 


.344328 


2.904211 


1.057621 


3-071554 


71 


20 


.342020 


.939693 


.363970 


2.747477 


1. 0641 78 


2.923804 


70 


21 


.358368 


.933580 


.383864 


2.605089 


I. 071 145 


2.790428 


69 


22 


.374607 


.927184 


.404026 


2.475087 


I .078535 


2.669467 


68 


»3 


.390731 


.920505 


.424475 


2.355852 


I .086360 


2.559305 


67 


14 


.406737 


•913546 


.445229 


2.246037 


I .094636 


2.458593 


66 


25 


.422618 


.906308 


.466308 


2 . 144507 


1.103378 


2.366202 


65 


26 


.438371 


.898794 


.487733 


2.050304 


1.1 12602 


2 281172 


64 


27 


.453991 


.891007 


.509525 


1. 96261 1 


1.122326 


2.202689 


63 


28 


.469472 


.882948 


.531709 


1.880727 


!• 132570 


2.130045 


6x 


29 


.484810 


.874620 


.554509 


1.804048 


1.143354 


2.062665 


61 


30 


.500000 


. 866025 


.577350 


1.732051 


I. 154701 


2.000000 


60 


31 


.515038 


.857167 


.600861 


I . 664280 


i.i666^^ 


1.941604 


S9 


3a 


•529919 


.848048 


.624869 


1.600335 


1.179178 


1 .887080 


58 


33 


.544639 


.838671 


.649408 


1.539865 


1.192363 


1.836079 


57 


34 


.559'93 


.829038 


.674509 


I. 482561 


I. 206218 


1.788292 


56 


35 


.573576 


.819152 


. 700208 


I. 428 148 


I. 220775 


!• 743447 


55 


36 


.587785 


.809017 


.726543 


1.376382 


1.236068 


1.701302 


54 


37 


.601815 


.798636 


.753544 


1.327045 


1.252136 


1 .661640 


Si 


38 


.615661 


.788011 


.781286 


1.279942 


1.269018 


1.624269 


52 


39 


.629320 


•777146 


.809784 


1.234897 


1.286760 


1.589016 


51 


40 


.642788 


•766044 


.839100 


1.191754 


1.305407 


1-555724 


50 


41 


.656059 


.754710 


.869287 


I. I 50368 


1.325013 


1.524253 


49 


4* 


.669131 


.743145 


.900404 


1.110613 


1.345633 


1 .494477 


48 


43 


.681998 


.731354 


.932515 


I .072369 


1.367328 


I .466279 


47 


44 


.694658 


.719340 


.965689 


1.035530 


1.390164 


I .439557 


a 


45 

Arc 


.707107 


.707107 1 


N oooooo 


I. oooooo 


1.414214 


1.414214 


45 


Oosine. 


Sine. 


Gotan. 


Tangent. 


Ooiec. 1 Secant. 


Arc. 



CONSTANTS FOE TIDES 



owna 



BRITISH ISLES, 



Ao.f ACy dec. 



TABLES 39 to 42o. 



108 



TIDES OF BRITISH PORTS.— Tabm 80. 



lABLB FOB COMPUnnO HME OP HIOE WAIiat» 


lOB TWJENTI-1K)U& FLAOJU BfJEGlFUD, 


Bliewing 1|ie Bemi-menstmal Ineqaaliiy, + a ooulanfti i-qpitiiimiting Oie Xnterral 


between the Moon's Transit^ Two days preoedizig a London Tide» and the Time 


of High Water J the Moon's Parallax being 67', her Dedlinatton ITj the Snn*s 


Parallas 8^.8, and DeoUnatton IS*. 


Non.— PofOMitf Tidg$ ar§y^ apMctding DrantU, 


'^' 


Bxwtt 


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(Nate.) 


Portf- 
month. 


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d. h. m. 


d. h. xn. 


d. h. m. 


d.h. m. 


d. h. m. 


d. h. xn 


d. h. m. 


o o 


* ♦*! 


7 01 
647 


X IX XI 


I II 54 


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X X 9 


I 19 x8 


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X I 39 


X X $9* 


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X 10 IX 

I 18 $7 


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6 31 


I II 53 


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X I XX 


X X43 


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I II XI 


X I 9 


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X X7 
X 18 


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> i 33 


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I II 3X 


I II 13 


X I 3 


X X X4 


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1 II |X 


I II IX 


X I 10 


X X X9 


X XI 


I 18 54 


6 o 


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$ 17 


I II 49 


I II XX 


X I 37 


X X56 


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1 19 18 


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6 18 


I IX XI 


I II 47 


X X IX 


X 3 17 


X X xo 


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Wetton 


h« m. 


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d. h. m. 


d. h. m. 


d. h. xn. 


d. h. XXL 


d. h. m. 


d. h. in. 


d. h. m. 




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I x6 i8 
1 i6 ot 


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I 1649 


I 15 4X 


I 9 43 


X 707 


I 16 51 


I 1703 


I 15 58 


« 9 59 


1 13 09 


I IX 35 


X 703 


« 7 37 


9 o 


I 1655 


I 17 01 
I 1650 


1 «5 55 


■ 9 54 
I 9 38 


I 13 14 


I IX 35 


I 7 14 


I 7 $4 


lO o 


I 1649 


I «5 47 


1 13 10 


1 IX X5 


X 7 14 


I 7 $$ 


If o 


I 16 34 


I 16 34 


» «5 33 


I 9 11 


1 13 01 


I IX 13 


I 70$ 


I 7 47 


Koon'i 


?& 


«se- 


Belfiut. 


dwrry. 


ffligo. 


Oftlway. 


QVMIIf- 

town. 


^^ 


h. xn. 


d. h. m. 


d. h. xn. 


d. h. m. 


d. h. m. 


d. h. m. 


d. h. m. 


d. h. m. 


d. h. m. 


o o 


I 1047 


I II 47 


I II XJ 


I 8 38 


I 5 55 


« $ H 


« $41 


I 6 01 


I o 


I 10 30 


I II 34 


I II 09 


I 8 19 


» 5 39 


I $00 


1 5 x6 


X $47 


X 


1 10 18 


I II 11 


f 10 57 


I 8 01 


« 5 »5 


I 446 


I $ II 


I $ 3X 


1 


I 10 10 


I II 10 


I 1049 


I 748 


1 J II 


I 4 35 


' 4 $7 


1 $ 16 


4 


I 10 07 
I 10 16 


I II 06 


I 1049 


» 7 54 
x 8 xo 


1 509 


' 4 3» 


I 4 45 


I $ ox 


5 


I II 15 


I 1057 


I $x$ 


1 436 


1 44* 


> 4 59 


6 o 


I 10 46 


I II 38 


I II xo 


I 8 $7 


I $53 
I 6 XI 


X $01 


I 5 00 


I $ xo 


It 


I II 16 


I 11 03 


1 II 48 


I 9 19 


« $ 33 


I $ 3X 


: m 


I II 31 


I IS 11 


I IX 06 


1 9 XI 


I 6 38 


« $49 


liU 


9 


I 11 31 


I 11 z8 


I TX 05 
T II 56 


I 9 15 


I 634 


I 5 50 


I 6x3 


lO 


I II 10 


I 11 19 


x 9 08 


I 6 XX 


» $4* 


I 6 04 


I 6 X4 
1 6x6 


II o 


I II 06 


I XX 03 


I II 4X I 8 56 


X 6 10 


I $19 


t $ $3 



109 



TIDES OF BRITISH PORTS.— Tablb 39s. 



TABLE FOB COKPUTDTa HIIOHTS 07 HXGK WAIEB, 


FOIL TWENTY -JrOUB PLACES SPECIFIED, 

Shewing fhe Semi-menstraal Iiieqcialil;^, + a oonstant; in the Height of High Water, 
with referenoe to ttie apparent Solar time of the Moon's Transit B, the ICoon*s 
Parallax being 67', and her Dedination 16*i the Bon's Parallax S'.l, and Declina- 
tion Ifi*. 

Kon.— Por<2aii4 Tid«$ anj^ aprtcMng TramU, 


]|pon*i 




land. 

(NOt.) 


Portf. 
numtn. 


Borer. 


Sheer- 
neii. 


%sitsr 


wSL 


Enll. 


h. ID. 

o 

1 o 

ft 

J o 

4 o 

5 o 

6 o 

It 

9 o 

10 o 

11 o 


feet. 
10.06 
18.91 
18.36 

17.31 
15.88 

14-47 

13.83 
14.08 

18.03 
18.84 


feet 
6.60 

6*4, 

5-75 

5.10 

4-54 
4.17 
4-4» 
4.90 

6. II 


fleet 
11.61 
11.51 
11.19 
T1.84 
11.14 
10.57 

10.07 
iai9 
10.01 
II. 61 
11.18 
11.5ft 


feet 
18.66 
18.61 
18.14 

15.36 

14. 5« 

14.7ft 

\Uj 

17.78 
18.41 


feet 
16.10 
15.96 

15-59 
14. 9» 
14.17 
13.46 

13.10 
13.48 
I4.fti 
14.96 
IC.OI 

10.03 


feet 
19.51 

«9-45 
19.10 

18.48 

17. J5 
16.85 

>5-33 

>6.39 
17.00 

18.64 
I9.ftft 


fleet 
11.56 
II. }8 
11.10 
10.7ft 
io.ft8 
9.88 

9.7ft 

9-95 
10.43 
10, 9A 
11.38 
11.57 


fleet 
fto.87 

*o-75 
10.17 

TO. 18 
18.05 
16.96 

16.78 
18.06 
19.11 
10.09 
10. 63 


Kpoii*8 


"ffil!r 


8?{S3'i 


Lrtfh. 


IlMino. 


Groon- 
ode. 


Iiy«r- 
pool. 


broke. 


Weston 




h. m. 

o 

1 o 
ft o 

3 o 

4 o 

5 o 

6 o 

It 

9 o 

10 o 

11 o 


feet 

«4-4| 
14.16 

T3.7I 

13.01 

ift.ftft 

11.46 

Il.Oft 

ii.ft5 
ift.09 
ift.05 
l}.64 
14.14 


feet 
13.15 
Ift.95 

11.53 
11.95 
II. 14 
10.15 

9.96 
10.31 

TO. 96 
11.7ft 

ift.5| 
i}.o6 


fleet. 
16.19 
16.00 

14.88 
13.9A 
13.05 

Ift.c8 
11.87 
13.60 
14.61 

;i;S 


fiBet 

13.15 
13.00 

11.46 

11.67 

10.70 

9.98 

9.61 
10.30 
11.45 
11.51 
13.18 


feet 
9.7ft 
9.71 
9.61 

9-33 
9.00 

1.64 

8.19 
8.19 
8.67 
9.04 

9.31 
9.56 


feet 
15.06 
15.85 
ft5.o8 
ft3.87 
fti.40 
so. 96 

10.14 
10.64 
u.oo 

*3-55 

44-77 
15.58 


feet 

ftl.OO 

fto.8ft 
10.14 
19.11 

\ii 

15.63 

«S-77 
17.00 
18. C4 
19.81 
to. 61 


feet 

37- »7 
37-09 
36.37 
34- 83 
31.67 

30.14 

ft8.70 
ft9.o8 
30.70 
33.16 

35- »5 
36.50 


Moon's 

Timn* 

lit. 


1S& 


toWb. 


Belfiuit. 


London- 
deny. 


8Ugo. 


Oftlway. 


town. 


Dom. 


h. m. 

o 

1 o 
ft o 

4 o 

5 o 

6 o 

It 

9 

TO 
II O 


fiBet 
16.00 
15.83 

15-41 
14' 68 
13.84 
13-03 

ift.63 

Its 

«4-55 
T5.30 
15.80 


fleet 
10.04 

TO. 80 

10.49 

10.05 

9.61 

9.13 

8.83 
9.10 

9-55 

la 04 

10.50 
ia86 


ftot 
9-43 
9-37 
9.14 
9.00 
8.63 
8. JO 

8.09 

813^ 
8.86 
9.11 
9.41 


fbet. 

7.7ft 
7-51 

III 
5.70 

6.14 

tu 

7.60 


feet 
ii.ft5 

IT.OT 

10.50 

9.8ft 

V^ 
8.38 

8-55 

9-'5 

900 

10.60 
11.09 


feet 

Vd 

14.10 

13.43 
11.34 
11.30 

TO. 87 
11.17 
11.01 
11. 98 
13.8ft 

»4-49 


feet 

11.75 
11.69 
11.17 
10.84 
10.19 

9-55 

9.16 

• 9-7« 
10.47 

ii.ift 

11.57 


feet 
ift.4ft 
ift.39 
Ift.fti 
11.83 
II. 11 
10.5ft 

9.96 

10. Oft 

10.54 
ii.ft5 
11.87 
1ft. to 



TIDES OF BRITISH PORTS.— Tabli 891). 



TABLE OP COaRBCnOKS 
POB THE XOOV'B SECUVATIOH AVD FABALLAZ. 

For tin TiBtii^ FtaiM tpteified. 



Vaow of Port. 



KOtnrS DECUTATIOir. 



Paamiu. 
Wmuhot 
BalfUti 



a^ " 



DETOXPOBT TIDES. 



Tabu ifaawlnff tlu SantiaBiutniikt ToMDiLlltj. or Iba iDtflml lwtwe«D 1^ Appvent 
golutlmtar th* Hoda'i Tnutt, tj <UT pniwUnr ■ DaTWpcirt Ttdg, mrf UwUnra 
Df High WlUr; >1k tbo luM Inqulltj In Iba helith( oT High Witu, tlia Ho - 
DecUuUon tMlng ia° W, hh) UorboDtal PtnUu BT'. 



n«atit I TtU. 



:;:fi 



ll 



Ill 



TIDES OF BRITISH PORTS.— Table 40. 



TABLE POE FIHSnra XHE HEZGHT OF THE TIDE 


AT AWT nrrXBBBDXATB BOCTS OB BALT-BOUU 


BSFOBS OB AFTEB HIGH WATEB. 


l^JIntcohmmgtms tki uterai Bangtt qf Tides Af Lorn WaUr U m^ppomd to bt 

Zero ai ttx komn afi/tr ffigk Water, 


Baoge. 

B. B. 

6 


B. B. 

6 30 


H. B. 
6 


H. B. 

4 30 


1 
H. B. B. B. 

4 3 30 


U. B. 
3 


1 

B. B. B. B. 

2 30 2 


B. b. 
1 30 


b. b. 
1 


B. B. 

30 


Ft. Lm. 


Ft.Iiw. 


Ft. la*. 


Ft. las. 


Ft. Ins-JFt. Im. 


Ft.IlM. 


Ft. Iits.'Ft. IM. 


Ft. Inc. 


Ft. Ins. 


FklM. 


6 


5 «o 


S 6 


5 I 


4 6 


3 9 


3 


* 1 


I 6 


II 


6 


ft 


7 


6 lo 


6 5 


5 " 


5 3 


4 4 


3 6 


» 7 


» 9 


I I 


7 


ft 


8 


7 10 


7 4 


6 9 


6 


5 


4 


3 


ft 


« 3 


8 


ft 


9 


« 9 


B 3 


7 7 


6 8 


5 8 


4 6 


3 5 


* 4 


« 5 


9 


3 


10 


9 9 


9 a 


8 5 


7 5 


6 1 


5 


3 9 


» 7 


» 7 


10 


3 


M 


lo 9 


10 I 


9 4 


8 ft 


6 10 


5 6 


4 A 


ft 10 


« 9 


11 


3 


12 


XI 8 


II 


10 1 


8 XI 


7 6 


6 


4 6 


3 I 


X xo 


I 


4 


13 


» 8 


1% 


IX 


9 8 


8 ft 


6 6 


4 10 


3 4 


ft 


I 


4 


14 


H 8 


1% II 


II 10 


10 J 


8 9 


7 


5 3 


3 7 


ft ft 


X x 


4 


16 


M 7 


13 10 


u 8 


II ft 


9 5 


7 6 


5 8 


3 10 


» 4 


X ft 


5 


10 


«5 7 


'4 9 


13 6 


II II 


10 


• 

8 


6 


4 I 


ft 6 


I 3 


5 


17 


i6 7 


15 8 


14 4 


Ift 8 


10 8 


8 6 


6 4 


4 4 


ft 8 


» 4 


5 


18 


«7 7 


16 7 


«5 3 


n 5 


II 3 


9 


6 9 


4 7 


ft 9 


I 5 


5 


19 


1$ 6 


17 6 


16 I 


14 a 


II 10 


9 6 


7 I 


4 10 


ft 11 


X 6 


6 


20 


19 6 


»8 5 


16 II 


14 II 


IX 6 


10 


7 6 


S I 


3 I 


» 7 


6 


22 


»t 5 


10 i 


18 7 


16 5 


»3 9 


II 


8 3 


5 7 


3 5 


» 9 


7 


24 


»3 5 


ti 1 


ao 1 


17 II 


15 


Ift 


9 


6 I 


1 9 


I 11 


7 


26 


»5 4 


xj n 


zi 


»9 4 


16 3 


13 


9 10 


6 8 


4 


ft X 


8 


26 


»7 4 


»5 9 


13 8 


xo 10 


17 6 


14 


10 6 


7 * 


4 4 


* 3 


8 


30 


«9 J 


»7 7 


»5 4 


" 4 


18 9 


15 


II 3 


7 8 


4 8 


a 5 


9 


32 


31 ft 


*9 J 


27 


XJ 10 


10 


16 


Ift 


8 ft 


5 


ft 7 


XO 


34 


3) « 


31 3 


a 9 


»5 4 


XI 3 


17 


Ift 9 


8 8 


5 3 


* 9 


XO 


36 


35 I 


13 I 


30 5 


z6 10 


XX 6 


18 


13 6 


9 a 


$ 7 


ft IK 


XI 


36 


17 » 


35 


3* I 


»8 4 


»3 9 


19 


14 3 


9 8 


5 II 


3 


II 


40 


19 


)6 10 


33 10 


19 10 


»5 


xo 


15 


10 ft 


6 ft 


3 a 


X 


B. B. 


B. B. 


B. B. 


B. B. 


n. B. B. B. 


B. B. 


II. B. 


B. B.B. B.'b. B. 


B. B. 


lO 30 


1 


1 30 


2 


2 30 


3 


3 30 


4 4 30,6 


6 30 1 


! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 j| 



112 
TIDES OP THE BRITISH ISLES— Table 4L 



WITH COASTS OF FRANCE, SPAIN. HOLLAND, &o. 

lABLS OF OOlTBTAirrS, 

To iM added to, or deducted firom, the Timee and Heights of High Water, fbr plaoee 

oomputed by Tables 39 and 39a. 

The Ports o/R^erenee and their Tidal Ranges are in Strong Figures, 



POBTB, 



BSEST 

Gibraltar 

Oadia 

Lisbon (Bar) 

Oporto 

Ferrol 

Santander 

Bayonne 

Aroaohon 

Tour de Cordouan 

Bordeaux 

St. Nasaire 

Belle He 

PortLoais 

He de Sein 

Ushant 

Morlalx 

Plongreecan 

Brfihat 

St-Malo 

Granville 

St. Heller 

aaemsey, St. Peter's 

Aldemqr 

Cherbourg 

Barfleor 

LaHogae 

Honflour 

QaiUebcenf 

Havre 

Fecamp 

Dieppe 

DEVOKPOBT 

Lyme Begis 

Bzmoath 

Torbay 

DarCmoQth 

Plymouth Breakwater 

East Looe 

Fowey ...- 

Falmoath 

Pensance 

.Bdlly, St. Mary 

POBTSHOXTTH 

Littlehampton 

BelaeaBill 

Bembridge Point 

Southampton 

West Cowes 

Hnrst Camber „ 

Needles Point 

Christchurch , 

Poole 

DOTXB 

Boulocnie 

OapeQiisnea 

Calais 

Dunkerque 

Nieuport 

Ostend 



Mean 

Sprg 

Elnge. 



ft. in. 
19 



>7 i 
II II 



• •• 

««• 
••• 

■ • • 

■ •• 



»3 4 

9 5 

S3 lo 



15 6 



• •• 



IS 8 






IS 8 

i6 4 
19 6 



••• 

■ ■ • 



Ck>xi8Uuits. 



Time. 



h, m. 



■I 17 
■z X 



—t 
—I 



17 
17 
—047 
— o 17 

— O X 

+0 50 

— o 10 

+1 I 

-o 7 
— o 19 
— o 36 
— o x6 
— o 15 

+1 6 
+1 30 

+» 4 
+% lb 
•hx 26 
+a 3» 
+1 I 
+»59 
+4 » 
+5 4 
+4 55 
+5 4* 
+6 19 

+S ^ 
+657 

+7 '9 



+0 38 
+0 38 
+0 17 

+0 33 
-o 6 
— o 17 
— o xo 
— o 46 
—I 13 
—I 16 



5 

4 

4< 
II 

56 

41 

55 

— X 41 

-X31 



+0 
— o 
—I 
— o 
—I 
—I 



+0 13 
+0 15 

+0 37 
+0 56 
+1 6 

+1 n 



Hght. 



A. in. 



-I 9 



+4 3 

-9 7 
-4 10 

+4 «l 



••• 

••• 
• •• 
••■ 
••• 
••• 
■•• 



••• 

• • 

••• 

• •• 

•■• 
••■ 



+» 41 

+0 IQ 



POSTS. 



DOVER {(Bontitutgd)... 

Flushing 

Antwerp 

Helvetsluis 

Rotterdam 

Deal 

Folkstone 

Dungeness 

5yeBay 

Hjastings 

BeachyHead 

Newhaven 

Shoreham 

8HEEBNE88 

Nore 

Chatham 

LOHDOK (Bridge) ... 

Gravesend 

Woolwich 

Greenwich 

London Docks 

Margate 

Ramsgate 

HABWICH 

Yarmouth Roads 

Lowestoft 

Oifordness 

EVIJi 

Flamborough Head ... 

Bridlington 

Spurn Point 

Great Grimsby 

Lynn Deeps 

Wells Bar 

Wells Harbour 

SinrDEBLAKB 

Dundee 

Dunbar 

Berwick 

Holy Island 

Blyth 

TynemouthBar 

Seaham 

Hartlepool 

Whitby 

Scarbcnrough 

LBITH 

Wick 

Cromarty 

Livemeea 

Banff 

Peterhead 

Aberdeen 

Stonehaven 

Montrose 

Arbroath 

Tar Bar 



Mean 
Bnge. 



ft. in. 
18 8 



17 6 
16 



••• 



19 6 



19 10 

»5 5 

U 6 

5 9 
7 o 



SO 10 



14 4 



15 9 

16 4 



••• 



Gonstants. 



Time. 



h.in 

+» 8 
+5 13 
+3 ii» 
+4 33 

+0 3 
— o 5 
— o X7 
+0 8 
— o 19 

+0 i 
+0 39 
+0 xz 



— o 7 
+0 %s 



57 
30 

14 
10 

X7 
»3 



5» 

9 

5« 



-I 59 
—I 50 

-I 3 
-o 53 

— o X9 
—O 9 
+0 31 



-o 50 

—1 14 

— X 4 
— o 5X 

-o 7 

— O X 

+0 X 
+0 6 
+0x3 
+049 



55 

XI 

59 
49 
43 
17 
7 
5* 
4* 
II 



Hght. 



ft. in. 



— 1 X 



+0 4 

• •• 

—4 I 



-5 8 

-4 6 



• •• 

» •■ 

—I 8 

• «• 

• •• 

• ■• 



+0 X 
O O 



+0 8 
+1 5 



US 



TI13ES OP THE BRmSH ISLES.— Tabib 4L 



WITH COASTS OF FRANCE, SPAIN, HOLLAITD, &0. 

- ■ - - 

TABLE OF COVSTAITTS, 

To iM added to, or dedncted from, the Timee and Heights of High Water, for places 

oompated hj Tables 99 and sea. 

The Ports ofRtference and tJieir Tida^ Ranges are in Strong Figures. 



TOSLTB. 



THUllSO 

Tobermory 

Portree 

Lochlnver 

KyleAJdn 

Tanera Summer Isles. 

Stomowi^ 

Cape Wrath 

Stromness 

Lerwick 



OBSERTOCK- 

Port Patrick .. 
LochByan .... 

Crinaii 

TAinlash 

Campbelton.... 

Ayr 

Ardroesan 

Largs 

Inyerary 

Port Glasgow . 
Glasgow 



UVXBPOOL 

Beaumaris 

Fleetwood, Wyre L^rht 
Boolton-le-Saads .... 

Whitehaven 

Si. Bees Head 

Workington 

ICaryport 

Abbey Head 

Annan Foot 

PoEtCariisIs 



(Mombles). 

UaneQy 

Tenby 

MOford, Bntrsnoe .... 



81 Ives ZZ. 

Padstow 

Lun^ Island 

Bamst^[>le Bar 

Bfraoombe 

Bridgewater Bar .... 

Porbshead 

(Bristol) . 



Kingroad 
OucUff ... 



EOLTSXAB 

Fish^nard Pier 

Cardigan 

Aberystwith ... 

Aberaovey 

Bannonth 

Bardsea Island 
Perth Dynlaen 
Oamanron 



Mean 
Sprg. 
Rnge. 



ft. in. 
18 41 



••• 

• «• 

• •• 
•»• 

• •• 



—I 
—I 

I — I 
—I 



9 8 



• •• 

• •• 



8 8 



9 6 
7 9 

86 

*l 5 

»7 J 



n 






87 8 



iS o 

3$ 9 

«.• 

•«• 

16 1 

II 8 

•«♦ 






Gonstanti. 



Time. 



h. m. 



5» 

56 

47 
II 

5» 
4» 
— o j8 
+0 }X 



— o j8 
-056 

+4 4» 
— o 19 

— O 1) 

— o 18 
— o %i 

—o 18 

— O 1 

+0 10 
+1 17 



-o 51 

— O IZ 

+0 3 

"^ ? 
— o lb 

— o 19 

— o ao 

+047 



— O II 

+0 4i 
— IX 

—o to 



-t 10 

—I 41 

—I W 
—I 14 

—I IX 

-o 4 
•f o 11 

+0 X 

+0 5 



-I 

-i 

— * 



15 

10 

40 
II 

-X JI 

—I 41 

13 10—0 j8 



Hght 



ft. in 



• •• 



—I c 



• •• 



+1 1 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• *• 

• •• 



• •• 

• •• 



-X 3 

-I 6 






MBT8. 



xnrosTOWv 

Donaghadee 

Loagh Stranftxrd, Bar. 
„ Carlingford, Bar 

Warren Point 

Howth 

Doblin Bar 

WicUow 

Arkiow 



BELFAST 

Ballycastle Bay 

Torr Point (Antrim).., 
LooghLame 



lOHBOVDEBBT 

Coleraine 

Portmsh 



8IIG0 BAT 

Boondstone 

Westport 

AduUbeg 

Broadhaven Harbour.. 
Ballyweel, Donegal ... 

idUibemi 

LoughBossmore 

GweedoreBay 

Sheep Haven 



OALWAT .... 

Limerick 

Mellon 

Foynes Island 

Tarbert 

Kilmsh 



Garrigaholt 
KilbSia. 



9 



,irBEE8T0WE. 

insale 



Gonrtmaoshenv 

Castletownsena «... 

Baltimore 

Hkon 

Crookhaven 

Dommanos Harbonr.. 
Dnbeaon.. Damn. Bay 
Black Ball Harbour ... 
CasUetown^Bearhaven 

Bantry Harbour 

West Cove, Knmre. B. 
Yalentia Harbour 



WATEBFOBD 

Wexford 

New Boss 

Waterford Bridge 

Dunmore 

Ballinacrty., Dngarvn. 

Youghal 

BaUycotton 



Meaii 
Sprg. 
Rnge. 



IL in. 
U C 
" 3 



14 1 



9 6 

a 5 

I h 

8 



0—0 



6 X 

5 * 

U 4 

ij I 

" 5 

10 10 

10 7 



10 10 

11 II 

1410 

16 7 

15 5 
14 3 

.•• 

..• 

«3 I 

U 8 
II 
10 
10 



I 



9 7 

9 41 

10 I 

9 « 

10 I 

9 " 

11 o 

12 4 

5 o 

IX 

13 

IX 
IX 

IX 7 

II II 



OoiictaiLti. 



Time. 



h, m. 

+0 J 
— o 40 

— O |0 

o 00 

— O 1 

+0 X 

—041 

— XX5 



4 35 
« 3 
If 



-I J7 
-I 53 



-o 50 

■O Xi 

•0 4 
-o 18 
+0 S 
+0 ij 
+0 19 
+0 14 
+0 



+«45 
+ 1 x6 

+1 o 
+0 XX 
+0 7 
+0 9 
019 



18 
0x5 
o 40 
o 38 

59 
05X 

« 4 

1 10 

■I XI 

047 
I 14 

I 9 

•I 19—0 



+» 

+044 

+046 

+0 



— o 6 +0 



x6 



Hght. 



ft. in. 

+0 3 

• •• 

• ■« 

+3 I 

• ■• 
■ ■• 

• •■ 



-7 « 
-7 10 

-I 6 



—I 6 
4 6 



+1 9 
+1 I 
-o 6 



-o 6 

+0 7 

+« 9 

+0 7 
— o 7 

• ■• 

• ■• 

-I 9 



-o- 4 
-I I 

-I o 

• •• 

% I 



4 

7 

I 

O 

7 



4 

+0 I 
+1 o 

— O X 

o o 
3 
-o 5 



8 



114 



ANNUrriBS AND LEASES.— Tablb 



TABLE FOB VJSDISQ TALUE 

ANNUITIES AND LEASES, HELD FOR A CERTAIN TERM. 



Add.— The tabular immljer in the fialnmn of the estfrnsted rate of Interest, opposite the 
number of yean the lease la to continue, multiplied by the annual rBntaVwUl glre the 
▼aloe. 

For Froeholdo, take the number Iq the. line marked "Fexp," from the oolomn of the 
eaOmated rate of interest. 



^T 



7£AB8> PTTBGEABE. 



fto. SiP'Cent. 



a 

lO 

19 

flO 

fll 

fl3 

as 
ae 

as 

ao 
so 

SI 

sa 



S4 
SA 

S6 
S7 
S8 

se 

4.0 



AO 
AA 

60 
70 

80 

eo 

lOO 



4.58 

8.53 
11.94 

14.88 
15.4* 

16.44 
16.94 

17. 4< 
17.88 

18.76 
19.19 
19.60 

20.00 
20.39 
20.77 
21.13 
21.49 

21.83 
22.17 
22.49 
22.80 
23 12 

24.52 

25-73 
26.77 
27.68 
29.12 

30.20 
31.00 
31.60 

33-33 



4^ Cent 



4-4.'? 
8. II 



II 



12 

59 



14-03 

H-45 
14.86 

15.98 
16.33 
16.66 

16.98 
17.29 

17.59 
17.87 
18.15 
18.41 
18.67 

18 91 
19.14 

19.37 
19.58 
19.79 

20.72 
21.48 
22.11 
22.62 
23.40 

23.92 
24.27 

24.51 
25.00 



5 V Cent. 61^ Cent 



4-33 
7-72 
0.38 
2.46 

2.82 
3.16 

3-49 
3.80 

4.09 

4.38 
4.64 
4.90 

5-14 
5-37 

S-S9 
5.80 

6.00 

6.19 

6.37 

6-55 
6.71 

6.87 
7.02 
7.16 

7.77 
8.26 

8.63 

8 Q3 
9.34 

9.60 

9 75 

9-85 
0.00 



7 V Cent 



4.21 

7.36 

9.71 

11.47 



1.76 
2.04 
2.30 

2.55 
2.78 

3.00 
3.21 
3.41 
3-59 
3-77 

3-93 
4.08 

4.23 
4-37 
4-50 

4.62 

4-74 
4.85 

4-95 
5.05 

5-4<5 
5-76 

5-99 
6.16 

6.39 

6.51 

6.<;8 
6.62 
6.67 



8¥>Cent 



gv^Cont. 



4.10 

7.02 

9. II 

10.59 

10.84 
11.06 
11.27 
11.47 
11.65 

11.83 

11.99 
12.14 

12.28 

12.41 

12.53 
12.65 

12.75 
12.85 

12.95 

13.04 
13.12 

13.19 
13.26 

13.33 

13.61 
13.80 

13-94 
14.04 

14.16 

14.22 
14.25 
14.27 
14.29 



3-99 
6.71 

8.56 

9.82 

10.02 

10.20 

10.37 

10.53 
10.67 

10.81 
10.94 
11.05 
11.16 
ti.26 

11-35 

11.43 
II .51 

It. 59 

11.65 

11.72 
11.78 
11.83 
11.88 

11.93 

12.11 
12.23 
12.32 
12.38 

12.44 

12.47 
12.49 

12.49 
12.50 



3-89 
6.42 
8.06 

9.13 
9.29 

9-44 

9.58 
9.71 

9.82 

9-93 
0.03 

0.12 

0.20 
0.27 

0.34 
o 41 
o 46 

0.52 
0.57 

0.61 
0.65 
0.69 

0.73 
0.76 

0.88 
0.96 
1. 01 
1.05 
1.08 

1. 10 

1. 11 
1 .11 

I. II 






ICHP-Cent 



3.79 
6. 14 

7.6i 

8.51 

8.65 

8.77 
8.88 
8.99 
9.08 

9.16 
9.14 

931 
9-37 
9-43 

9.48 

9.53 
9.57 
9.61 

9.64 

9.68 

9-71 

9-73 
9.76 

9-78 

9.86 
9.92 

9-95 
9-99 
9-99 

10.00 
10.00 
10.00 
10.00 



115 



ANNUTTIES AKD LEASES.— Tabu 42a: 





TABLE POB ElBrDnrO TALUll 


1 


ANNUITIES AND LEAS 
JTufa.— Th« UbalAT number la the oo 


iES, HEL 


.D FOR A SINGLE LIFE. 

estimated rate of interest opposite the 


Inmn of the 


ag6 of the lifSB in the lint eolnmn, multiplied bj the annuel rental, 


wUl give the 


Talue. 


• 




Age. 


7£ABS' FTTBCHABE. 1 














^ 


8 ^ Gent. 


4^ Cent 


5 IP* Cent 


6 IP* Cent 


7 V Cent 
11.81 


8 fP' Cent. 

i 

10.61 


lO 


20.66 


17. 5i 


• 

15.14 


13.28 


la 


19.66 


16.79 


14-59 


12.86 


11.47 


10.34 


16 


19-44 


16.63 


14.46 


12.76 


11.38 


10.27 


17 


19. az 


16.46 


14.33 


12.66 


11.30 


10.20 


18 


19.01 


16.31 


14.22 


• 12.56 


11.23 


10.14 


19 


18. 8i 


16.17 


14.11 


12.48 


11.16 


10.08 


flO 


18.64 


16.03 


14.01 


IX. 40 


11.09 


10.03 


fll 


18.47 


15.91 


13.92 


12.33 


11.04 


9-99 


aa 


18.31 


15.80 


13.83 


12.27 


10.99 


9.95 


aa 


18.15 


15.68 


13.75 


12.20 


10.94 


991 


fl4 


17.98 


15.56 


13.66 


12 13 


10.89 


9-87 


aa 


17.81 


15.44 


13-57 


12.06 


10.84 


9.82 


ae 


17.64 


15-31 


13.47 


11.99 


10.78 


9.78 


87 


17.47 


15.18 


13.38 


11.92 


10.72 


9-73 


88 


17.29 


15-05 


13.28 


11.84 


10.66 


9 69 


89 


17.11 


14.92 


13.18 


11.76 


10.60 


9.64 


so 


16.92 


14.78 


13.07 


11.68 


10.54 


9-58 


81 


16.73 


14.64 


12-97 


11.60 


10.47 


9-53 


88 


16.54 


14.50 


12.85 * 11-51 


10- 40 


9.4S 


99 


16.34 


14.35 


12.74 


II .42 


10.33 


9 42 


84 


16.14 


14.20 


12.62 


11.33 


10.26 


9-36 


8a 


»5.94 


14.04 


12.50 


11.24 


10.18 


9-30 


86 


15-73 


13.88 


12.38 


11.14 


10.10 


9-23 


87 


^^'5i 


13-72 . 


12.25 


11.04. 


10.02 


9.16 


88 


»5-30 


13.55 


12.12 


10.93 


9.94 


9.09 


88 


15.08 


13.38 


11.98 


10.82 


9-85 


9.02 


40 


14.85 


13.20 


11.84 


10.71 


9-75 


8.94 


4.a 


«3'69 


12.28 


11.11 


10.11 


9.26 


»-55 


ao 


ia.44 


11.26 


10.27 


9.42 


8.68 


8.04 


aa 


11.15 


10.20 


9-38 


8.67 


8.05 


7-50 


60 


9.78 


9.04 


8.39 


7.82 


7.31 


6.8^ 


70 


6.73 


6.36 


6.02 


5-72 


5 43 


5.18 


80 


3.78 


3 64 


3.5^ 


3-39 


3-28 


317 


80 


1.79 


1.76 


1.72 


1.69 


1.66 


i.^i 



116 



ANNUITIES AND LEASES.— Table 42b, 



TABLE SSEWISQ PBESEHT TALITB OP A BEVEBSIOH 

nr PEBFETXriTT, 

AFTEB ANY GIVEN TERM, FROM 10 TO 60 YBAJIS, 
At Rates of Interest from 3 to 8 per Cent 



BmlAr—Tho tebnlar nnmber in the oolamn of the estinutted mte of interest, opposite the 
number of yean to run, multiplied by tlie rental, will glre the ralue. 






Taan 
Bnn. 



lo 
la 

14 
16 
18 

flO 

flfl 

fl4 



Years' 

Purchase 

at 



SO 



34 
36 
38 



48 
44 
46 



AO 

aa 

54 
66 
58 

60 



24.80 
23.38 
22.04 
20.77 
'9.58 

18.46 

17.40 
16.40 
15.46 

H-57 

13-73 
12.94 

12.20 

11.50 

10.84 

10.22 

9-«>3 
9.08 

8.55 
8.07 

7.60 

7.17 
6.76 

^•37 
6. CO 



Years' 


Years' 


Purchase 


Purchase 


at 


at 


4 IP* Cent 


6 ^ Cent 


16.89 


12.28 


15.61 


II. 14 


14.44 


10.10 


M-35 


9.16 


I--34 


8.31 


11.41 


7.54 


>o.55 


6.84 


9.75 


6.20 


9.02 


5:62 


8.34 


5.10 


7.71 


4.62 


7.13 


4.20 


6-59 


3.81 


6.09 


3.45 


S-^i 


3-»3 


5.ai 


2.84 


4.81 


2.58 


4.45 


»-34 


4.11 


2.12 


3-80 


1.92 


i'S* 


'•74 


3-*5 


1.58 


3.01 


1-43 


2.78 


1.30 


a-57 


1.18 


2..?8 


1.07 



Years' , Years' 
Purchase I Purchase 

at I at 
6^ Cent TV^Cent 



9-3" 
8.28 

7.37 
6.k6 

5.84 

5.20 
4.62 
4.12 
3.66 
3.26 

2.90 
2.58 
2.30 
2.05 
1.82 

1.62 
t.44 
1.28 
1. 14 
1.02 

.90 
.81 

.7* 
.64 

.57 
.51 



7 26 
6.34 

5.54 
4.84 

4-^3 

3.^9 
3." 
2.82 
2.46 
2.15 

1.88 
1.64 

I -43 
1.25 

1.09 

.95 
.83 

.73 
.63 

.48 

.4» 

.37 

.3* 
.28 

.25 



Years' 1 Years' 
Purchase Purchase 

at I at 
8 V Cent 10 V Cent 



5-79 
4.96 

4.26 

3.^5 
3-»3 

2.68 
2.30 
1.97 
1.69 

1-45 

i.H 
1.06 

•91 

.78 

.67 

.57 
.49 

.4a 
.3<5 

.31 

.27 

.*3 
.20 

.17 
."4 

.12 



3.85 
3.17 
2.63 
2.18 
1.80 

1.48 
1.23 
1. 01 

.84 
.69 

.57 
.47 

•39 
.3» 
.27 

.22 
.18 

.'5 
.12 

.10 

.08 

.07 
.06 
.05 
.04 

•03 



Table 4ac. 
SHEWINO THE VALUE OF AS AftffUITY OF £100, 

ON A SINGLE LIFE FROM 10 TO 90 YEARS OF AGE. 

As Fixed by die Legacy Act 



Age. 


Valiu. 


Age. 


Valiie. 


Age. 


Value. 


Age. 


Value. 




£ 


s. 




£ s. 




£ s. 




£ s. 


10 


1,75a 


6 


30 


1,478 2 


50 


1,126 8 


70 


636 2 


15 


1 1679 


2 


35 


1,403 18 


55 


1,020 2 


75 


496 4 


ao 


1,603 


6 


40 


1,319 >4 


60 


903 18 


80 


364 6 


85 


1,543 


16 


45 


1,228 6 


65 


776 2 


eo 


175 »6 



MANUAL OF HYDEOLOGY. 



DIVISION IT. 



ON laVKUS AND FLOW FROM LAKGE DISTKKTS, 



WITS rRRLZMIN4KT Bllf4HKB OIT 



8PRINGS, PERCOLATION, AND WELLS; 



AUO WIXH TDB 



DISCHARGE OF SEWERS AND MATTERS INCIDENTAL 



THERETO; 



AWD CHAB1CTVBI8TXC8 OV BOm OF 



THE RIVERS OF EUROPE, 



ftc, Ac. 



9 



DIVISION I -RIVEES AND FLOW. 



TABLE OF OOHTEHTS. 



Bup^ 



to WeUfl and SpringB.— Bemarks on Perooladon— Bxperimenta 
Peroolating Gsoge at ICanohester, by Dalton— Ohamook at Ferrybridge 
— Diokmaon at Apsloy Mill, nsar Kin^B Xanglay, Herts. Pages 121 to ISS. 

Bvpply Of Wells.— Beniarks as to yariabiUty— Mr. Parke's Sbssts on Filtnap 
tion throogh Bdls— Natoie of Snpply to weUs--4)ae8tioiis of undersroand 
Tlow beinff interoepted—Wells in Green Band and Chalk— Snooessral Wella 
itnmd Londoiir-Fauiires at Bonthampton, Harwich, HighAale— In New Bed 
Sandfltone— The late Mr. Bobert Btephanaon's Beport as to liiverpooL^-Aotoal 
■apply and cost ofraising Water in 8«v«n large Wells. ... Pages 126 to 134. 

Flow of BiV6n and Streanui.— Value of Baln-Gftnge— Diiltarant character 
and formation of Ooontriea— Flow from Hill Distriot»— Bevere Bain in 
Moontainoos Seaboairda— Summer Flow from Biyers and large Springs— 
Observed Discharge in HillBistriots—Flow per Bqnare Mile. Pageslwtol39. 

XiStlmate of Floods.— Mountain Districts west of Ireland and Scotland- 
Floods of Jannaiy to March, 1861— Flat Parti of England with SmaU 
BainlUa— Mr. Bailey Denton's Bzperiments. Pages 188 to 142. 

DiTlsion of Flood Watera ftom Oxdlziaiy Disoharge.— Mr. Leslie's 
FlanofDiyislonl^ATOiages. Pa£el48. 

FLOW FBOM IaABOZ DISTRICTS. 

On the Biver Ziee.— Natore of Btrait»— Springsfromihe Ohalk— Comparative 
Discharge of the Oolne and Wandle— Floods of the Lee in 18C2 and 1867— 
OompfcTtson with Bainfhll— Velocity and . Yolome of Fk>od in October, 
1867— Intensity of Bain and Floods of this date and May, 1866, in Italy and 
France Pages IM to 147. 

Hlnzworih SzparimentS.— On Flow firom Drained Soils, compared with 
Aainiau ».( .•> *•• ... ... *•• ... ... ••• ... jtnge X40« 

Tables of Flow.— Deeoriptaon of Tables— Annaal Flow, with Vaiimnin and 
Minimnm Dlaoha^ie of Biyera Lee— Bann— FeibancL Bobe— Bivington Pike, 
Boane— Tiber— Water naedibr Irrigation in Lombazdy ... Pages 110 to 167. 

Biyer Anre at Geneva, Yohime for 186<^Dally Flnetnation frcm Melting of 
Snow and Qladers PugeuS. 

Btaone.— Chancter of Discbarse-^Flow from Lake of Geneva— Oompated Mean, 
Maiimom and Minimum Slow, oalcolated fhnn vaiying Height of Lake- 
Sectional Area and Yelooity below Genev»-Qiiantl^ of Bain and Melted 
Snow rui off between Msy and Angnst-Table of Discharge. Pages 168 to 180. 



DBSSOBIFnON OF BIVBB8. 

The IfOire.— Floods in May and October, firom ezoesslve rains in the Pay de 
D6me and G^ennes Momitains— Notice of Bain, October, 1827— October, 
184B— Iter. 1868— Yelooity of Head of Flood— Mazimom Disch arge F loods 
oftheAidMhe. Page 161. 

The Blllne.—Bemarks— Slope in Bnmmer and Flood Time— Nature of Tidal 
Branches in Holland— Levels of Floods frY>m Lake Constance to Oologneand 
the Sea Mdntfaa-Levela of Dykes Pages into 168. 



The River Po.— D€BOriptlon cf Basin and Tributariea— Compoaition of Bed 
and Banks— Snrfaue of Fail and Widths of Biver and Flooded Lande— Triba- 
taries from the Alps and Appenninea. Pages 164 to 167. 

Embankments and Eflbot on Flood Levels— Sabmergible and Insubmergible 
Banks— Dates of Qreat Breaches— Heights at difibrent points— Lands sab- 
merged in Floods are much above Bommer Level— Canals fbr Upland 
Waters- Heights of MaTimnm Floods of 16(h and 19th Oentories-Dnratlon 
and Discharge of ditto Pages 167 to 170. 

Great Floods of 1706, 1801, Nov., 16»-184B, Oct., 1867— Maxlmmn Flow par 
Square Mile— Bentarks on Bain of Sonthem Bnrope at this time— Stortaig 
Power of Alpine Lakes and Gnat AUavial Plains of the Po— Floods of the 
Alpine Tribatarie»— Flow of Area Oalcolafted from Height of Lakes— Great 
Bias of Lake of Qeneva in May and Jnne, 1866— Area^f this Storm. 

Pages 171 to 174. 

Permanency of Bed of the Po— Fall aait enters theDeltft—Oomparison with the 
Adige and Beno IhlUng into the aame Delta— Nature of the Adriatio Coast- 
Advance of the Delta In 2,000 yeara— Comparison with Bhone and Nile— 
Notice of Irrigating Canals. Pages 174 to 177. 

Tables of Mean Height for 10 years at Casalmaggoire— Levels in Droagfat and 
Flood, with Smrlhoe Slopes trom SteUata tothe Sea and ttom the Alps— Ditto 
of the BhODCk Adige^ and Beno— Levels of Manh Lands in relation to 
Floods, Ac., Ao., Pages 178 to 180. 

The Nile.— Natmne of Lnigation and Floods— Season— Deposits— Increase each 
Century— Homer's Recent Barings— Spiatt's Borvey of Coast of Delta and 
Mediterranean Sea Bottom— Dedaetions— Bains of Tropica— Parallel to Head 
of Nile— Period of BweUJng and Falling of Biver— Beference to corvee, 
Plate XV Pages ISl.to 188. 

Diachaive, YelooUy, 8arftbO»>ftiU. and Height of Inundation— Water nsed fbr 
Irrigatioii— Cross Sections of Bivei>~NatQre of Babstrata— Depth of Bandy 
Bottom Pagios 183 to 18&t 

Depth of NQe Mud Warped in Past Centuries— Peonliar Mode of Irrigation 
encourages Warping— Comparison with other Bivers— Sediment slters in 
Desoending— Borings by Girard and Homer— Thickness of pure Nile Mud- 
Depth of Band— Andcnt Pottery at Great Deptha— Growth of Land in past 

• «• ••■ ••• ••• *•• ••• •»• •«• ••• Xrll^wB XCro MJ A^Ov 



Nature of the Delta— Seaward Sxtension of the Coast— Drifting Sands— 
DredginsB of the Bottom on the Coastof the Deltar— Beference to Danube and 
Bhone— Delta of Nile compared with others Pages 188 to 190. 

The Qcmgei.— Description of Area— Floods and Bains— Period and Amount of 
Bise— Hooglv Branch aflboted by Tide at Calcutta— Cross Section of River— 
Yelooity and Bnrfkoe Slope— The Delta— Immense Area ... Psges 191 to 192. 



Flow of Metropolitan Sewen and Water 



of 



Supply.— Tables 
Ganginga— Remarks thereon— Storm Discharge of Sewen-a>etalls of Yaria- 



tions in Supply of Water by Metropolitsn Companies 



Pages 193 to 197. 



Tablet of BiYeni.-^3howinff Mean Maxfannm and MfaJnimn Flow, with the 
Rate per Square Mile and Depth run off. Pages 198 to 201. 



LIST OF PLATES REFERRED TO IN DIYISION H. 

Plate ZnL— Map of the River Po— Shewing Embankments and Flooded Lands, 
with Details of Mode of Protecting them— Section of River, 
Ac, Ac 

Plate XIY.— Sections of the Po, Adioe, Reno Riyers, with Diagrams of the 
Yolnme and Height of the Seine, Po, Adda, Tiber, and Com- 
parative RainfiUl and Temperature. 

Plate XY.— Sections of the NUe, shewing Nature of Deposits; also the Annual 
Yariation of its Height at Cairo for several years, and at 
Kartoum, with C o m p arative lUl of Rain in similar Lalitndea. 

Plate XYI.— Rise and Fell of the Hoogly— Sand Banks of the Ganges, Ac. 



121 



DIVISION II. 



ON 

EIVEBS & TTX)W FROM LAEGE DKTRICrrS, 

WITH FBELmnrABT BWMAIiyB ON 

SPRINGS, PERCOLATION, AND WELLS. 



BFxnres avd psrooiatiov. 

Thebb is perhape no branch of water-science more "vagne and capricious 
than that of the dischaige of springs. We have generallj reiy little 
knowledge, except from the thermometer, of the depth from which the water 
flows, and the natnre of the strata is generallj little more than matter of 
hypothesis. The most certain fact is, that a maximum is rarely exceeded 
in any spring beyond two to three millions of gallons per diem, and that 
theK are rare cases ; the more ordinaiy flow m huge springs being from 
100,000 to 500,000 gallons per diem, with a fluctoation between the 
maximum and minimum period of from 1.0 to .4; but where springs 
are placed at hieh elevations with regard to surrounding hills, and there 
is a small lainftll, they have much greater fluctuations. In this countiy 
it is common to experience a total cessation of flow after June or July 
until October, or later according to the fall of rain in the season. 

These vemariu are still more applicable to continental and hot countries 
than to the British Islands, and are only modified in those places where 
either mountainous elevations or hot climates induce constant recurrence 
of rain supply. 

Probably the more accurate test of the supply due to springs over 
large areas may be derived from the discharge of rivers either after 
reasonably dry summers, but when excessive heat has passed away, and, 
if high mountains exist, when snows have ceased to melt ; or in mid- 
winter when continuous frost has arrested all the surface feeders, and left 
those only which afford positive spring water. Some of these cases may 
be traced in examining the Tables of Discharge of Rivers and Details of 
Flow from Large Districts ; but they should Ibe carefully examined with 
the rainfall for parallel periods, because summer and autumn have not 
in all years by any means the least rainfall or efiective flows ther^hrom. 

The law of distribution of running waters, like that of rain, ie 
decidedly greater and of much larger volume in the higher levels of 
tiie country, in proportion to the area drained : such is also the dis- 
tribution of floods. The friction of channel bed, and time involved in the 
law of gravitation, affi[>rd elements of retardation. Prom these causes 
that which is an excessive and damaging flood on a streamlet frequentiy 
becomes innocuous on the river into which it flows. This tendency is 
also incrmsed by the greater power of discharse afforded by larger 
sectional area-7-a ratio which would varv in Sie proportion of the 
square root of the fifth power of the width of the stream if the depth 
were half the width ; or in other words, if the wetted perimeter be a 
semicircle. (See Table 6, Division L, fbr these ratios.) 



10 



122 



The general fact also obtains that wide, flat riyer-Talle7s store much 
water when floods are induced ; small tributaries, on the other hand, are 
narrow and steep, having therefore no storing power, and their slope 
being generally such as to precipitate the flood rapid! v upon the lower 
and flatter districts. We have also the mctcreological law, that heavy 
storms of rain have a partiality for hill country, valley heads, and 
mountain slopes ; but if thunderstorms fall on low, flat countiy, every 
field and ditch becomes a reservoir (sec the.Po, and other Rivers, seq.) 
The last-named effect has a marked influence on the general eflect of 
rain in producing either flood, or moderate surface water, or in supplying 
springs. Autumn rains following a dry summer fall on parched ground, 
so that the early copious rains are absorbed ; in hot countries, where the 
soil cracks open to a great depth, rains go down direct to the deep sources 
which supply wells and springs, or lie stored for upward exosmose when 
vegetation renews its vigour. In a subsequent part of this Division will 
be found Tables of the Flow of Rivers, and detailed remarks under each 
case, so far as information is available. It will not be difficult, from the 
examples given, to ascertain in a rough way the relative proportion 
of supply which is due to the surface and springs in different climates ; 
but the nature of rocks composing the district in each case form a most 
important element of the problem. 

The first English authority in modem times who has investigated the 
subject of the relative fall of rain and supply to springs and rivers, was 
John Dalton : he contrived the percolating gauge, and made extensive 
experiments on the subject from 1796 to 1798 at Manchester. These 
will be found in the following page. Associated with them are some 
experiments by the late Mr. Charnock, of Ferry Bridge, Yorkshire, where 
there is much less rain than at Manchester. These tables contain the 
observed evaporation and mean temperature during the period of the 
observations. In the two successive pages is the well-known series of 
parallel observations of the ordinary rain gauge kept continuously by the side 
of a Dalton gauge for twenty-five years at Apslev Mill, on a branch of die 
Colne, in Hertfordshire. The experiments have been obligingly furnished 
by Mr. Evans, of King*s Langley ( Apsley Mill), as kept from 1835 to 1859, 
by Mr. Dickinson and himself successively. In the Apsley Mill series 
there appears to be a tendency in the gauge to show less filtration 
on each leverage of five years. It is probable that this may partly arise 
from the general fact of the gradual ** puddling *' and consolidation of the 
materials of the gauge in so limited an area ; and there is some indication 
of the materials filling the gauge having possibly been changed after 
the year 1844. However, be this as it may, there is an important value 
in experiments of this kind, inasmuch as they afibrd relative results, and 
afford strong indications of the periods when the volume of a stream is 
liable to reduction ; as, for instance, the years 1833-4-5 and 1858-9. 

The discharge of the River Lee for 1851-2-6, given in a subsequent 
page, may Ije referred to as flowing from the same range of hills as the 
Colne: the mean temperature at Greenwich for each month of these 
years is given in the same table. Further information on this subject is 
given in the Hinxworth Experiments ; see also, Tables of Rainfall and 
Evaporation at Oxford, &c., in Division IV. The kind of gauge used 
in the Manchester and Ferry Bridge cases is described on those tables. 
The Dalton or percolating gauge at Apsley Mill is registered from two 
cylindrical vessels, each 18 inches in diameter, rne of which is filled for 
three feet in depth with ordinary soil of the neighbourhood, and the other 
with chalk of the upper district. 



14 





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126 



SUPPLY 07 WELia 

We are natarally led into this subject when treating of the quantity of 
water falling over the surface and percolating through the ground, for it 
is evident t^t the supply of wells depends upon the freedom with which 
rocks will permit the passaee of water, and on the absence of free dis- 
charge at escarpments of lower valleys to which the strata may dip. 
Faults must of necessity drain away the water due to the strata which 
tiicy intercept, the extent depending upon the nature of such faults and 
the free character of the rocks. As faults are generally numerous, it is 
evident that the supply of wells must vary according to the accident of 
position and depth ; but this rule is dot without exception, for there are 
many districts where, with pervious beds lying in great depth on imper- 
vious rocks, water is always to be found at the point where it would 
naturally be deposited by gravitry. The question, is, then, how much 
water filtrates through and into the lower beds of rocks, or would do so 
if it were constantly pumped away as it accumulated ; or, what is the 
same thing, how much is relieved by springs having passed through more 
or less depth of stratification and relieved itself by natural agents into 
the ordinary channels of discharge. 

In Mr. Josiah Parkes' Essays is found the following analysis of the 
Apsley Mill experiments between 1836 and 1843 : — 



Ykav 


Ootober to Xareh. 


April to September. 


• 

Total of each Tear. 


Bain. 


Filtrafen. 


filtered 


Bain. 


ratratn. 


VCent 
filtered 


Bain. 


FUtratn 


IpGent. 
filtered 


A.D. 


Inches. 


Inches. 




Inches. 


Inches. 




Inches. 


Inches. 




i8|6 


18.80 


'1:11 


81.7 
60.6 


11.10 


1. 10 


17- J 


31.0 


17.65 
6.95 


56.9 


1837 
1838 


11.30 


9.80 


.10 


I.O 


11.10 


31.9 


11.31 


8.45 


68.8 


10.81 


.11 


i.i 


13.13 


8.57 


37.0 


1839 


13.87 


11.31 


88.1 


•Jfi 


1.60 


15.0 


31.18 


14.91 


47.6 
38.1 


1840 


11.76 
16.84 


8.19 


69.6 


0.00 


0.0 


11.44 


8.19 


1841 


14-10 
10.46 


84.1 


15.16 


0.00 


0.0 


31.10 


14.10 
11.76 


44.1 


184Z 


14.18 


7}.i 


11.15 


I.JO 


10.7 


16.43 


36.0 


1843 


11.43 


7.H1 


57.1 


14.04 


•99 


7-' 


16.47 


8.10 


Mean 


n 95 


10.39 


74.5 


11.67 


0.90 


7-» 


16.61 


11.19 


4».4 



The mean of each month for the above eight years, is : — 

Bain, Filtration, Per cent. 

Inches. Inches. Filtered. 

January 1.84 ... 1.30 ... 70.7 

February 1.97 ... 1.54 ... 78.4 

March 1.61 ... 1.08 ... 66.6 

April 1.45 ... .30 ... 21.0 

May 1.85 ... .11 ... 5.8 

June 2.21 ... .04 ••• 1.7 

July 2.28 ... .04 ... 1.8 

August 2.42 ... .03 ... 1.4 

September 2.64 ... .37 ... 13.9 

October 2.82 ... 1.40 ... 49.5 

November 3.83 ... 3.26 ... 84.9* 

December 1.64 ... 1.80 ... 100. o 

* As to percolation through recent tile-drained groond, Mr. Parkes says 
that, on a 7th and 8th November, '48 inch rain fell, and on the 9th, '46 passed 
Uirough to the filter gauge ; by an experiment made daring the same period on 
ground drained by one-inch tfles, 24 net asunder and three deep, whidi ^;>pear 
to have carried off all in 12 hours, he concludes that they were equal to such a 
discharge, vis., half an inch in 12 hours. t 



127 



Eeferring to the Tarions estimateg of the ordhiaiy snininer ran of 
streams, and to the amount of rainfall per annum which such ran 
will require, we may safely assume that the mean in a dry summer is 
not more than ten cubic feef per minute per square mile, which repre- 
sents a flow from the ground of somewhat more than two inches per 
annum. If we double this quantity for the ayerage of the whole year, 
due to springs and ordinary rain, or say four inches, we shall be probably 
tolerably near the ordinary run of a riyer, taking summer and wiuter, 
excltisive of floods^ and assuming no very wet or high mountctin 
districts. 

Now the ayerage filtration, from April to September, of the aboye 
eight years, may he taken as nothing for all practical purposes ; while, 
from October to March, we haye an ayerage of 10.39 inches filtered 
through, out of 13.95 inches total fall. Of this winter portion of 10.39, 
we must aUow at least six inches for floods ranning away at the time of 
rain, and then we haye only 4.39 inches left from supply of riyers and 
wells, which, assuming our estimate of four inches for that due to riyers, 
Icayes only .39 of an inch for wells alone. It is certain that this small 
quantity would giye all that we haye as. yet known of the draft of wells 
in all ordinaiy cases ; for how notorious is it, that ordinaiy wells fail in 
summer time, and how few wells there are of a neyer-faiiing character, 
unless they haye some substantial reason for that quality. 

It remains to be discussed in what consists the condition of so-called 
neyer -failing supply to wells. They are of three classes :— First; when 
the depth is smidl so as to catoh only the adjacent percolating water 
which may be expected to trayel from the surface within a short period 
of time : in this dass may be placed ordinary domestic wells. 

Second — ^When the depth is great through or into pervious strata, which 
haye a more remote deriyation of water, and whose power of drawing such 
water towards them is created by the depth giyen to the well, and limited 
only by the friction of water through the strata : it is the element of 
friction, eyen in the most permeable strata, which gives a^ractical limi- 
tation to the supply of water to these wells. 

Third — In the third class of wells may be taken those which are sunk 
into strata which form the water bed or absolute reservoir of water flowing 
from adjacent hills, and having impervious beds below, which uphold 
such subterranean streams. 

It is in the last class that the most prolific wells are always to be 
found, and obviously when they are at the foot, or within reasonable 
distance, of adjacent hills. This class includes the successful bores in 
the beds of green -sand in France, and also most of those in the creta- 
ceous beds of this country. But wells in this foraiation, as in the red 
sand -stone, frequebtiy partake of both the second and third classes, 
owing to upper beds of water which are intercepted and assist in feeding 
the lower supply. In valley wells near the Thames, and similar riyers, 
where the chuk is reached most successfully, there is considerable feed 
given by the valley drift, which round London is rarely more than 30 
feet in depth, and reposes generally on the London clay. It may be, 
howeyer, assumed that weUs after long pumping haye a tendency to 
clear and open themselves so as to draw the water through the strata to 
the bottom rather than fhnn the sides, where it had originally flowed. 

When we consider the enormous tendency to collect giyen to an area 
by the preponderating gravitation from the surrounding strata pro- 
duced by pumping at a depth of 100 to 200 or 300 feet below the 
surface, the wonder should be, rather the small produce of wells gene- 
rally, than an argument for the great supply from wells. In the constrac- 
tion of a well, new drainage is lUSFbrded for ti:e surrounding strata, and 



128 



if the water is kept low by the draft, a new condition of the stratification 
most arise, which increases the tendency to draw from neighbouring 
sources. Considering the exertions made to get water at Liverpool by 
wells, the results are small ; and of the larger instances in London, some 
are influenced by the high tide of the Thames, and are greatly assisted 
by the flow of water in the valley drift. 

The previous suggestions as to rainfall liable to percolate downwards 
to the internal strata are therefore capable of very wide interpretation, 
for there are three elements of consideration, viz., amount of rain which 
can be spared for filtration by the superior resisting power of surface 
channels of drainage ; by gravitating power, or worlung depth of water 
below surface of ground ; and by the friction or permeability of the 
subterranean strata. 

It is obvious, therefore, that wells, if unduly worked, may be another 
form of taking water out of the adjacent rivera or the springs which sup- 
ply them : this is a point which is at all events open to question ; and the 
evidence is certainly rather favourable to such a conclusion in chalk dis- 
tricts, where there are adjacent springs on which an eflbct (if any) can be 
immediately discovered ; for although this may happen, it is not always 
readily discoverable. In the case of " Dickinson v. The Grand Junction 
Canal Company," where defendants sanka well near the summit level of the 
streams flowing out of- the chalk towards the Colne, and pumped thence 
over the watershed line into the canal locking northwards, LordLangdale 
referred the matter to the late Sir W. Cubitt, the President of the Institu- 
tion of Civil Engineers: this gentleman suggested that the Canal 
Company should divide the water pumped, sending half down towards 
the Uolne, and the other half northwards. This was in fact admitting 
the doctrine, qualified in some degree by the proximity of the well to 
the watershed line, where the waters naturally had a tendency to divide 
themselves. The final result of the litigation was a perpetual injunction 
against taking the water from the well ; but this decision was, we believe, 
grounded on aa existing agreement more than on the common-law view 
of the question. In the Croydon case the Board of Health distinctly 
reduced the volume of the Wandle by pumping from a well, but the 
owners of water>power did not succeed in arresting the pumping or 
in obtaining damages. 

Other cases of this class are still undecided, or have minute shades of 
difference between them, so as to render it difficult to apply any one case 
to another apparently similar. There is a growing tendency among the 
Courts to «*egArd the percolating water as a common bed (like a mineral), 
from which each owner may supply himself, so as he exercises only his 
strict rights of ownership. In the case of "Johnson v. New River 
Company,** defendants (in 1855-56) made deep sewcrsin the public streets 
of Hertford, the strata being large flint drift and gravel : the effect of the 
work was to drain all the water from numerous adjacent wells, and un- 
doubtedly to damage the plaintiff, who obtained a decision in his favour ; 
but on the case being carried to a superior court, the judgment was 
unanimously reversed, although the judges admitted that it was a hard 
case for the claimants. 

Wells and Springs are identical in character : their essential feature 
is that of a moderate, uniform and slow amount of supply : this gives 
rise to the common mistake of much overrating their power ; for the 
store of years is readily mistaken to be perennial. Wells are among the 
earliest contrivance of the human race, and of the lowest order in civi- 
lization ; being provisions for the wants of humanity, ordained by Pro- 
vidence. BO that man shall have water in detail wherever he may require 
it, for his daily use ; and in order that the snpply may be pure, the 



129 



chomist informs ns that the carbonic acid and other materials in the 
natural soil constantly purify the percolating water in the slow passage 
(filtration) downwards ; thus returning the Uquid pure from the manure 
and other impurities of the upper soil — from the animal and vegetable 
wonders of the microscope, children of light and air, that cannot exist 
below; so that the earth, synonymous with corruption, is also all- 
powerful in production and support of new life, as described by a 
great apostle before chemistry was known. Wherever inmiense popula-^ 
tions are gathered together, these conditions are interfered with so 
as^ to upset the ordinary economy of nature, and give rise to the com- 
plications which the engineer is called upon to adjust. 



WELLS PASSdrO THBOTTOE TERTIABIE8 DTTO THE ITPPER 

0SESK8AHD AND CHALK. 

The following examples are chiefly taken from papers and discussions 
in the " Minutes of the Institution of Civil Engineers," and we must 
leave the reader to draw his own conclusions from the general facts 
when collated with the foregoing data. 

The chief supply to the wells of London is the bed of sand which lies 
on the chalk under the great bed of London and plastic clays ; the nature 
of this bend renders the communication between different wells frequently 
very apparent, and it is equally certain that all the large weUs have 
constantly to be deepened, to enable them to keep up their supply. 

Mr. Clutterbnck (Mins. Inst. Civ. Engrs.) says, that the permanent 
depression between 1841 and 1848 has been 12 feet, or 18 inches per 
annum, the progress being thus : — 

Hendon Union Workhouse 6 feet in 8 years. 

Cricklewood 10 

Kilbum 20 

Zoological Ghirdens, Regent's Park 19 
Hampstead Boad 10 „ „ 

Mr. F. Braithwaite, who has devoted much attention to this branch of 
engineering, gives a table to shew the effect of pumping from the sand 
springs under the blue clay at Coombe*s Brewery, Long Acre. The fol- 
lowing is an abstract : — 



»» 



rt 



t» 



II 



II 



II 



DxpTK ov Watsb bblow Gbowd, nr Fbr. 



1888. 
January 113. 6 

March 116. o 

June 113. o 

September ... xi8.o 

December ... X17. o 



1841. 
119. o 

121. 6 

124.0 

124.3 

124. 6 



1844. 
131. o 

135-6 
137.0 
134.6 
135.6 



1847. 

133- « 
133.1 

139- 1 
146.0 

140.0 



1849. 
148.6 

152.6 

158.0 

x6o. 6 

155-9 



At Greenwich the well ebbs and flows > Land springs 2 feet, 
during each tide in the j Sand „ 3 „ 



At Coombe's Bieweiy, additional borings in the chalk, 100, 200, and 
300 feet deep, gave only 4 cubic feet per minute more water : the water 
of this well has lowered 60 feet and upwards in 25 years. 



130 



At Meux's Brewerj, 260 feet boring in chalk only gare 1.6 cubic feet 
per minute more water. 

The following is a general statement relating to wells ronnd London, 
compiled from the same sources : the quantity supplied must be taken 
witK considerable caution, as it is not always the case that the lull-stated 
draft is perpetually being pumped out. 



Looali^ of Wells. 



Bushey Meadows, Watford (a) 

Hanwell 

Hampstead Road, (b) Angust, 1838 
„ March, 1839 

Trafalgar Sanare 

Head*B -chalk exposed 1,600 sq. ft. 

Greenwich Hospital 

Woolwich (e) 

Booth's at Brentford (d) 

Well at Gravesend, 1837 

Brompton, 1860 



Dmih 

below 

groimd. 

iMt. 


BtlOT. 

T.H, 

Water. 

feet. 


Dcpa 

in 

Oh«lk. 

feet. 


Deptb 

Bored. 

feet 


Amoimt 
of npply, 
0. feet per 


• *• 


• •• 


• •• 


• •• 


200.0 


. .. 


• •• 


• •• 


• •• 


20.4 


183 


105 


37 


• •• 


10. 3 


... 


• •• 


• • • 


• •• 


21. I 


400 


375 


100 


• •• 


65.0 


• 


... 


• •• 


• «• 


32.0 


153 
600 


240 
590 


130 

580 


ICO 

• •• 


160.0 


41 S 


• •• 


■ • • 


100 


13.0 


• • • 


• •• 


• •• 


• •« 


13.0 


170 


30 


160 


120 


33.0 



(a) This well was made through raUey drift Into chalk close to the Colne, with 
porous dialk hills all round ; the «Kperiment was only made for a short period. 

(b) Well finished in Febroazy, 1838. Depth 183 feet; worked by a SO-horse 
engine, at a coet of £8. 17b. for each 24 boors. Chroes ooet of well, engine and 
pomps. £18,422. See Mr. B. W. Mylne's elaborate papers on wdls, and his 
gefdogical sorvegr of the metropolitan distiiots. 

(c) Throog^h valley drift into chalk ; steep hUl dose behind. 
(aj Supply chiefly flrom sand springs. 



Among successful wells through the tertiaiy drift into the cretaceous 
series, may be quoted those at S^ghton, where one of the borings is said 
to afford one xniUion of gallons per diem ; at Worthing, the rarface of 
the well beine 30 feet above the sea, and 360 feet deep in chalk, gives ft 
most plentifm supply ; at Portsmouth and Gosport there are successful 
wells, giving from 2*00,000 to 500,000 gallons per diem. So also is the 
new well of the Brompton Water Company, in a narrow chalk valley about 
two miles from the Medway at Chatham ; and a somewhat parallel case in 
the Ravenbum Valley, above Lewisham, where the result has been most 
successful. All these cases have a similar character in the greater or less 
propinquity of porous hills of chalk in elevation considerably superior to 
the position of the wells ; these hills being generally bare, or more or 
less covered with superficial drift of a higUy pervious character. Wells 
and bores in the valley of the Lee have Wn generally succesaful—say up 
to 100,000 gallons per diem near the surface ; but at Tottenham there is 
an upthrow of London clay, and below this point results are not so suc- 
cessful. It may be doubted whether the presence of a great thickness of 
London Clay is not predicative of deficiency in copious water bearing 
properties of the strata beneath. 

Among the unsuccessful cases may be quoted, — Southampton, where 
the original well was made 160 feet to the chalk, thence 402 more in this 
material, after which, a boring of 7} inches was made for 755 feet more, 
making a total depth of 1,317 feet; the last 18 feet was in chalk marl, 



131 



when no water having heen fonnd, the project was abandoned, after an 
enormouB amount of expense had been incorred. At Harwich a boring 
was made by Mr. Bruff, the well-kEown engineer, through an immense 
thickness of tertiary strata (London clay) ; on passing through about 100 
feet of chalk and gault, the bore suddenly penetrated a very hard black 
slaty rock at a total depth of 1,025 feet, when the project was abandoned. 
The rock had every appearance of being one of the palicozoic series, so that, 
as at Calais, Ostend, and Highgate, the lower men sand appeared to be 
absent. Hampstead is a very parallel case to this ; the depti of similar 
beds was traversed to 1,118 feet from the surface (about 800 feet below 
high water) without finding water, and the parties came to red con- 

Slomerates and chiys; these continued for nearly 200 feet, so that it was 
eemed prudent to relinquish the attempt to get water at a depth of 
1,302 feet. In the well at Calais the results were precisely similar to 
those at Harwich ; the depth of 1,047 feet completed the cretaceous series, 
and after boring into transition rocks 103 feet more, the search for water 
was abandoned. 

Mr. George R. Bumell, C.E., who is one of our highest authorities, has 
written some most admirable and lucid papers upon this subject, and 
draws especial attention to the uncertain character of deep wells and 
borings. From this author*s description of the French borings, we give 
the following stetements. (See his paper read before the Society of Arts, 
January 29th, 1862.) 



ABIEflZAir WSLL8 PAWnrO THBOITOH CHALK DITO LOWEB 

aBJDSHSAHD. 

THE CRENELLE AND PASSY WELLS. 

In 1883, M. Arago induced the Conseil Municipal of Paris to under- 
take the execution of a deep boring for a supply of water from the lower 
green-sand formations, which he supposed to form a continuous bed 
under the chalk basin, and the tertiary strata of the neighbourhood of 
Paris. This lower green-sand, in fact, outcrops from under the chalk 
on the whole of an irregular oval, passing from the north-east through 
the south, nearly to the north-west of Pans, and it approaches that city 
the most nearly at the point where the Seine forces its way through the 
overlying recent formations near Troyes, in Champagne. At Lusigny, 
theprecisepoint of outcrop, the surface of the green-sand is about 300 
or 850 feet above the level of the plain of Grenelle : hence it was thoueht 
that water from the green-sand would flow over the surface at Grenelle, 
and MM. Ango and Walferdin were eqcouraged in that opinion by the 
existence of numerous artesian wells carried through the chalk into 
the same stratum at Elbosuf and Bouen. 

On the 29th of November, 1833, the works of the Grenelle well were 
commenced by M. Mulot, and after encountering many serious difficul- 
ties from the nature of the ground, and from the fracture of the tools 
made to work at so great a distanoe from the surface, a copious jet of 
water from the lower gieen-sand was obtained on the 26th February, 
1841. The depth then reached was 1,807 feet, of which 1,378 feet were 
in the chalk : toe water rose at first at the rate of 800,000 gallons per 
day, to the height of about 122 feet, and its temperature was about 82** 
Fiuur. At first it contained sand, clay, and other matters in sun)en8ion, 
and it was nearly twelve months before the water passages of uie sub- 
terranean strata were sufficiently cleared to allow the water to rise in a 
state fit for distribution. On several subsequent occasions, also, the 



132 



sand hafl acctunulated in nich quantities, in the ^pes lining the bore, as 
to render it necessaiy to draw and ^lean them. Tnis boring cost a totid 
sum of £14,000, and took about seven years for its completion; the 
diameter of the bore was 8 inches. 

More recently the municipality arranged with Kind, a German engi- 
neer, to make an artesian boring of two feet diameter into the same strata 
at Passy. This work was commenced early in 1855, and by the Slst of 
May, 1857, the boring had rear,hed the depth of 1,732 feet from the sur- 
face, when the upper portion of the tube collapsed, at a distance of about 
100 feet from the surface. This accident delayed the completion of the 
work for three years ; but finally a new well was sunk about 175 feet, 
and the boring was resumed. Much trouble was encountered in travers- 
ing the strata below the distance of 1,732 feet above quoted, and at 
length, at the distance of about 1,894 feet from the surface, the first 
water-bearing stratum was met with, but it did not rise to the level of 
the ground. The boring was continued until the 24th September, 1861, 
when the true artesian spring was tapped at the depth of 1,923 feet. 
When the water rose to the surface, its dischai^ was at the rate of 
5,582,000 gallons per day. The yield has since then oscillated, but so 
long as the column had not been raised above the level of the ground, the 
tottJ quantity does not seem to have fallen short of 4,465,600 gaDons. 
The well of Grenelle (which, by the way, had been falling off in its yield 
for some time before the completion of the Passy boring, no doubt on 
account of some obstruction in its ascensional tube, but which for several 
days before the 24th September discharged regularly 200,000 gallons per 
day), fell, in about thirty hours after the Passy spring had been tapped, to a 
yield of about 173,000 gallons, at which rate it remained stationary, 
until the tube of the Passy boring was raised so as to allow the water to 
stand at the same height in the two wells, when the original rate of deli- 
very of the Grenelle well was resumed, but the rate of delivery of that at 
Passy fell to 2,000,000 gallons per day. The horizontal distance of the 
Pas^ well from the one at Grenelle is about 3,830 yards ; and the water- 
bearing stratum is about 100 feet nearer the mean level of the sea at 
Grenelle than it is at Passy, whilst the surface of the ground is about 35 
feet higher at the latter locality than it is at the former one. 

The water is undoubtedly the same in both these cases ; both have a 
smell of sulphuretted hydrogen, and* are of the same temperature, 82® Fah. 
The cost of the well at Passy has amounted to £40,000, and ^e time of 
construction rather more than seven years. 

Mr.Bui-uell says that at Tours, where many artesian wells have been 
sunk into the subcretaccous beds, the subterranean supply is becoming 
exhausted, and, as in the case of the wells supplied by the basement beds 
of the London clay and chalk, the lower green sand wells are gradiuilly 
losing their artesian character. In two wells also, at Evres and Fcr- 
ridres, the subcretaccous formations yielded no water ; and in the latter 
the bore was even carried to a depth of 30 feet in the great oolitic, or 
jura limestone, series, without obtaining a supply. 

It would be wrong to leave this subject without mentioning the artesian 
borings in the Great Desert of Sahara, being nuide by the French for 
some years past. Mr. Bumell says that up to the month of June, 1860, 
no less than fifty of these wells had been sunk in the desert, and that they 
pour out jointly 7,920,000 gallons of water per day. 



133 



WELL8 IH THE NEW BED SAHDflTOEE. 

During the contest as to the mode of supplying water to Lirerpool, the 
late Mr. Bobert Stephenson was called upon to investigate the power and 
cost of suppljing from wells in this formation. He had the advantage 
of existing wells on which to experiment on a veiy laige scale, and he 
came to the following general conclusions : — 

That an abundance of water is stored up in the new red sandstone, and 
may be obtained by sinking shafts and driving tunnels about the level of 
low water. 

That the sandstone is generally very pervious, admitting of deep wells 
drawing their supply from distances exceeding one mile ; but its per- 
meabili^ is occasionally interfered with by faiuts or fissures filled with 
aigillaoeous matter, sometimes rendering Uiem partially or wholly water- 
ti^t. 

That neither by sinking, tunnelling or boring, can the yield of any 
well be very materially and permanently increased, except so far as the 
contributing area may be theieby enlaiged. 

That the contributing area to any given well is limited by the amount 
of friction experienced by the movement of the water through the fissures 
and pores of the sandstone. 

That there is evidence to shew that the tendency of the river water 
inland is slightly preponderating over the pressure of the body of water 
in the sancUtone towards the Mersey, the wells being generally sunk 
abotft 20 feet below low water mark. 

That it might be a fair conclusion, under existing circumstances, that 
the equilibrium would be very nearly adjusted, because the mass of the 
weUs draw their supply from the sandstone at a level somewhere between 
high and low water mark, and the column of fresh water from the sand- 
stone exerting its natural pressure, prevents any ingress from the fluc- 
tuating column of tidal water; but that the uniform pressure of the 
column of fresh water is interfered with by the great extent of pumping 
from the wells; the effect of this, in many cases, being to lower the 
surface line of water in the sandstone below the river surface, when a 
reverse action ensues, and the brackish water obtains a slight advantage. 

That the various proposals for obtaining water, by sinking at one point 
in the immediate vicinity of Liverpool, will not produce tiie stipulated 

2uantity. That experience shews the necessity of deepening the wells in 
liverpool, from time to time, from the great demand. That there is 
little or no probability of obtaining permanently more than about 
1,000,000 or 1,200,000 gallons per day, from any one well, and this 
only when not interfered with by other deep wells. 

That the most, if not the only feasible plan for making the water con- 
tained in the sandstone available for the general supply of Liverpool, is 
to sink a series of wells scattered over a large area of country lying to 
the east or north-east of the town. 

The report states that the net cost of working the existing deep wells 
at Liverpool was as follows : — 



IS 



134 



NameofBtetian. 



Bootle 

Bush 

Soho 

Hotham Street 
Water Street... 

Windsor 

Green Lane ... 



Heifirht 
Water 
lifted. 



Feet. 
40 

123 
123 
no 

156 

210 
185 



Quantity Baised. 



OaMoft. perMin. 
100.6 
29. 1 

51-7 
24.7 
45.8 
71. 1 
112.2 



Total Ck)Bt per 

Ann. of Baudng 

Water. 



e f. d. 

i»445 3 3 

716 3 5 

833 17 I 

603 4 8 

874 7 10 

949 o 3 

920 2 7 



CkMtperann. of 

BaiOna 1,000,000 

Gawms, or 

160,613 0. fbet. 



£ «. d. 
478 
7 10 

4 18 

7 9 

5 16 

4 I 
2 10 



I 

9 

4 
6 

6 

I 



The grofls cost of raising 112 cubic feet per nunute, or 1,000,000 gal- 
lons per diem, at Green I^e find Windsor Wells, is-^ 

For current expenses, including supeiintendence .. .£1,100 
Depreciation upon engines and machineiy, engine- 
houses an4 cooling-pond, £11,200 at 2 per cent. 224 

Total per annum... £1,324 

From which the annual cost of each new station, including 
mains for delivery into the Distributing Beseryoir, is 
estimated thus :^- 

Current expenses, including superintendence £1,10Q 

Depreciation upon engines and machinery, engine) ^40 
houses and cooling-ponds £12,000 at 2 percent. } 

Depreciation of mains, £8,000 at } per cent 20 

Interest on capital, namely — £30,800 at 4) per cent. 1 ,38& . 

Compensation to landowners 250 

Total per annum for distributing 112 cubic feet | £2 g^g 
per minute, excluslTe of service pipes j ' 

Mr. StophensoD suggested th^t if Liyerpool were to be supplied from 
wells, they should be scattered at wide distances over the iprea to th^ 
east of the town ; he estimated that each new station and its mains to 
the Kensington Beservours would cost £28,000 and allowing one station 
for each 1,000,000 gallons supplied, and the same quantity for each of 
the two present stations (which cost, exclusive of capital, £2,648 per 
annum) he made the following comparison of the annual cost of sup- 
plying Liverpool with water from weUs and from Bivington Pike :— 



To obtain 



Oal. per day, 
8, 000, 000 
9,000,000 
10, 000, 000 
11,000,000 
12,000,000 
13,000,000 



C, ft. per min. 
or ^9i.4Would 908t 

M i|Ooj. 8 „ 

M i»ii4-3 

„ 1,225.7 

M ^337-x 

„ 1,448.6 






Gravitation. 

Bivington, in- 

dading interest 

on capital of 
£600,000. 



£ 
28, 100 
28,356 
28,612 
28, 868 
29,125 
29,381 



Pnmpinff. 

Wells, inwid- 

ing interest on 

oapital. 



£ 
20, 624 
23, 620 
26,616 
29,612 
32, 608 
35>6o4 



1^ 



It must be observed that the foregoing case is highly favourable to the 
prodnction of water ; the range of sandstone hills face the sea with a 
moist climate and considerable rainfall, the rocks are highly porous and 
permeable ; and the rear of Liverpool is composed of flat valleys in the 
table-land, whence the strata dip towards the Mersey. 

Mr. Stephenson's remarks were highly cautions, for his oflScc was to 
decide between their competing schemes for supply of water to Liverpool. 
The cost of the Bivington Pike supply has very much exceeded the above 
estimates ; but of course the proposal for wells would have been liable to 
increase over the estimates. 



on THE FLOW OF BIVEBS AHD STREAKS. 



ssnxATs or dischasox nr belatioh to eaihfall. 

The rain gauee is a most useful instrument in the hands of an engi- 
neer, if used wi£ due experience of the effects which its records are 
known to produce in similar districts ; although the result may be occa- 
sionally not altogether synchronous, yet on examining the broad facts 
we shall not find anything at variance with the general laws which 
govern the collection of vapours and their deposit in rain. Districts may 
greatly vary in their general slope and geological character : granwacke, 
granite, and the volcanic districts generdly throw water in great rapidity, 
and are equally liable to great drought in summer time, unless they are 
capped by moss beds, whicn act as sponges not always the most pure ; some 
of ue newer rocks, on the other hand, such as the old and new red sand- 
stones, have great power of storing water ; the latter rocks, Irom their 
flatness, generally holding it as indicated by the wells, which are always 
plentifid in this formation ; the former, on the other hand, generally give 
out the purest spring water when occurring on mountain slopes, rising 
above the plains occupied by our numerous coal fields. 

In the chalk districts this porous material absorbs a great portion of 
the rain that it receives, collecting it in great underground sheets repre- 
sented by the numerously-interlaid flint beds, or in vertical vaults and 
water-worn channels, and pouring out almost rivers at places that have 
no indication of a feeder ; so strongly is this marked, that the chidk 
districts may be always identified upon the Ordnance maps by the 
absence of streamlets on its surface, a characteristic likewise of some of 
of the mountain limestones and oohtes. 

In this latter formations we have had occasion to examine springs 
which, although most copious, could be scarcely recognised to have any 
area of drainage beyond them ; rocks with very flat bedding frequently 
conducting water far away from the visible surface slopes, and pour it 
out apparentiy but little below the summit level of the hills on which the 
rain supply is precipitated. 

These instances are -familiar to aU who have studied the water-bearing 
properties of the hills of Great Britain. Watching the progress of agri- 
culture and drainage, we find the hill pastures scored in all directions 
with sheep drains, while in agricultural districts thorough draining 
steadily advances, and in mani^acturing districts and populous towns 
everything becomes artificial ; all these operations are rapidly contribu- 
ting to affect the leveb at the mouth, or on the lower course of our 



136 



rirers, aad the incontrorertible order of eyents is to force on new im- 
prorements. Frequently in this state of affiurs, the march of improve- 
ment has commenced in tbfi harbonr at the mouth, and tidal volume is 
sent up higher and sooner than known before ; dredging machines are 
set to work, and bold piers or long river walls are constructed ; and 
although the landowner may find his outfall better, he also discovers that 
new conditions may arise out of remote causes. 

In the estimates of floods, and description of various riven in this 
Division and in the Division m. on Tides, we have endeavoured to sketch 
out a few examples of cases, with which the engineer should expect to 
deal, in constructing outfalls or in improting lowland rivers. In 
hydraulic operations, more than with all others within the scope of 
engineering, it is absolutely necessary to predict and provide for new 
effects, for we have not only to deal with Statics but with Dynamics, and 
with a material having the highest facility of motion. 

When investigating the various questions raised within the 
scope of subjects on wnich we are now treating, and in generali^ng on 
the water-bearing qualities and powers of dischaige of districts in ordi- 
nary and flood time, the observer will be well aware, that there are 
seasons of drought when the most certain streams are seriously afiected 
in their water-bearing properties. The tables exhilnt the great quantity of 
water afforded in some cases ; yet we have it on record that almost the 
whole of the sources in the Pentland Hills were dried up in the summer 
of 1843. There appear to be, indeed, rare occasions when the hill-countiy 
sufiers more from drought than lower districts : the lake district of Cum- 
berland was similarly affected at about the same time. 

In hotter countries these facts are proverbial. In the great tertiary 
plains of centi)il Spain, which are 1,200 feet and upwards above the sea, 
huge rivers shrink into dry gravel beds, while at the same time the sea- 
ward face of the ihountains which fringe the Bay of Biscay, are clothed 
with verdure caused by perpetual rains ; this grand escarpment is broken 
up into the wildest and most precipitous glens, where the vapours rolling 
from the sea are caught and poured down with astonishing rapidity and 
volume. The chanuter of this great condensation, as it were, is so 
marked that severe droughts are experienced on the inland side of the 
escarpment (5,000 to 7,000 feet above the sea) while within a few miles 
rains are daily pouring down. These effects occur in a similar manner 
along the escarpment of the Bombay peninsula, where the rainfall is 
from 80 to 150 inches in the year, while it gradually recedes to 10 or 15 
inches in the Deccan or dry country ; the same is to be traced on the 
coast of Arracan, and in California on the West Coast of America. 
The rainfall of the Western Highlands is remarkable, likewise that of 
the LoJce district, both have a similar character with those of the 
more Southern climates. Particulars of the Rainfall of all these cases are 
given in Division lY. of this Treatise. 

In the following table we give a few examples of actual dischaige 
from sevend hiU cUstricts in the Northern part of Great Britain, where 
the total flow of water has been gauged for the whole year round, and 
has been absorbed for economic purposes by artificial works. The Bann 
Beservoirs, and some of those near Manchester, are from Mr. Bateman's 
papers in the Manehater Philosophical Memoirs* 



mm 



137 



TABLB OF YOLXniE OATOED OB 8T0SSD TX BKALL HILL 

DISIBICTSy 

with the amonnt giyen per square mile, the amount of water run off in 
depth oyer the surface, and the amount intercepted by reservoirs con- 
structed for economic purposes. 



liOCALITT. 



Bonn Reservoirs, 1837-8 
Greoiodk, 1827-8 flat 

moor M 

Bute (a), 1886 

GlenooTse, Pentland 

Hilla (« 

Befanont,i843, moorlaDd 
»» 18*4 y, 

» 1846 
1846 
Biybigton Pflce {(1^194/7 

Longendale 1847 

Bwineahaw 1847 

Tuxton and Bntwisfle, 

18S6. 
Tnrton and BntwisUe, 

1837. 

Bolton Waterworks ... l 

Ashton 1844 



Height 

above 

Bea. 



Ik ft. 

40oto&,6oo 

5ixtoi,ooo 
xooto 3$o 

7j4toi,6oo 
E50toi,6oo 



6ooto.i,545 
Sootoi,8oo 
500toi,6oo 

500 to 1,300 



800 to 1,600 
800 



sqre. 
miles. 

5.15 

7.88 
7.80 

6.00 
a.8i 



16.15 

• ■• 
■ ■• 

3.18 

••• 
.80 

.59 




cube ft. 
pr.mn. 

109X.6 

1416.6 
819.0 

600.0 
630.4 
41&.8 
511. a 
411.3 
1880.0 



• •• 



576.7 

548.x 
100. & 

40.7 




cube ft. 
pr.mn. 

xto,x 

"97-7 
105.0 

100. o 

X1A.3 
146.4 
181. 9 
146. J 
176.7 



181. 3 

171.3 

115. X 

65.5 




ins. 

48.0 

41.0 
13.9 

11.3 

50.7 

33-3 
41.* 

3J-» 
40.0 

49- S 
37.0 

4i>o 

39.0 

}»-7 
15.5 




ioe. 

71.0 

60.0 
45-4 

t 

37- o 
63.4 
50.0 
55.0 
49-8 
55-5 
55-5 
49-3 

46.1 
48. » 



40.0 






Si 



02 



ca.ft.in 
millna, 

56.0 
38.0 



7.66 
16.8 



19.6 



■ ■f 



31.43 

•■. 
15.6 

II. o 



(a) This year's rahi was about 13 hiohes less than an ayerage. 

(ft) Glenoorse discharge is only the amomit ezdnsiye of floods ; the reseryoir 
supply totally ftmed in the drought of 1826 and 1848 ; the raisiail is giyen in 
Division lY . of this work : the amount of RoBenroir has beetti doubled since this 
estimate was made, and itspower of supply in ordinary years of rain has been 
thereby much increMed. The Glenoorse drainage is generally precipitous. 

(c) Biyinston Pike Beseryoirs were not made when these ganguu;s were taken. 
The amount was eanired two years. The country is moor, partiy Sat, and partly 
precipitous, 80 miles from the west coast of Lancashire. 

In 1846-7 the author conducted an experiment by accurately ganging 
for fonr months the water, flowing from S,800 acres, into the Giencorse 
Besenroir, in the PentUnd Hills, belonging to ^e Edinburgh Water 
Company, as follows : — 

Cubic Feet. Inches. 

1846, December. — Supply into Reserroir... 1 9,762,00O»fiEd] of rain 1.43 
„ „ ... ... ... Registered ditto 1.02 

1847, January. — Supply into Reseryoir ...14,524,200B&Uof rain 1.05 
ti ••• ... ... Registered ditto .75 

Febrnaiy. — Supply into Reseryoir ...18,6d7,lOO=fall of rain 1.34 
tf ... ... ... Registered ditto 1.56 

March. — Supply into Reseryoir ... 9,662,520sfall of rain .69 
•I ... ... ... Registered ditto 1.02 



tf 
ff 
*ff 
ft 
>t 



138 



The total rain passing into the Besenroir in four months being ... 4.53 

Ditto registered in lain gauges at level of Reservoir „ ... 4.31 

„ „ „ on the Hills „ ... 4.75 

Again in the Bonally district adjoining, but about 500 feet higher than 

Glencorse, we found the mean run of the streams to be 112 cubic feet 

per minute, or equal to a fall of rain over 879 acres of 4.55 inches, 

the registered fall being as before 4.71 inches. 
As a contrast to the foregoing table, we now offer a second : — 



TABLB OF OBDDT ABT 8UMKSB DI8GHABGE 

of various rivers, streams, and springs, as uninfluenced by anj inunediate 
rain ; with the drainage area, and amount run off the surface represented 
in depth of rain. 



BIVEES. 



Height 
above Sea. 

VaUqr Hm. 






T 




Tbainei at Btainea-Hdialk»greea 

sand, Oxford clay, oolites, fto. 
Severn at ^tonebench— aUurian 
Trent at its mouths-oolites and 

Oxford clfur 

Loddon j[FeD. I860)— ffreensand 
Nene, at Peterboroagh:— oolites, 

Oxford day, and lias 

Mitnram, at Panshanger— diaJk 
Lee, at Lee Bridge — chalk 

(Btmue, April, 1796) ... 
"Wandle, belowOarsbattoih—ehaik 
Medway, driest seasons (Menm»f 

1787)— day ... 

Ditto, ordinarv Bummer ran 

(Jmwm0, 17o7/ .m ... 
Yerolam, at Bashej Hall-Hihalk 
Gade, at Hnnton Bridge--chidk 
Plym, at Sheepstor— ffnnlte ... 
Woodhead TanneL-mulBtane grit 

Glenoone Bom (0^ 

Crawley Spring — fdspar an 

porphyry — Smnmer (« 

„ Winter h 

Blacksprlngs— fdspar— -Sum. (« 
„ ■ ,, Winter («, 
Bavelaw— sandstane— Sammei<e) 
Colziam „ „ («) 



•i 



ft. ft. 

4oto7oo 
400 to 2^600 

100 to 600 
no to 700 

10 to 600 
100 to 500 

30 to 600 
• Totojso 



ifotosoo 
15010500 
800 to 1,500 

1,000 
750 to 1,600 

556 to 1,600 

»» »i 
1,000 to 1,600 

900 to i,^ 



sqre. 

miles. 

J,o86 

3,9»« 
zai.8 

6x0.0 
50.0 

570.0 
41.0 

481.5 

481.5 
110.8 

69.5 
7.6 

• • • 

6.0 



cubic ft. 

pr. min. 

40,000 



},O0O 

5»<»o 
1,100 

8,880 
1,800 

1,109 

1,5*0 

t,8oo 

1,500 

500 

139 

IJO 



>» 



If 



.6 

.6 

.1 

.1 

1.4a 
4.10 



54 
77 

JO 

40 
120 

"J 



cubic ft. 
pr. min. 
1Z.98 
8.49 



"J-5J 

8.45 
»• 4 

15.58 
41- 9 

4-59 

li. 9 
JO. 1 
7«- 4 

If. 6 

90. o 
118. 3 
300. o 
400. o 

84. 5 
19. 9 



inches. 

1.93 
1.98 



3.01 

1.88 
5- 5 

9.93 

I.Q4 

1.19 

JJ7 

8.19 

15.10 

4- 9 

10. 1 
29. o 
70. o 
91. o 
19. o 

6.87 



indiee 
H-5 

»S-4 
14.0 



4J.O 
46.0 

J7-4 



The examples here given have gcmerallj been corroborated by our own 
observations ; the rain at the places marked (o) has not been kept, but 
that at Glencorse represents the rain for the lowest point of the same 
district ; the rain on the hiUs is much greater. 

The BUckspringB among the Pentland Hills indicate a drainage 
from a district apparently far beyond the water shed ; they occur at a 
protrusion of basalt; these sprii^ and others marked (e) are from 
gaugingB made at different perio£i, under the provisions of Acts of 



139 



Farliament, for the protection of parties having water piiyil^eB. The 
locality is a point which most collect much xain from its peculiar 
situation. 

The Wandle, Yemlam, and Ghide, all flowing oat of the chalk towards 
the metropolis, are from Mr. Telford's gangines made in 1833, a period 
which he terms " the driest season known for uie last half-century ;** but 
tiiere is reason to believe tiiat this was not the time of the minimum 
dischaige. 

The table gives tiie run of the several streams per square mUe of drain- 
age area, wMch is an excellent measure of their productiveness, and we 
have likewise reduced the amount (as supposed to run uniformly during 
the year, irrespective of floods) into tiie quantity distributed over the 
drainage area, as fed by rain; for example^ the summer run of the 
Thames is stated at 12.98 cubic feet per minute for each square mile, 
representing a rate of 2.93 inches of rain fidling over its drainage area, 
while tiie sunmer run of the Mimram is 24 cubic feet per minute for each 
square mile, representing nearly six inches in depth per annum, if the 
rate were uniform for tiutt period. 



XSIDEAIE or FLOODS. 

In a paper by Mr. Mulvany, one of the Irish Commissioners of Drainage, 
are the following facts as to floods in the Shannon, which we have put 
into form, shewing the fractions of an inch of rain, distributed over veiy 
large drainage areas : — 

Longh Allen is a reservoir of. 8,852 acres. 

Drainage area being * ..* 146 square miles. 

Floods rise freqaently 3 ins. in 21 hours = .284 inohes.rain over tne whole basin. 
Less frequently 4 „ „ = .379 „ „ 

And Bometinies 6 „ „ ^ .668 „ „ 

Longh Berg, above Eillaloe, is 80,313 acres. 

Drahuige area of Shannon, above Killaloe, being 3,611 sq. miles. 
„ „ ofthe immediate basin of L. Deig 960 „ 

Total 4,571 

This Lough, before the improvements of the Shannon, 

Bose fireqnantly 8ins.ln24taounsB.148ins.ranofl^ or226o.ft.perBq.ml. 

JjBtB frequently 4 „ „ » .190 „ „ 810 „ „ 

▲bontonoeineaohyr. 6 „ ,, ss:.296„ „ 480 „ „ 

17th November, mb 12 „ in less than 

24 hoUrs ^ .600 „ „ 900 „ „ 

The register ofthe rise of this flood in Lough Derg, is as follows : — 

Gauge, ft. in. 

1840, November 13th, to 9 8 

to the 16th, when nan began ... 9 9 
17th, 10 9 



i8th, 

19th, 

20th, 

21st, 

2Snd, 

28rd, 



11 1 

11 8 

11 4 

11 4 

11 8 

11 9 



140 



Among other examples may be quoted those hj Mr. Bobert Kanning, 
C.E., of the Irish Board of Works, who giyes the following cases of floods 
which were observed in the arterial drainage works, the chief of which 
were in the northern and western parts of £eland, with considerable area 
of mountain country : — 



Number 

of 

Examples. 


Drainage Area. 


Hax. dischanre 
per Square Mile. 


Max. Fall of Hain 
in 24 Houra. 




Square Miles. 


Cubic feet per minute. 


Inches. 


I 


3,690 


282 




4 


1,170 to 1,560 


358 to 429 


1-75 


2 


470 


531 


1-75 


3 


234 to 280 


531 to 640 


1.49 to 1.75 


4 


xio to 140 


461 to 717 


1.20 to 1.83 


3 


98 to 100 


544 to 890 


0.80 to 1.20 


1 


45 to 60 


800 to 1,158 


0.80 to 1.30 


I 


46 


1,568 


2.00 


I 


35 


2,688 


2.00 



This accurate observer gaueed the Gljde river, during a veiy wet 
period, f^m the Idth of December, 1850, to the 13th of March, 1851 ; the 
river has a basis of 124 square miles. The following were the results : — 



1851 



Januaiy 13th 
Februaxy 18th 
March ISth 



MMUflOW 

per BflQAK 



0.ft.pr.iiL 

x6o 

240 

95 



Total .... 



165 



Depth 
run off 
BMin. 



BalniAU 
obeerred. 



Inches. 
3.04 

4.56 

1.66 



9.26 



2.02 

3-43 
0.44 



5.89 



>^ Maximum discharge was 
461 cubic feet per minute 
per square mile. 
V Minimum discharge was 
52 cubic feet. 
Low Summer discharge was 
20 to 24 cubic feet. 



These results are similar to the winter experiments in the Pentlands 
(ante), when the quantity running off was more than the observed rain- 
fall ; in this case the ratio is as 1.57 to 1 .00. The discrepancy arises in 
these cases, undoubtedly, from the great excess of rain falling on hill 
slopes above the locality of the rain gauges. The rainfall of this period 
was excessive. (See Tables of Rainfall — Division lY.) 

The months of December, 1850, and Januaiy, 1851, gave 3.55 and 
6.33 inches of rain at Castlebar, Co. Mayo ; and other places in the West 
of Ireland had from eight to nine inches in Januair ; the flow off the 
surface of the basin of the Saleen, Castlebar, Manulla, and Robe riyers 
was gauged by Mr. F. Barry, C.E., at 5.73 and 8.33 inches off the sur- 
face during the respectiye months ; the total area of the four basins being 
200 square miles. The quantity appears excessive ; but we have the 
warm Atlantic in full effect in producing rain in the West of Ireland, 
al^ough the JSfut of that country is nearly as diy as the East of England. 



141 



In the Saleen districti the maxiinTiin flood in January was 960 cubic feet 
per minute per square mile, and there was a flow of 640 feet for nine 
days ; the same quantity flowed by the Castlebar river for seven days, 
by the Manulki for four days, and the Bobe for one day. These 
difierences must have been greatly due to varying intensity of rain. 

Hr. Mulvaney, C.E., states that the ordinary floods of the Woodford 
river (Leitrim and Cavan) give 426 cubic feet per square mile, and the 
following is given bv this gentleman as the greatest discharge measured 
during t£e very high floods of January, 1851 : — 





Area of Basin. 


Qtianti^nm 
offBaainper 
square nme. 


Depth nm 

off in 
24 hours. 


Lower £me at Belbeek 


Square Miles. 
152a 

483 

140 


0. fbetpermin. 
333 

534 
711 


Inches. 


Upper Erne at Belturbet 

Woodford Biver at BaUyconnel 


•331 
•447 



Mr. Bairy quotes an experiment made by him on the 16th of July, 
1850, in the Lannagh district, where, by gauging the Lough, it was 
found that .53 inches ran off the surface (30 square miles) between the 
1 6th and 20th of July, from rain which fell to the amount of 1.83 inches 
in twenty-four hours on the 16th, there having been no rain for nine 
days previously. This quantity must have b^n accurate, from being 
ntuged in the lake which was diEunmed up at the time ; the rise from 
the 16th to the 17th was .244 of an inch off the drainage area. Jn two 
other districts of twenty-four square miles, the quantity run off in three 
dajrs from the 16th of July^, 1850, represented about one inch in depth. 

At page 153 and 154 will be found more particular information on 
the comparative rainfall and flow from the Ballinrobe and Ferbane dis- 
tricts in the West of Ireland, and from the district of the lower Bann 
when issuing from Lough Neagh in the north of that island ; in tiiis 
latter case the flow is regulated by the lake, but the baon has a much 
more monntainoas character than the former rivers, although the rain- 
fall at equal elevations is less in the north than in the west of Ireland. 

In the clay and lias formation of Northamptonshire, where the hiUs do 
not exceed 500 feet above the sea, rainy seasons cause endless floods : we 
have an experiment, made between the 21st and 23rd of May, 1849, on 
the River Nene, at Higham Ferrars ; this place is intermediate between 
the water-shed and Peterborough, being distant about twenty -five miles 
from the water-shed all round Sie west and north sides. 

The drainage area above Higham Bridge is 383 square mUes. On the 
20th of Biay about one inch ol steady continuous rain fell, raising the 
stream from its ordinary run of about 5,000 cubic feet per minute, to a 
quantity averaging about 32,000 cubic feet per minute, lasting from- the 
evening of the 20ui to that of the 23rd, when the river, in the course of 
a very short time, relapsed into its usual state. Dividing this quantity 
over the drainage area, we shall find that there flowed off ihe ground 
about .156 or just three sixteenths of an inch — thus the proportion flow- 
ing off the ground was about one-sixth of the rainfall. In this example 
it must be recollected that the weatherwas beginning to be warm, and 
the flooding of meadows along the vallegr would have absorbed at least 



142 



three inches in depth, which wonld represent about l-16th of an inch 
more of rain haring come down into the vallej. The floods on the 
Ncne have finequentlj twice, and sometimes three or four tunes, this 
volume ; but in exceptional cases ten times the above volume may be 
assumed as the maximum flow. 

In the Fentland Hills, on August 8th, 1846, a storm, giving 1.88 
inches in the gauge at Glencoive, produced for four hours a run of 24,180 
cubic feet per minute ; this amount from 3,820 acres, would be equal to 
.437 or nearly 7-16chs of an inch of rain off the surface in this short 
time. Probably more than this came down, as the reservoir had to be 
filled before the flood passed over the weir used for ganging. This is an 
indication of the violence of the celebrated Tjammas flood of this date, 
which washed down several of the bridges on the North British Railway, 
situate on rivers flowing from the steep hills skirting the east coast of 
Scotland. 

Mr. Bateman records an experiment near Bolton, where on a drainage 
area of 5,400 acres, 5 inches were measured in the rain gauge, having 
fallen during eight consecutive days previous to the 10th of June (the 
end of May ha\ing been very wet) : the flow of water had passed off 
entirely by the 12th of the month, when a quantity of water was found to 
have fallen equal to 4.625 inches in depth over the drainage area. This 
flood is exce^ed frequently by twice and three times the v<Aume. 

Mr. Bateman also describe the heavv floods from January 1st to 
February 9th, 1848, when 11.5 inches fell, of which 6.4 inches fell in 
the nine davs of February, three of the days (the 4th, 5th and 8th) giving 
1.1, 1.2 and 1.3 inches. These returns are from an average of many 
rain gauges placed in the Longendale district, which is moorland, and 
from 500 to 1,800 feet above the sea, and about 45 miles therefrom. 
The area is 29.5 square miles, and the mean discharge was 713 cubic feet 
per minute per square mile for 40 days, or .44 of an inch per diem run 
off the surface during the whole period. At Rhodeswood reservoir the 
maximum flow in 24 hours was 46,000 cubic feet per minute off 11.2 
square miles, or 4,100 cubic feet per square mile, which is equal to 2.4 
inches off the whole surface. 

During this severe flood on about 25 square miles, part of the same 
district, 6.5 inches flowed of the surface in 5^ days of February, 1848, 
or 1.2 inches per diem ; this is equal to about 2,000 cubic feet per 
minute per square mile. 

These cases are extremely different to those in districts where the rain- 
fall is small and the soil permeable, for instance : — 

Mr. Glynn considers that for draining fen districts more than ten horses 
power per 1 ,000 acres is seldom required, the water being lifted about 
ten feet. Two inches per month is about the maximum rainfall re- 
quiring to be dischaiged ; ajwnming this quantity to be thrown at a rate 
of 500 cubic feet per minute, a ten-horse engine will perform the duty in 
about 232 hours. — Paper on Steam Drainage qf the Fens, 

Mr. Roe states that he measured and drained off to one outlet 82 acres 
of meadow land, and made observations on the flow for six months ; the 
greatest amount found to reach the drain from a fall of half an inch of 
rain in the hour, was three cubic feet per minute per acre at the period of 
greatest flow, which was generally from three-quarters to one hour after 
tiie heaviest rain. 

For more detail on volume of floods see the pages in the section 
devoted to Rivers, &c. 



143 



DmSIOH or FLOOD WATEB8 FROM OSDINABY DI8CHAB0E. 

While upon the subject of floods it will be interesting to quote the 
substance of a paper by James Leslie, Esq., of Edinburgh, Civil Engi- 
neer, read before the Institution of Civil Engineers in April, 1851, as 
follows . — 

It is frequently a problem to ascertain by gauging the average flow of 
a stream during a part of the year, exclusive of flood-waters ; it being 
difficult to assign any fixed time when a stream is and when it is not in 
a proper state for gauging, as it would require a knowledge of the vexy 
fact which it is wished to ascertain ; moreover, persons must be found 
frequently to gauge for many months together, widiout discretion as to 
what should bis excluded, and sometimes stated intervals are named in 
an Act of Failiament. Mr. Leslie therefore proposes the following 
method : — 

First, — ^The gaugings are all to be set down in a table, in the order qf 
their quantities— the whole number of observations is to be divided into 
four equal parts, whereof the lowest fourth will be hcid to be extreme 
droughts ; and the highest Jloods ; the average of the middle half is to 
be ascertained, and aS above that quantity of the original table is }ield 
to be flood-water. 

A new table is then to be constructed, in which all the gaugings not 
exceeding the average of the middle half are put doi^-n at their actual 

rintity ; but all that are above the average are put down as equal to 
t average quantity ; the mean of the whole of the new table is to be 
considered as a fair average of the water flowing in the stream, exclusive 
of floods. Mr. Leslie gives a table of a stream thus treated, which 
yarie4 in its run from 1,902 to 59,861 cubic feet per minute. Average 
of the whole was 10,231 cubic feet per minute; the average of the 
middle half was 7,234 cubic feet per minute ; and the average quantity, 
exclusive of floods, was 5,830 cubic feet per minute. 

Mr. Leslie also suggests that his plaii might be used by dividing the 
gaugings into only three equal parts, which gives a rather smaller result, but 
makes no important difference ; the above stream treated in this manner 
gives the average of the middle third 7,085 cubic feet per minute ; and 
the quantity, exclusive of flood-water, 5,758 cubic feet per minute. 
An example is also given of a small stream vaiying from .27 to 272.4 
cubic feet per minute. 



The entire average was 

Average of middle half 

,, ,y lillUu..* ... *•• ••« 

Final average, excluding floods by middle half plan 

by middle third plan 



» 



i» 



f> 



Cabio feet 
perminate. 
. 35.50 
; 18.51 
. 17.90 
. 13.65 
. 13.40 



Ui 



TABLES OF FLOW FBOH LABOE DISTBIOTS 
THSOTTOHOUT THE TEAE. 



OH THE BIVKB LES. 

The Lee and branches take their rise among hills of gentle inclina- 
tion, with flat summits about 250 to 850 feet above the sea. The total 
area, above its junction with the Thames at Blackwall, is 700 square 
miles, but its more important feeders cease at 16 miles from the Thames, 
where the basin is about 500 square miles, and 100 feet above the sea : 
below this point there are daj lands on one side of the ralley ; and 
faults which cut off the chalk beds occur on the opposite side, so that in 
dry periods there is but little additional visible fted to the valley. This 
small river is well known for its pure sources in the tertiary sands and 
chalk hills of Hertfordshire ; hence it has always been a fevourite vniter 
for the supply of London, and it is owing to the Thames having a similar 
source for a laige proportion of its volume that it bears such a high charac- 
ter as a pure potable water. One of the branches of the Lee has such great 
beds of sand and perennial ^rings, that the heaviest rains will not pro- 
duce a flood in a strict sense. It is not uncommon for many months to 
pass without a sensible discoloration of the Lee water by floods. 

The author has gauged this stream for eleven years past, and the 
monthly returns for 1851, 1852 and 1856, are given in the "Tables 
of Discharge from Large Districts.'* 

Reference to these taUes will aflbrd much Infonnation, for their 
general results are applicable to the Thames and the Seine, or like rivers 
in these latitudes, havine due regard to the difference of the are|s and 
elevation. The quantities run off per square mile are very similar (see 
Table of Rivers), and at least half of the area of the Thames and Seine 
is of permeable, tertiary and cretaceous rocks, like those of the Lee. Tlie 
rainfall of the Thames is rather higher than that of the Seine or the Lee, 
and the impermeable lias district at its head is more subject to the western 
rains fh>m the Atkintic. The Seine head is granitic and mountainous 
compared with that of the Thames. 

The deep-seated springs of the River Lee are probably affected by rain 
at an intervid of a year after its fall ; for instance, the wet year of 1860 
kept up a full summer supply through 1861, although this year was hot 
and dry ; again, the hot summer of 1861 was followed by a dry autumn, 
and yet, although an average of five inches of rain fdl in November, 
the river was scarcely affected ; so little that one and a half inch of rain 
in the first week in December scarcely produced turbid water, and in the 
first week in Janmuy, 1862, the flow was lower than it had been since 
September, 1859. The largest of the lower springs from the chalk, at the 
end of December, was still at its lowest of the year: this is not uncommon 
with springs in districts of chalk and green sand with overlying 
drift : in the absence of recent heavy rains affecting the upper beds, 
it may be doubted whether the real minimum of these springs is not 
between October and December, and the maximum between May and July. 
Generally speaking, all round the metropolis the deep springs are situate 
at from 190 to 120 feet above mean sea level : in fact, tnere are few that 
exist below this level, for the waters appear to issue silently beneath the 
upper beds of drift into tiiat of the valley, where the water is found very 
copious, as shewn by the quantity which has to be pumped in deep valley 
foundations. When the chalk springs are 140 feet or upwards above sea 
level, they generally have a more fluctuating character, unless they have 



145 



high land for a continuooB distance aboye and aronnd them. In 1851, 
1854 and 1858, for instancet when the rain varied from 10 to 80 inchefl, 
manj of the lai^ upper springs were veiy low or ran dry : a very im- 
portant one in Hertfordshire, situate about 150 feet above the sea, was 
dry from August or September to November or December of these years, 
although its dischaige fh>m December to July is rarely less than 130 feet 
per minute. On the other hand, those placed about 100 feet above the 
sea, and nearer to the base of the hills, are absolutely perennials The 
following statement of a spring thus placed will shew the difference 
of character assumed by the lower position of a perennial one, flowing 
out of the drift beds deposited in clefts of the chalk, or apparently from 
the chalk itself. The mean dischaige between September 1st, 1859, and 
June 1st, 1860, was about 280 feet per minute. By tiie Ist of July, 
1860, the volume had increased to 840 feet per minute : this appeared 
to be the normal flow tmtil August 18th, 1861. The quanti^ b^an to 
fell off from this date until the end of November, when the flow had 
again fallen to 280 cubic feet per minute. Although this was a very wet 
month, it certainly had no sensible effect on the spring ; for being fol- 
lowed by a diy December, it appeared at the end of first week in January, 
18(52, the flow had fallen to 240 cubic feet per minute. By examining 
the rainfell of these years, its slow but steady influence on the springs 
will be traced. 

The following table gives some of the discharges of the Wandle, at 
Wandsworth, and Colne, above Uxbridge. The Wandle has a large 
area of dry streamless chalk hills, forming the major portion of the 
basin, and its waters have almost more stricUy a deep-seated chalk spring 
charaicter than those of the Lee, the dischai^ of which, during paxallel 
seasons, is given as a means of comparison. The Colne basin is re- 
markable for a considerable district of table land with depressions, having 
no outlet for flood waters, excepting by " swallows." 





BlTcr Wandle 


River Lee, 




River Colne, 


BlverLee, 




MMi.mUM. 


444 iq. milea. 


DATS. 


800 Ml. miles. 


444 sq. miles. 


DATS. 




Dis- 




DlB- 




Dis- 




Dis- 




Dis- 


charge 


Dia-- 


charge 




DIs- 


charge 


Dis- 


charge 




etaaige 


perM. 
mile. 


shargo 


per«q. 
mile. 




eharge. 


per§q. 
mile. 


charge. 


perM. 
mile. 




ISM. 




IBBl. 






18U. 




1856. 






e.feet 


cfeet 


e.feet 


cfeet 




e.feet 


e.feet 


cfeet 


cfeet 




prjniiL 


prjnin. 


pr.min. 


pr.min. 




prjnin. 




pr.min. 


prjnin. 


August 18th. 


1,050 


56.5 


8,xo4 


18.5 


Jdiy 0th 


5.996 


20.0 


6,06a 


13.6 


Sept. 2nd .... 


l::s 


r? 


6,66^ 


15.0 


4»*U 


14. 1 


6,1x0 


13.8 


„ 9th 


6.547 


14-7 


» 18th 


5»»77 


17.6 


6,359 


14-3 


„ l«th 


2,880 


5hi 


6.55« 


14-7 


„ zsru ..... 


5.819 
6.171 
5.996 


19-4 


6,151 


13.8 


„ »rd 


%»idi) 


5X.0 


6,J70 


14-3 


Jime 6th...... 


XI. 1 


6,341 


14-3 


„ 90th 


».695 


49-9 


6,405 


14-4 


„ 16th .... 


ao.o 


5,811 


13. 1 


October 7th.. 


z,83i 


5».4 


7.«>7 


i6.i 


Sept. let 


4.9*3 


16.4 


4.663 


10.5 

tO.O 


„ l«h.. 


2>8o3 


51.9 


6,500 


14.6 


„ 22nd ... 


4.aj4 


14.1 


4.698 


„ 28ih.. 


J»»7«> 


58.7 


6,559 


14.8 


Dec. 8(h 


8.978 


J9.9 


9.655 
I8fi6 


XI. 7 














18fi6 
















Feb. 2Srd .... 


ii,*04 


37- J 


11,483 


x8.i 












Jane 20th .... 


11,104 
1867 


37-3 


10,015 
1857 


11. 5 












March 7tih ... 
Average ...... 


10,050 


33.5 


9.955 


XX. 4 


Average 


a»955 


54-7 


6,779 


15. »7 


7.<a4 


»3-4 


7.359 


16.6 



The River Colne, in Essex, was gauged near Halstead, for 24 hours, 
on the 6th and 19th of August, 1869, and gave a discharge of about 2.16 
cubic feet per minute, per square mile, for its 41 square miles : the dis- 



146 



charge of the Lee at the same time was abont 11 cubic feet per mintite, 
per square mile. The district has a low rainfall, and the snmmer was 
decidedly diy ; the soil is drift clay, gravels, sands with chfdk beneath at 
considerable depths, the beds of which probably dip away from the 
yalley : the contrast of flow is very great. 

It is veiy dijQScnlt to test the flow from small districts of cretaceous 
formations in relation to their area of supply, especially where springs 
alone are concerned ; the large spring above quoted would appear not 
to have more than 1.3 square miles of contributing area, so that a mean 
flow of 300 cubic feet per minute would require 63 inches of nunftJl per 
annum : as the mean rainfall is not half this depth, it is clear that the 
collecting area must be far greater than is apparent on the snrfiuse. 



AS TO FLOODS OF THE JJEB, AHS SDOIAB PSBMEABLE 

DISTRICTS. 

With years having only 18 to 22 inches of rainfall there are scarcely 
any real floods in these rivers, in this climate ; when the rainfall is from 
22 to 28 inches the floods are generally frequent, or if the district is of 
such permeable character that there are no floods (such as on the Wandle 
and Oolne), then the perennial supply is copious ; if, again, the annual 
rain&ll increases from 30 to 40 inches the floods are constantly recurring : 
on the Lee, for instance, in 1860, there was rarely a month passed without 
two floods. 

Notwithstanding the placid flow of the rivers deriving their supply 
from chalk and deep permeable drift, these basins of permeable forma- 
tion have occasional floods almost equal to those of mountainous districts. 

In the south-east of England, north of the Thames, there has rardy 
bcen a period more rich in floods than November, 1852 ; in this month 
six inches of rain fell at Greenwich, and nearly eight inches in the Lee 
valley, following a September of 4 inches and October of 6 inches fall. 
The nun at Feilde's weir for November was about 2 inches on the 
second, and of the remaining six inches about 3 inches fell between the 
10th and 15th of November, and about 2 inches between the 20th and 
27th. The total flow off the ground for this month was 2.32 inches in 
depth, excluding a considerable quantity not gauged. These rains, 
with those of 1857 and 1860, are described in the tables devoted 
to Rainfall. The floods committed serious damage from the Severn 
and Trent to the Thames, and laid the lowlands of Cambridgeshire, 
Norfolk, Suflblk, and Essex under water, for several weeks in many cases. 

The floods on the Lee in November, 1852, were excessive, and the 
maximum rain committed great mischief ; this was, however, exceeded 
in intensity by the floods of October 23, IS.*)?, within a few days of 
which date the extreme floods occurred on the southern slopes of the 
Alps, and in the Arddche on the Cevennes Mountains. {See River Po,) 

A description of the storm will be found given by Mr. Glaisher in the 
1858 report of the Meteorological Societr. The rainfall at the centre of 
the district up to 9 a.m. of the 17th of October, 1857, had amounted to 
1.32 inch ; on the 18th it was .18 ; on the 19th, .20; on the 20th, .10; on the 
22nd, .50 ; and finally at 9 a.m. on the 23Td, 2.55 inches fell, when the 
storm ceased, and on the two following days .15 and .10 only fell. In 
short, the rainfall causing this flood was over one-tenth of an inch for 36 
consecutive hours, as recorded : but the centre of the storm was near the 
head of the valley, and is thought to have been even more heavy in that 
district. At about 2 a.m. in the morning of the 23rd, the flood began to 
surmount eveiy bank and barrier in the lai^ flat space below H^tford, 



147 



which receires the waten of the four bnuiches of the Lee ; this was filled 
to a depth of aboat 4 to 6 feet by 7 a.m., from which time up to middaj 
the flood was at its height at Ware ; at Rye Mead, about four miles 
lower down, the waters rose so high that the ordinary wide opening 
on the Eastern Ckmnties Bailway, which here crosses the valley, became 
a secondary passage for the waters, which assumed a direct course through 
two small flood openings. The flood carried away the entire stmc- 
tnres at about 8.30 ,a.m., and the scour was so great as to have made 
pools 12 to 16 feet deep in the peat and ballast at the points of rUpture. 
The maximum head of this flood passed down the Lee Valley to the 
Thames' month, a distance of 22 miles, in about 32 hours, giving an 
average velocity of 62 feet per minute. The author gauged the velocity 
of this flood at its maximum, at Ware Bridge, through which point the 
major portion of waters were compelled to pass. The width of opening 
was 45.5 feet, and depth about 11 feet ; area 510 square feet, and observed 
Telodties gave a maximum of 825 feet and an average of 768 feet per 
minute {see Flood qf the Loire). The discharge was thus 891,680 cubic 
feet per minute fbr an area of 300 square miles, giving 1305.6 cubic feet 
per minute, per square mile, or .8J inch run off the entire surface in 24 
nours ; this fall now was only attained for about 12 hours, but as there 
was a large quantity during the entire day making its way by forced pas- 
pages, on the New River and down the line of railway (which became a 
floodway), it is considered that the above estimate of flow is not excef sive. 
The gaugines at Feilde*s weir (440 square miles) between the 22nd and 
l}6th gave a flow off the ground of 142 cubic feet per square mile, being 
.44 inches for the flve Siys, or .088 per diem, but adding the extreme 
flood of ^e 33rd, it is probable that the total flow off the ground was 
1.162 inches, or a mean flow of .281 inch per diem, for flve days, being 
450 cubic feet per minute, per square mile, which is an extreme case for 
so low and flat a district. An independent computation of another kind 
gave the mean Qow for 24 hours at Feilde's weir of the 23rd October, at 
.835 inch run off, or 1347 cubic feet per minute, per square mile. The 
intensity of this flood had no precedent within memoj^ or record, and 
therefore its volume affords a hignly interesting record. This flood did not 
perceptibly afiect the Thames, because that nver did not receive much 
of Uie storm ; but the memorable rains of November, 1852, raised high 
and low water of the Thames upwards of three feet on the 19th and 
20th of that month, the tides being affected to this extent by the gorging 
of flood waters. 

The rains of November, 1852, were copious and widely difiused, being 
far above the average all over England, throughout the seaward parts of 
Fnmce, and over the Jura and Alps from Dijon to Milan ; they pre- 
vailed in a similar manner in North America and in Germany, but in 
some few cases October is the wet month instead of November. 

The storm of October, 1857, was centrical and concentrated at the 
various points where it was severe, in Italy, France, and also in England, 
where its centre was about Royston, and a radius of 30 miles would 
include the heavy and remarkable portion of the storm, viz., an average 
faU of one-tenth of an inch per hour for 36 consecutive hours. The 
great rains of May 27th to 30tn, 1856, which deluged the Loire, Saone, 
and Rhone valleys, appeared to concentrate on the Pny de Ddme and 
Jura ranges ; it was not so great on the head of the Rhone or the Po. 

In May, 1856, the rain was 7.3 inches at St. Bernard; 11.7 at Geneva ; 
9 to 12 in the valley of the Sadne; as far west as Dijon the fall was 
8.3 inches ; but at raris the rain was only the usual amount. May, in 
England: was generally very wet, i.e. nearly double the average* this was 
the case also at Madras a;id Calcutta. (See Division IV.) 



Kfll 



1 



148 



HnrrwoBTH szpsBmsimi. 

Mr. J. Bailey Denton, C.E., has lately read a paper at the Institatfon 
of Civil Engineers, wherein observations over 12 months in 1856-7, of 
the actoal d^charge (torn free and tile-drained soils (amounting jointly 
to 200 acres) situate at Hinxworth, near Tring, amounted to about 7.5 
inches off the surface, while the rain-fall was about 21 inches, the average 
being 24 inches. 

The following more precise experiments were made daring eight 
months from 1st of October to 31st of May, 1857 : — 



Xoath. 


BainftlL 


Water porooUted or nm o£ 








No. 1,8. 3. 


N0.I. 

Maeree, 
Chalk with 


No. 2. 

4a Acres, 
Sou partly as 


No. 8. 

IB Acres 

Yery stiff 

Gault Clay. 










Olay, OraTel, 


lastcolomn, 






Onantity the 
Itaiu would 


Mean of flow 


or Sand. 


but more 






Rufaf^n 


fromaU 


Oreensand 


Oault Clay 






eftch 


repment 


Bxparlmanta 


and Oanlt 


with Lime. 






Month. 


parftcn. 




Clay. 
Drains 174 feet 














Drains 


Drains IS feet 










apart and 


parallel and 


apart, and 
4 feet deep. 










4 feet 4 Inches 


wide apart. 










deep. 












Qiuntltynin 


Quantity ran 


Quantity run 


Quantity run 








off per acre. 


off per acre. 


off per acre. 


off per acre. 




Inches. 


Oallont. 


OaUont. 


Oallona. 




OaUooa. 


October... 


1.645 


37.115 


5,818 


12,910 


4*546 




November 


1.630 


36, 872 


10,458 


27,000 


4,046 


330 


December 


1.235 


a7»935 


16, 768 


30, 565 - 


»3»9i5 


5,825 


January . 


»-333 


5a» 775 


39» 943 


43»855 


44»i7o 


31,805 


Februaiy . 


. 191 


4»343 


16, 801 


27, 360 


13.985 


9,060 


March ... 


.820 


«8.547 


6,188 


8,415 


6,840 


3,310 


April 


1.440 


3a» 586 


7,865 


6,683 


10,725 


6,188 


May 


.750 


16,967 


3»8i9 


4.13a 


3.907 


3,418 


Total... 


10.045 


227, 240 


107, 660 


160,920 


102, 134 


59,936 


Over 


surface = 


10.045 ins. 


=4<7iii8. 


^7. 1 ins. 


=4. 5 ins. 


=2.65 ins. 



By the above it would appear that in November, December, Jannaiy 
and February, the tendency 01 percolation is to approach 'the amount of 
rain fallen during the same period, but that in the eight months the 
quantity run off was about 4.7 inches out of 10 inches that had fallen. 
This result is tolerably consistent with the Dalton gauge experiments, for 
the quantity run off is nearly that due to the year of low rainfall ; and 
all experience shews that very little more would have filtrated during 
the four months of June to September. The tables of the River Lee 
experiments on 440 square miles of drainage area, which affords practically 
nearly aU percolated water, excepting in floods, are singularly consistent 
with these experiments on an area of only about the 2,500th part of the 
Lee. See alio numerous other experiments and gaugings quoted in this 
Division. 



149 



TABLES OF FLOW. 

This will be a suitable place for referring to the subsequent tables of the 
flow of water from several considerable districts, which have been taken 
out with great care and much labour, by the gentlemen who have 
assisted in this treatise. 

The tables will be found to give the maximum floods, with the mean 
and maximum discharges, and respective rates of flow firom the several 
basins, taking the square mile of 640 acres as the unit, computing the 
discharge and treating such afterwards as if it were distribute in 
uniform depth over the whole surface from which it is supposed to have 
flowed : the observed rainfall at the nearest station is then set out in each 
case and made the standard of comparison. 

The several articles on the Khone, Arve, Loire, Po, Bhine, Nile, 
&c., which follow these tables, contain computations from the most 
trustworthy records at present available on this somewhat untrodden 
branch of engineering science. 

Greneral indfonnation on the rainfall is given for each locality; but 
more particulars will be found in the tables of rainfall, Division IV. 
It must be borne in mind that the localities vary greatiy in latitude, 
mean temperature, climate, geological structure, elevation and slope ; it 
is for this reason that we have been at some pains to procure examples 
rather than attempt to propound theories ; but in order to throw light 
npon the question, the reieider will find in Division IV. some records of 
evaporation combined with the temperature and rainfall for several places 
in tnis oountry and in the tropics, compiled and computed from the best 
observations Uiat could be procured. 

The table of the River Lee is from gaugings taken, twice a day, over 
a tumbling bay, constructed with the object of ascertaining the con- 
stant flow of water. (See Art. " River Lee.") 

The tables of flow from Loch Katrine, Loch Lubnaig, and the Brock- 
bum, are derived from Mr. Bateman's reports on the supply 
of water to Glasgow ; and partly from Mr. Leslie's gangings. The data 
for the Lower Bann and Brosna-Ferbane rivers were most kindly fiir- 
nished by Mr. Forsyth, C.E., of the Irish Board of Works. This gen- 
tleman has had great experience in arterial drainage and other works 
touching the su^ect which we are now discussing. 

The table of discharge gauged in 1851-59, from the Robe district, 
in the North-west of Ireland, is from a paper by Mr. Betagh, C.E., given 
to the Iri^ Institution of Civil Engineers, and kindly forwarded to the 
author by this gentleman, who has been at much laboiir in these investi- 
gations. 

The gangings from which the flow of the Tiber is computed, were 
furnished by Secchi, the learned astronomer,* at Rome, with other 
information on the rainfall. 

The mean height of this river from 1822 to 1849, as recorded 
by Yenturoli, is shewn on a diagram (plate XTV., fig. 5), with 
the mean monthly rainfall at Rome; the curves indicate much feed 
from snow collected in the winter, which, however, evidently melts early 



* It is gratifjriBg to ackDOwledge the immediate assidiiity with which eminent 
Bcientiflo jsrendemen holding the observatories of St. Petersborgh, Rome, Naples, 
Madrid, Brussels, &o^ have responded to applicationB for mformation. The 
international Post OlBoe airangements now render oonrespondenoe easy and 
che^, where fonnerly it was practically impossible to proonre prompt retama. 



13 



150 



in the jear, owing to the comparatively small heights of the moontains 
at the sources of this river. The heights are given for a minimum 
year, 1834, and maximum years, 1822 and 1836. The monthly 
rainfall at Rome fit>m 1822 to 1849 will be found in Division iV. ; 
but it must be assumed that the precipitation of the hill country, forming 
the basin of the Tiber, is far greater than these returns indicate. The 
springs are said to be very great in volume, owing to the cavernous nature 
of the rocks. Iiombardini states that the section of the Tiber, at the 
lowest period of 1834, was 230 feet in breadth, with a mean depth of 6.4 
feet, and a mean velocity of 177 feet per minute. This would give a dis- 
charge of 842,000 c. feet per minute, and about 53 c. feet per square mile, 
which seems high for such an exceptional year. It is probable that the 
stated velocity is very much in excess ; but this great autiiority regards 
the minimnm volume of the Tiber to be triple that of the Po, area for 
area. 

Below the table of this r^ver will be found the quantity of water used, 
and area of land irrigated in the pli^nB of Lombardy referred to in the 
article "River Po." 

The Saone river is one of peculiar character, inasmuch as it makes a 
complete circuit round both flanks of the Jura mountains, and receives 
rery heavy rains, accompanied by melting of snow in May and June, 
and rain only in October and Noyember. The sammer droughts are long 
and sometimes severe, so as much to impede navigation. 

The table of discharge of this considerable river is from returns pub- 
lished by the Hydraulic Conmiission of Lyons. These highly valuable 
gaugings were made for ten years, accompanied by strict meteorological 
observations kept at twelve stations. The essence of the experiments 
(from 1862 to 1855) is given in the table, and the bearing of the tem- 
perature, combined with the rainfall and melting of snows on tiie volume 
of the river may be distinctiy marked. In reference to this subject, the 
diagram fig. 4, plate XIV., may be noted as shewing the volume of the 
Seine, the Po and its tributary the Adda, compared with the rainffdl and 
temperature. This diagram is. from Lombardini's vesearch^ ; it has no 
scale, and is, therefore, probably relative only ; but a reference to the 
" Table of Rivers" at tiie end of this Division, wiU give the mean, maxi- 
mum, and minimum discharge of these examples, and thus afford a 
key to the curves of variation. On plate ^Iv. fig. 5, we have also 
given a diagram of the variations of the Tiber, and rainfall for the years 
above described. 

For tiie rainfall in all these cases, see Division IV., where also will 
be found the details of stations in tiie Rhone and Badne Basins ; see 
" Rainfall of France — ^Bonrbonne to Besan^on," &c 

Further information on the flow of large rivers will be found under 
the articles on the Po, Nile, Rhone, &c., &c., which form the sequel 
to this division of the treatise. We have added some gaugings of 
districts, artificially drained by sewers, and amount of water suppli^ by 
the great water companies over the large area forming the metropolis 
of this country. 



SE 

(boTfllheWelri wUnh li sborB 90 mOs from Ifae Tbuoe* M BlMkwoD. 
T.W 1851. 


MOnH. 


Sj 


IllxhlL 


I><KUr|>«>r<UdViirilr. 


T^ 


« 


W- 


?;u 


KC 


- 


-— --— 


— 


Huch 

Not.'!! 
Deo... 


41.9 
40.1 
41.6 

11 


i 


: 


¥> 
40 


0.90 

I. SB 

o:|! 


^j.oso 7.U7 
19,641 ia,j67 

IS m 

ll,z.7 5,«sj 

1;IS ill 


1 

■i:3 

»,ooc. 
6.«9f 

a* 

61^ 




•1; 

i:5 


9.7J 




«.! 


>*s 


>-SJ 


u.fa 


9(,677 4.47) 


.■.too 


«S.6 


6.« 


4.1* 


Teu 1862. 1 


J»n..., 
Feb.... 

D»t... 


40. B 

(6:J 


M 


i.lo 




79.*S9 

IS 


(.160 

is? 

II 


i9,9Ti 

'i:5! 
.!:K 


ii:! 

114.6 


0.M 

;1 


ii 




JO. 6 


IJ» 


I. Bo 


)9.7' 


'"6.™ 


4.7to 


.7.S9. 


4°.) 


9'! 


4-!f 


Teu 1868. 11 


Jtn.... 
Jnlj!: 

^;: 

Deo.'.!! 


40-T 


,J 




1 

77 

1 




1' 
So 

9° 


"'1' 
'i:S 

&4.901 


B.S&J 

6,1+1, 


>o,»4* 

i 


iO 


0** 

lii 





DETAILS OV FLOW FBOK LAKGE SI8TRZCTS. 



18S4. 


>u..» 


,„^__^ 


-«. 


»"j:e. 


»■. 


."S:^.. 


s? 


iS-;:::: 

OOobtr.. 

Not 

Dee. 


i 
'i 

»7 


i 


E 

14. ™o 


4lljoo 

iliS 

14. JOS 


"1^ 
i 

i 


U 

J- 7 


li 

9-4 
6.1 


i 

i.to 

0.76 

i:i 






1 »S,i6t 


,.. 






,1 



Dm. 

lea. 

J™,:::::: 
tX..:: 

OclobB... 
MOY 


I| 

h 


i! 


7. HI 

iiill 

|.8SI 


"li 

JOl.) 


■■97 

i;a 

1.56 
j'sj 
I'.fi 


t°4 


0-99 

If 
















i-n 


a^:::::: 

October.. 
Deo 


1 

ios 


000 


IS 

5,000 

ulooo 


ills 

si 


pi 

104 

471 

1 


V 
1:1 

.1;? 


&0 

4-7 
4-3 


i 

J 

1 
















1 



;:« 

il 



153 



DETAILS OF PLOW PBOM LASGE DISTSICTS. 

BIYSB BAHH, AHD LOVOH ITEAfiH, ntELAKB. 

3>t80HABO« OTKB TBI VBW WBIB BBLOW VHB LOVttV. 

Area of Lake 163 aq. miles; Drainage area 2,063 sq. xnilee ; Total 2,206 sq. mileB. 
Bummer level of Lake 46 feet above the Sea : Height of District 40 feet to 1,036 feet and 
1,766 fbeb— one-third of the Mountains bounding the distriot being upwards of 1,000 

fbet above the Sea. 

Year 1856. 



xovra. 



January . 
Febmaiy . 
Haroh .... 

^ :::•::: 

June 

Ju^y 

August .... 
September 
October .... 
November. 



BAlnfaUMl 



Ho, of 
DajB. 



so 

17 
9 

\i 

SI 

15 
"9 

n 



io6 



D»7«' 



in. 
0.|5 

0.67 
0.15 

ai4 
0.47 
o.)i 
o.z« 

066 

I. II 

o.|4 
0.04 
a9s 



I.IZ 



VotaL 



ia. 
1.16 

»-»7 
0.7 J 
1.05 
3.01 
1.09 

1.69 

3-49 
«.49 

;:£ 



*y.9* 



Cubtoft. 
parMiii. 

464. 900 
6fti,ooo 

179,000 

XII, 000 

198,100 

i7»fjfoo 
1x5,600 

1x5,600 

»J5»»oo 

a93»Joo 

XXX, 800 

661,400 



66x»40O 



06,300 
il6,xoo 



CnUefk 

pwMlo. 

360,000 

434»«oo 

xo6,6oo 

141,400 

1x0,300 

144, xoo 

95f$«» 

91,600 

91,800 

XII, 800 

i47»7<» 
461,800 



69,800! xo9,i5o 






OvUflft. 



163. X 

196.0 

65.4 
^•3 

41.6 

q6.o 

07.0 

X09.4 



94.8 



nm cff 
DMiiet 



3- 13 
3-54 
1. 81 

I.XO 

1.05 

I. XI 

0.83 

0.79 
0.77 

1.84 
1.X5 

4. ox 



XI. 



±L 



10 



dMNh 

fliaim. 



1 10 

O.TX 
0.64 
0.41 
0.87 
O.X9 

1.80 
0.34 

4.53 
0.80 

I. 17 

0.94 



I.X8 



DISCHABeB AV VBBBAITB BBXDOB. 

Drainage area 440 sq. miles : Height of DisMct from 162 flset to060 fiBetand 1,054 feet 
Length of Main mver above Ferbane Bridge 88 miless of Tributaries 
90 miles— Total 128 milea. 

Year 1852. 



Januazy.... 
Febmaiy . 
Mardi .... 

^ ::::::: 

June 

July 

August .... 
September 
October.... 
November. 
December. 



»3 

18 

XX 

8 

IX 

x6 
10 

«9 

XI 

18 



xo5_ 



0.58 
0.76 
0.50 
0.56 
0.00 
a 81 
a8x 
a7o 
0.X5 
0.30 

0.63 



5.89 

4.37 
1. 17 

1.09 

X.4X 

6.15 

X.38 

4." 
0.95 

X.09 

6.X7 

4-5" 



1x7,000 
X38,40o 
51,700 
33*400 
X9,7oo 
79»Joo 

19,700 

»5»400 
188,800 
155,000 



2: 



x8,xoo 
4B>8oo 

*5.6oo 
13,700 

i,xoo 

^8oo 

17,300 

i«,700 

8,300 

X6,600 
61,500 



X.45 41.30 X38.40o| 8.300I 47*999! »07'6 X4.X7 



64.*5« 

««o.473 

35»<»4 

»9»|43 
17,635 

xo,o90 
xo,3i6 
XX, 147 

«|»487 
9^937 

tXO,48i 



X44.1 
X70.X 
78.7 
43.8 
|9.6 
87.3 
59.8 

45-5 
X7.X 
30.x 

XI7.3 

X48.X 



XV, 

1.51 

Ow8i 

0.77 
i.6x 

0.87 

a 51 
0.58 

4.04 
4.77 



X.X3 

0.89 

0.77 

I- 3 J 

3.«4 
3.80 

1.98 

f& 

3.60 

1.5J 

0.94 



X.86 



Year 1866. 



Januaiy . 
February. 
Harch .... 

P ■:::::■ 

June 

Juty 

August .... 
September 
October.... 
November. 



XX 

»4 

4 

M 

XX 

x6 
«9 



12L 



0.63 
0.67 
o.x6 
0.37 
0.74 

0.58 

0.43 
0.78 
0.67 
0.33 
0.88 



0.88 



3.16 

X.03 

0.51 
X.16 

4.75 
X.01 

X.XO 

x.x6 
X.95 

0.80 
4.»« 



*9»'5 



91,500 
97,100 
39,600 

74.900 
113,700 
45,600 
*7,5oo 
X3,50o 

S 1,500 
&,xoo 
,300 

• 000 






i66|000 



^s,3oo 
36,000 
xo,6oo 
xo,6oo 
19,800 
X3,5oo 
18,100 
15,900 
15,900 
X7,«o 
XX, 600 
XI, 500 



i$.90o 



69,500 
61,000 
x8,6oo 
31,100 
49,400 
33,100 
xi,5oo 
19,000 
X3,6oo 
39»to) 
X5,ooo 
79,600 



«5J-7 
iki.x 

04.x 

69.7 

X10.7 
7^x 
48.1 
4X.6 
53.0 
88.8 
58.x 

X78.4 



40,300i Q0.4 



X.99 

*-54 
X.X3 

X.30 

1.38 
aox 
all 
0.99 

1.06 
1*4* 



xo. 



il 



X.06 
0.80 



0.04 
1.66 

t:U 

X.49 
a. 70 
X.98 

1. 14 
0.73 
X.X5 



1-4* 



NoTB.— The Mean Temperature of the T4riitnde of Armagh fbr 1866 was about 40 Fah. 

mm^ ^ *t^ ?»^ , .. »» Ferbane „ „ 4B „ 

That of Greenwich having been 46.7 ., 

The details of the Temperature at Qreenwich during the years 1868 and 1866 will be 
found in the table of Blver Lee Discharge. 



« 70,001) Bcrv=l(».4 iqiurB miles ; Height of EHstcict 1 00 lo 370 rset i 
) hec abate tbe Ks 1 Clmmcler— Plat, uul ODe-teDi]i bog or Iu>r laud, 
inder olay and luid. cpvarlyiog porooa Umeoione rock ; Leogtii of Uniii 
mllH. HainttU tot IBS], rsgialerBd St Coag, a iDflen onlBida district ifOr 
■nahill. Dear centre of diatrict. Height of laln gauge tte feet above the 
dlx uf ffsuROi on IS monllu' compart*on oloMly agree. In Janmiiy, 1861, 



bar, 18S1, 3,17 inchea A 








..^ 


»»»„.>»™» 




« 




""""'" 


sa 


Toua. 


,a-. 


«— 


..ss. 




■1 


ts 

0.90 

1:1 


7>.«4» 


!,7«o 


iiii 
,5:S 


'li 

7M 


7.61 
4-ta 

Q.S» 


It. 






S;;;:=r;E: 


' « 


S--:= 


1.67 




0.9S 










IN 


«.& 


«f.8}6 


..... 


.J.6.i 


'M-4 


>».0| 


1.61 





»4 


0.67 


.i:;i; 

■!:!!! 

5.4>7 


;:3 

1,050 

IS 

:i:S 


^ 




^.6 


I.OJ 

0.41 
1.04 


..50 




•1 

i 


iJ6 

i 

874 








?-7 




SEEEiEE 


»'*) 






1:76 














m 


n-o9 


iiS,65S 


.,.!. 


.* 


m 


■11.* 


JO. II 


.71 



155 



DETAILS OF FLOW FSOH LASOE DI8TBICTS. 



BIVINGTON PIKE, LANCASHIRE. 



Area of District 16.26 sqiure miles ; Height above sea, from 900 to 1,626 feet ; 20 
miles from west coast: Character— Moorland, overlying oarboniferoiis strata; 
RainfMl, average of a series of gauges occupying positions below the mean 
level of the water shed. In December, 1846, 8 inches fbU ; average RainftUl 
at Belmont fat 1847 and 1848, was 63.6 inches ; from 1849 to 1848, 67.6 inches. 
The District constitates that now supplying the Reservoirs constructed for the 
Liverpool Corporation Water Works.— (Fm{« Beport* bg Stepketuon, Simpmm 
and Nevlamd.) The rainilBdl and discharge ibr 1847 from the Longdendale 
District, near Manchester, is also given; the rain for 1847 and 1848 averaged 
fhnn gauges vaxying in height frxnn 600 to 1,780 fSaet above the sea.— rSo^rauui, 
TraM. MomehuUr IMerory aatd Fhilo§ophie Init.J 

Year 1847. 





Bainf^ 


Die- 
eherge. 


DiicbvgB 

XT 


Depth 

nin off 

Dlctrtot 


ProDort'u 

of aeptb 

run off to 

depth 

fallen. 


Longdendale. 


MOHTH. 


BainfaU 


Depth 
runoff. 


Propoit n 


February ... 

March 

April 


Inehei. 

J.67 
1.3a 
1.66 
6.16 

4.35 
1.14 

0.17 
6.01 
5-45 
7-55 


Cubiefeet 
perlfliL 
1,151 
3.100 

i,m6 
4>a6i 
1,670 

4*4 

4.5«5 
4.459 
3t733 
5»749 


Cubiefeet 
perMin. 

138.5 
196.9 

41.1 
118. 5 
161.3 
101.8 

16.1 

a7.3 
181.1 

»74.4 
*35.9 
353.8 


1.66 

34" 
0.81 
1.10 

5.04 
1. 91 
0.50 
0.51 
5. as 

*'*8 
6.80 


Ito 

.88 
1.08 
1.63 
1. 11 
I.U 

i.s8 
1.48 
6.15 
1.17 
1.14 
1.14 

n.ii 


Inehee. 
1.5 
4-3 
".7 

li 

3*4 

7.6 
4-9 

6.9 


inehee. 

1.85 
4.10 
1.30 
4.11 

tu 

0.99 
i.a4 

J.67 
6.15 
8.55 


Ito 

0.88 
1.05 
1.31 
1.33 

l.QO 


iSy ....... .. 


mamj ......... 

June. ..T. ....... 


July 


1.51 

1.48 
0.86 
O.Q4 

0.80 


August 

Beptember ... 

October 

November ... 
December ... 




JSJS^ 


.2:211 


171. 7 


^^•7^ 


1.30 


.JELJL 


^'59 


1. 18 



Year 1848. 



January 

February 

March 

ApriL 

jflay ....••■.••.. 

June 

July 

August 

September ... 

October 

November ... 
December .... 



a. 95 


1,401 


«47-7 


a.84 


1.04 


'•5 




7.48 


6,4*5 
at 814 

if404 


395-4 


7.10 


1.05 


9.1 




3-77 


'S:: 


3.34 
1. 61 


1.56 


4.9 
a. 5 




1.88 


394 


a4.3 


0.47 


4.00 


i*^ 




5.85 


*>444 


150.4 


1.80 


*•? 


6.5 




3.7« 


i»7"3 


105.4 


1.01 


1.87 
1.18 


3-9 


« 


7.58 
1.67 


5.4" 


333-0 


6.40 


7.0 




1,811 


III. I 


1.08 


1.76 


4.5 




6.76 


5,070 


311.0 


6.00 


1.13 


7.5 




3.14 


i,i8r 


134.1 


1.50 


1.16 


3.1 




3.«7 


3*333 


105.1 


3.94 


0.98 


3.5 




53. H 


a, 954 


181. 7 


41.10 


1.30 


55.6 



DISCHASGE 07 THE 



UIDIU] diKfaiuiifl. The fluod at lOlb IkHnmbu. IT 
mUa, being vqnul ta uwljr |thi of an Ibcb nm aff 1 



inllr* ncordid Ralnlall, Mdnji 
eordiil ilipUii laUan ui IbU nm 
soda riH wr np^. fnqDBDUir 
I ■ T>17 bitb ni« tot L^ dlMnd, 



n?::!: 






s-i 



;?:5? 



WATER TriED roB maieAiioH fsok the aipihe bivsks. 



Tfa* rnEowbir TaUa duiwB Klu duaBUty of irUar niBd p0 ufb far IniAlliig tba pklu of Lon- 
tamr, with tha an* wuant and^ Iha toUl aoaqtU^ UK«n bj aitiOoUl Chula bum Uu Nren] 



'"—""""-■ 


«.».«.»»~«.-l. «..»„.- 




ssi. 


«s« 


f.SS' 


ss 


-TIST- 


'^^^ 




11.40 


is 


II 


71.M7 


•9n 

1 












..,96 


&,:::;:=:::::;::: 




HioaCuiIi 


'S:« 


■ss 


6)S.«9» 


818. K» 

179,jBo 


■7*> 








,6o.» 


«..» 


7«i,Sl» 


..o,7.Wo 


.715 





on of aavptr IB Uw HUaulaa VI 
thavU laat pamtatlMha m 









'UiQ prtiwLpBl aqudoQU: 
n locrvkaad. and tn aani* 



SSTAIU OF PLOW gBOM LABGE SIBTBICTS. 



BITBS BAOBB, FBATTOZ. 

wn" Ltoi™ dnriaattwyMm lM53-3^-(l. Drainage ai 

[am River ISO milHi Friudphl Tribntsnes 4 

HeiKhl at Ram piujrea l,o«> fe 



quare milu ^ Length of 

f Jura Mouoalns J.aoB to S.eno feet, ' General JSt 



s 

Nav...,,-- 
Deo..,4t-S 



t.S 






Imt^ooi 



isu. I 

Jan...U.) 



!:S 



;:«:J 



4:S 

,17»,d8j 
.791.8); 



'J%}9« 



::5 



Peli...11. 
Mar.. ^1. 



:JK:S 



.599. 149 
.ojs,6ii 
»49.474 



x:;;i 



44*^ 



t! 198I ii4 

I, JIB, 701 

i.78o,j6i 



l^',^ 



'.X'X 






"r^^uToT 



■tni 



158 



THE ABVE. 

This mountain torrent drains 772 square miles of perhaps the most 
precipitous and 8now-Y)Ouud district in the world ; about 62 square miles 
out of the whole area, being covered with glaciers and eternal snows. 
During the summer months the Arve has a kind of tide from the 
melting of snow during the day; this is represented by an increased 
height of 1^ to 4 inches; the difference amounts to about 46,000 cubic 
feet per minute less flow at morning than at night near Grenera, during 
May and June, and half that quantity during July and August. The 
hours of sunshine give an effect of .46 of an inch melted off the 
62 square miles in the former months, and half that quantity in the 
later months ; this difference is owing to the snows on the lower slopes 
having melted off, and the area being thereby reduced. 

M. Paul Chaix has written an excellent article on this subject, in 
which he gives the above facts, and reports certain careful gaugings 
made by him in 1856. The flow during that year was 



1856. 



Janiiary .. 
February .. 

March 

April 

May 

Jane 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 
December.. 



Mean and Total. 



C. feet perMln. 



i6q,500 


Z20 


148,300 

127,000 


:s 


Z33>ooo 


IT, 


635,600 


4«7»ja> 


630 


4ZA,000 


JS 


360,000 


z6o,ooo 


n? 


154,000 


200 


74,000 


96 


131,000 


170 



266,800 



Dis. per 84. HUe 
C. feet per Mln. 



146 



Inches. 



4.2} 

1-45 

5.62 

15.86 

11.72 

10.52 

8.96 

6.26 

3.84 
1.84 

3*7 



Jt21 



The mean daily flow off the whole surface therefrom was about .214 
of an inch for every day in the year. The above rates for November 
and December were considered very low. The memorable rains of May, 
1856, raised the flow from 203,000 to 1,270,000 cubic feet per minute, 
or 1,646 cubic feet per square mile, or a rate of 1.019 inch run off in 24 
hours ; but eight days' rain fell before the river reached this flow, and it 
fell in one day to nearly half of that quantity. The flow of the parallel 
district round' the Lake of Greneva at the same date was 1,375 cubic feet 
per minute per square mile. 

THE BHOHE. 

This river has several distinct characters when it is affected by rivers 
having a volume almost approaching its own in high floods ; such are 
the Saone, Allier, Is^^re, Durance and other torrents from the slopes of 
the Cevennes and northern flanks of the French Alps. These circum- 
stances, combined with the gcncraUy southward and seaward exposure of 
the Rhone valley, render it fearfully* liable to periodic floods. 

The fact of its area being composed of three, four or Ave distinct sets 
of mountain slopes render the liability to floods at one and the same time 
not so certain, wis fact mitigates the effect of what would otherwise make 
it impracticable to maintain artificial works within its influence. The 
general area in which the City of Lyons stands is about twelve feet 
above ordinary water, which passes that city with great velocity — about 
400 feet per minute. In the flood of 1856, the river was several feet deep 
in the streets, and the Sadneand Rhone formed one level across the town. 
The heights of ordinary and flood waters between Lyons and the Mediter- 
ranean, with surface ^opes in drought and flood, are tabulated at page 1 79. 



159 



Approximate estimates of the ordinary and flood discharge of the Lower 
Rhone, will be found in the Table of Rivere at the end of this Diyision. 

The Rhone flows out of the Lake of Geneva clear and blue, and is im- 
mediatelj aifected by the highly torrential waters of the Arye ; but above 
the Lake of Geneva, the Rhone has very nearly the character of the Arve. 
At St Maurice, above the Lake, for instance, on the 17th of May, 1843, 
during a snow flood, the discharge was 300 cubic feet per minute per 
square mile from an area of 1,840 square miles. The mean lowest height 
of the Lake of Greneva stands at " 27.5 pouces " on the limnimetre, in the 
month of May, when the snows begin to melt ; the dischai^ is then 
about 520,000 cubic feet per minute, or 173 cubic feet per square mile ; 
in 72 days the lake rises to the mean of its maximum height in July 
or August, viz., 74 pouces. The discharge is then about 1,000,000 
cubic feet per minute, or 3SS cubic feet per square mile ; the rise of the 
lake is 3.96 feet in the 72 days, and on the 208 square miles of the lake 
is equal to 222,000 cubic feet per minute for the whole time ; if we add 
this to the mean flow, we have a total of 982,000 cubic feet per minute 
for the flow due to the rain, springs, and melting of the snows. The 
area of the basin is 3,000 square miles, so that the flow is 327 cubic feet 
per minute per square mile, sliewing that a depth was melted off the 
whole area, including rain, of about .203 of an inch per diem for the 72 
days, or about 14.6 inches of water off the surface ; but as the snow 
area is but a small portion of the whole (probably not more than one-flfth) 
the actual snow melted off must be far greater, probably 4 inches of rain 
and 10 inches of water from melted snow in the 72 days. 

The foregoing calculation is based upon a somewhat high rise in the 
lake; but, nevertheless, in 1846 the rise was from about 40 to 90 
pouces, which gives resalts just one -fourth greater than those above 
quoted, and, in addition, the lake being on an average 14 inches higher, 
of course the flow out was considerably greater than this proportion, 
The mean of 15 years (1846-1860) gives the difference between May 
and August at about 30 — 62 pouces, which would give three-fourths of 
the quantity above detailed. This corrected quantity may be taken as 
a tolerably true mean of the combined flow firom the whole area drained, 
viz., rain and springs and melted snow combined, or 14.6 X .75 => 10.9 
inches run off the 3,000 square miles in 72 days, or .155 of an inch run off 
per diem. This is very consistent with the flow of the twin river Arve ; 
for further notice as to quantity of snow melted per diem, see the " Arve." 

The minimum flow from the Lake of Geneva is about 195,000 feet per 
minute, or 65 cubic feet per minute per square mile, which is equal to 
14.3 inches in depth ran off per annum, if there were no more, than the 
minimum. The mean state, however, is about 216.5 cubic feet per 
minute per square mile, or 48.7 inches in depth per annum. The rapidity 
of the Rhone above Lyons is no less surprising than true, indicating 
a bed of large boulder gravel, which fact generally prevails when the 
river is not excavated in solid rock. 

Valines gauged the river below Geneva in its high state (82.5 pouces), 
when the mean velocity was 336 feet per minute, and the sectional area 
was then 8,035 square feet. The depth in this part was then about 14.5 
feet, and the width 213 feet. As to flood of May, 1856, see *' Floods of 
the River Po." 

Another gauging at the American Bridge, by M. Paul Chaix, when 
the lake stc^ at 21 pouces on the limnimetre, gave 421,500 cubic feet 
per minute ; the width being 456 feet ; the mean depth 5.93 feet ; and 
mean velocity of all portions of the section being 116 feet per minute. 

The height of the Lake is taken daily at the Limnimetre on the Grand 
Quais, Geneva, and from the records we have computed the following 
table of flow : — 



160 



THE BHOHE AT GENEVA. 

The followliig Tftbleti give the mean monthly helRht, and also the maxlmnm and mlnlmcBa 
gtate of the Lake of Oaueva for is yean, 1B4B-1800, with the computed flow of the Bhone 
therefrom* and depth. 

][EA]!r'-ia44 to 1860. 



Jannaiy 

Febroary 

March 

ADril 

ACay 

Jane 

July 

August 

September 

October 

NoTember 

December 

Total Mean 



Height on Limnlmetre. 



Ponces. 
X4.64 

as- 09 
Z4.21 
28.49 

5935 
6a. 59 
51.64 

37- n 
29.26 

a5.79 



37-40 



£. inches. 
26.26 
26.74 
25.80 
30.36 
3658 
49-70 

66.71 
56.10 
39.78 

37. »9 
27.48 



Discharge. 



C. ft.permin. 
465,000 
475,000 
460,000 
535.000 
615,000 
765,000 
900,003 

? 15, 000 
36,000 
665,000 
550,000 
485»ooo 



39.85 649,500 



Discharge 
per sq. mile. 



216.5 



Depth 

nmolL 



CfLpermin. 


inches. 


'*! 


2.98 


158 


a- 74 


178 


2.94 


3 31 


208 


4.00 


aSJ 


4-74 


J~ 


5.77 


208 


5.91 


178 


5- "7 


X22 


4-»7 


183 


3.40 


161 


3.10 



48.14 



MAxnnrx teab-1846. 



January 

February 

March 

-April 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Total Mean 



Height oa Limnlmetre. 



PoDcea. 

29.8 

31.8 

26.3 

36.3 

n:t 

?o. t 
5.6 
68.5 

31.6 
26.9 



4«.98 



E. inches. 
31.19 

33.«9 
28.03 

38.72 

46.30 

73- 3» 
96.02 
91.22 
73.00 
50.83 

Its 



52.20 



Disoharge. 



min. 



C. ft per — 
550,000 
585,000 
490,000 
650,000 
740,000 
980,000 
1,105,000 
1,080,000 
980,000 
780,000 
595,000 
500,000 



753iOOO 



Discharse 
pr. sqr. mile. 



fLpermin. 
183 

163 

216 

246 

326 

326 
260 

\n 



*5i 



Depth 
mnolL 



inches. 

3-5* 
3.38 

3- 13 

4.02 

tu 

.08 



I 



9a 
6.06 
5.00 
1.68 
3.19 



56.77 



The only years from 1846 to IBOO which approach this are— 1800, which gare a inean height 
of 4UM ponces, equal to a mean flow of somewhat lees than S5 inches olf the haain ; the next ugh 
year was 1866 --43.61 ponces ; next in order was 1868, when the lake stood at a moan height of 
40.48 ponces, eqoal to a flow of somewhat less than 80 inches olf the hasln. 

XOmnnC TEAB-1858. 



January 

Februaiy 

March , 

Anril 

May 

June 

July 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 

Total Mean 



Height on limnlmetre. 



Ponces. 
13. 8 
13.84 



17- 
»5- 
a5- 



4 
9 
7 



30. 4 



39- 
44- 
37. 
»9- 
as. 



4 

4 

2 

S 

9 
29. 5 



27.71 



£, inches. 
14.70 
14.27 
18.84 
27.60 
27.38 
31.40 

41.98 
47-3* 
39-04 
3»-44 

27.60 

31-44 



29.51 



Discharge 



min. 



Lftper..^ 
200,000 
195,000 
320,000 
4«5»ooo 
478,000 
570,000 
090,000 
7io,ooo 
065,000 
550,000 
485,000 
550,000 



493,166 



Discharse 
pr. sqr. mile. 



eft per min. 
66 

161 

»59 
190 

230 

246 

221 

i6f 
183 



164 



Depth 
nmofll 



inches. 
1.17 
1.13 
2.04 

a. 99 
3.06 

3-53 
4- 4a 

4.73 
4.11 

3-5a 

a. 99 
3- 5a 



37-3" 



The next year abore this was 1857—80.62 ponces, which li equal to a mean flow of nearly 
48 inehea ; the next was 1864 »8L68 poncea. 



161 



THE LOIBE. 

The upper or Koanne branch of this river derives its waters from the 
Pay de Dome range of precipitous mountains in the Auvergne, and is 
consequently of great volume, and floods most seriously, especially in 

?)ring and autumn ( May and October). M. Vautier gauged a flood at 
out de fleurs, about 20 miles above Boanne, on October 18, 1846, 
when the section had 31 feet greatest depth, 510 feet top width, and 
1 5,800 square feet of area. The fall was .009 per 1,000, or 47.52 feet per 
mile, and the velocity about 920 feet per minute. From these data it was 
competed that the flood gave about 14,830,000 cubic feet per minute, the 
maximum rise above summer level having been 46 feet ; it appears that 
this height was taken at a narrow point in the valley, where the 
river could not greatly overflow its banks. The area of drainage above 
this point is al^ut 2,200 square miles, so that the flood gives about 
6,740 cubic feet per minute per square mile, which is equal to a flow off 
the entire area of 4.1788 inches in the day, supposing that this immense 
quantity had flowed during the entire 24 hours. Valines considers that 
this should be reduced in the proportion of 73 to 50 for the true flow. 
The fall of rain at Montbuison commenced on the evening of the 15th 
and increased greatly during the night of the 16th; it lasted all day of 
the 17th, and only ceased at 6 a.m. on the 18th of October : during this 
time of 60 hours there fell 5.7 inches. As this place is not in the moun- 
tain district, it is probably far beneath the mean fall in the basin at the 
time. We should not be inclined to quote this case as possible, were it 
not for the very inmiense rainfall that has been occasionally registered 
among the Auvergne and C^vennes mountains ; as, for instance, that 
observed at Joyeuse on the 9th of October, 1827 when 25.26 inches fell in 
21 hours, and the rainfall of the month was 38.36 in&hes. (See Division 
rV.) The river Loire, both above and below Orleans, is subject to very 
serious floods, as, for instance, in May, — June, 1856, when all the lower 
part of the cities on this considerable river were under water for several 
days, and frightful damage ensued. 

In 1846, the Loire, at Orleans, rose 16 feet in one day. The flood 
ha>ing risen to 22 feet 3 inches on tiie nights of the 21st and 22nd of 
October, it was propagated in 36 hours afterwards as far as Tours, a 
distance of 71 miles, when it rose nearly to the same height, but, after a 
few hours, fell about 3 inches, and then again for six hours stood at 
about 23 feet 6 inches, in consequence of the filling up of the plain by 
the breach, after which the flood resumed its course. 

Dupuit says that the Loire carries in great floods twen^^-one millions 
of cubic feet per minute, and calculates that, by a breach of the banks 
in a great flood, the volume of water covered a plain of 34 square miles, 
an average depth of 6.56 feet in five hours, equal to a flow in addition of 
four millions of cubic feet per minute, making a total flow of twenty- 
five millions of cubic feet per minute. 

It is noticeable that, although the flood here quoted was so great, yet, 
owine to the distribution of its waters over the valley, the mean advance 
or velocity of its head did not exceed 1 70 feet per minute. 

In some confirmation of these statements we quote from a French 
author on the floods of the Arddche, that the flood on the Doux (a river 
of the Ard^che), on the 10th of September, 1857, discharged into the 
Bhone 25.5 millions of cubic metres in nineteen hours from a basin of 
244 square miles ; this is equal to 3,216 cubic feet per minute per square 
mile. 

The drainage area and relative flow of the Loire will be found in the 
Table of Bivers. 



1^ 



THE BHINE. 

Baain 73,000 sqnare miles at Emmerich where the Delta commenoea. Len^fth 

from the Alps to the Sea, 850 miles. 

This river has a veiy distinct character from the Rhone or Po, which 
drain the seaward or southward slopes of the Alps, inasmuch as it receives 
the waters of a conntrj having comparatively small rainfall after leaving 
the Lake of Constance and the junction of the Arve. The floods are also 
less sudden, for the floods of the Black Forest rivers and other feeders 
can frequently run off l)cfore the Swiss waters arise, and these latter 
floods would rather depend on melting of snows hy warmth, than on rain. 
From a combination of these circumstances, the flo )ds arc not excessive, 
other than at rare intervals; bnt if these accidents combine, the 
results are terrible, for immense masses of ice are floated into the stagnhnt 
branches, which are thus choked throughout the immense embanked delta. 
This country, intersected by numerous rivers more or less artificial, forms 
Holland— part of Belgium— and an immense tract of submerged banks, 
now gradually forming into future area for polders. 

It is not the object of this treatise to discuss die engineering particulars 
of this river ; they are given in much detail by German and French 
authorities (Desfontaines, Wiebeking, and others,) and also in a paper by 
the late G. B. Wheeler Jackson, C.E., in the 1848 Minutes of the 
Institution of 01^41 Engineers. It is chiefly from this paper that we 
have procured the following table of the slopes in drought and flood 
heights, and other details. 

It is mean water level when it stands at 4 feet 6 in. Arnhem Level ; when 
the water stands 18 inches above this, the velocity at the Spyke Passage 
and Pannerden Canal has a velocity of about 214 feet per minute, with a 
depth of 18.6 feet at Spyke, and 8.6Veeton the Pannerden Canal; the Ysscl 
has a depth of about 7.7 feet, and velocity of about 170 feet per minute. 
Of the branches into which the Rhine 'di^ides itself below Emmerich, 
the Waal is considered to take 68.3 parts and the Pannerden Canal 30.7 
parts ; of which latter the Yssel takes 5.5 and the Leek 25.2 ; this is 
taking the whole volume of the Rhine at 100. 

The tidal character of the months of the Rliine is weak and inefficient, 
owing to the flat and shoal banks formed by the sandy mud of the Rhine 
floods : these lK)th check the tidal wave, and also (although of immense 
area) they offer sufficient friction to prevent the ebbing of the waters. 
Amsterdam is an example of this ; although the Yssel is level -with 
Zuider Zee, which it joins by a great breadth of salt channel ; yet the 
ebb of low tide is only a few inches, and the shipping is brought up to 
Amsterdam by the North Holland Canal, which is navigated by ships 
locking downwards at the Helder, and upwards again into the Yssel 
head of the Zuider Zee at Amsterdam. 

The surface slopes, duration of tide, and other facts connected with 
the numerous tidal branches of the Rhine, are given in the paper before 
referred to. Their general character is sluggishness, excepting during 
floods, which ' are certainly far less on this river than on those which 
drain the southern slopes of the European mountains. The greatest 
flood damage was probably done at the breaking up of frost in January and 
February, 1799 and 1809 ; in the first case 1,300 square miles of the 
low countries were inundated, and the dykes were broken in 23 places. 
The heights of these floods are shewn on the table, with the relative 
mean and low state of the river. The height of top of dykes above 
ordinary water (Amsterdam Pile Level) is shewn by (leducdng the flrst 
column from the last, and thus the expected rise of high floods at the 
different places may be judged ; the greatest floods appear to have risen 
from 12 to 14 feet above mean water, and the dykes are from 14 to 16 
feet above the same level. 

A proximate statement of the discharge and area of the Rhine will 
be found in the Table of Rivers. 



Pan- I Ny- Am- Qor- 



Hl^ noodi, ITM, F 



TkUa of tha Hdglit a 



UwBUiWBlMm I 



[uotu. rt.l>m (t.Vm|n.vm 



Lake Coutuioc 



'■l£ 



' (.» 






CobleuB .. 

Bonn 

OolognD 

DDMOldort: 
WsHl 



im?l070 14.4 



I THEODOH HOLLASO. 



* cSia 




'i:U 



^:S 



164 



OHABACTEBISTICS OE THE BIVER PO, 

ITS BASIN AND TBIBUTAItlES. 

(See Plates Xm. and XIV.) 

This great riyer has been the snbject of stndv for engineers and philo- 
sophers for centaries — last, bnt not least, is Lombardini, to whom, in 
fact, we are indebted for these notes. The enonnoas extent of sab- 
mergible lands traversed hj navigable canals of the Po and protected 
by its embankments, which are required to withstand floods occasionally 
standing 16 to 20 feet above the lands for several weeks without inter- 
mission ; the immense supply of water taken from its tributaries for 
irrigation, and their highly torrential character, render its maintenance a 
most costly national object with the states through which it may pass.* 
The hill country ceases somewhat suddenly at the foot of the vast belt 
of mountains which surround and form the basin of the Po ; and thence 
extend vast plains from 35 to 50 miles in breadth, in which the rivers 
have formed their beds, without sensibly altering the genenil regularity 
of the country. In an immense furrow in these plains, the actual bed 
of the River Po winds its course, with a verv gentle fall, towards the sea. 
There are thus two plains— one submersible (being below high floods), 
and the high plain, which floods never reach. It is to this high plain 
that the master dykes of the Po are rooted. 

The high plain on the right bank commences at the Tanaro, and is 
broken by the ramifications of the Apennines, but again commences 
below Stradella, and has a breadth of 6 to 8 miles between Piacenza 
and Parma, and is about 12 miles wide at the latter place. 

The low plain has but small dimension above the Tanaro, bnt below 
it is constantly widening, being 7 miles wide at Piacenza, 10 miles at 
Cremona, 16 miles at Casalmaegiore, 22 miles at Mantua, and 32 miles 
of width opposite Sequano. The high plain has, however, not always 
the same level above the lower one; for it gradually reduces itself 
towards the level of the lower one by a gentle fall, when it mei^ges into 
the low plain, and all the country is below the level of high floods. 

The great plain of the Po is formed of detritus from the Alps and 
Apennines down to the greatest depth to which borings have been 
taken, sometimes with regular and almost horizontal stratification, and 
at other times without order. The detritus gradually becomes smaller 
towards the sea. The general position of the main river has been 
established, when the opposing influences of the afl^uents have neutral- 
ized each other. The materials carried by the affluents govern the 
size of those earned by the main river at their mouths ; thus, below the 
Ticino, the rivers from the Alps and Apennines convey small gravel 
and sand, with the exception of the Trebbia, which deposits flints and 
large gravel in the channel of the Po, the bed of which is, at this part, 
itself formed of small gravel and sand. {See remarks in notice oj the 
Nile^ as to analogous circumstances.) 

The larger deposits of the Trebbia are cut through by the floods of 
the Po, and frequently carried down ; but tliis action would tend to push 
the main river from Piacenza, and lengthen the course of the Trebbia. 
This has not occurred at all for 2,000 years, during which time the river 

* Compiu*ed with the Po valley, the fens of Wisbeach and Lynn, fonnixig the 
ddta of the Nene and Ouse rivers, do not require a fraction of t£e care or outlay 
in their protection, and yet we know the enormons capital which has been spent 
in this district. The tides and pastoral floods of England are far less difficult to 
deal with than the mountain torrents and snows or the Alps and Apennines. 
Absence of effective tide in the Mediterranean also la a drawback to drainage 
operations not felt in this oountay. 



165 



has been known to flow throngh this city ; and Lombardini thinks that 
the deposits of flints and large gravel on the Trebbia have been only 
recently made by some disintegration of the mountains at its sources. 

Several of the feeders with a granitic origin have great pnrity even in 
moderate floods, bat others are constantly torbid from the steep and 
loose mountain slopes where the winter snows are deposited. The great 
lakes, of coarse, afford the most translucent water, as it is rarely that 
floods can afiect them. 

After having received limpid riyers irom the lakes, the Po takes the 
character of a partially turbid river. Nature varies much in its course : 
in Piedmont it flows over large flats of coarse gravel ; then successively 
over coarse and fine gravel, and finally sand, to the junction of the 
Trebbia ; then on sand only, which becomes finer and finer ; and, lastly, 
on mud in the delta. The sand-hills on the coast, nevertheless, shew 
that much sand must at times be carried into the Adriatic. 

The high banks of the Po, formed by recent alluvium, are generally 
raised above ordinary floods. From the Ticino to the Oglio they are of 
alternate banks of clay and sand, in which the latter predominates, 
offering little resistance to the action of water. The materials of the 
bed, genendly fine gravel and sand, are easily transported, and again 
deposited on the least diminution of Telocity; an irregular course, 
great width, and numerous islets are the result. Below the Oglio 
clay predominates in the banks ; in the bottom the materials are finer, 
more readily transported, and the displacing of the bed is more easy than 
the erosion of the banks ; hence, the course of the river is more confined, 
of greater depth, and less variable. 

At Turin the discharge of the river is less than that of some of its 
lower tributaries ; but below the Dora Baltea, which flows from Mont 
Blanc, it assumes a more imptosing aspect. Towards the S6sia, which 
drains Monte Rosa, the Po commences to widen out in its own alluvium, 
forming a great number of islets. Below Valenza it- reunites in one 
channd, wluch is tortuous. Below the mouth of the Tanaro, a turbid 
river, it again widens out forming islets, and only again reunites near 
the Ticino into a single channel, which, except at the bend of St. 
Cypriano, is almost straight to the mouth of the Tidone. From tbetkce 
it again becomes tortuous up to the Adda, owing to the lai^ shingle 
brought down by the Trebbia. Between the Adda and the Oglio it 
widens a third time, with variable arms^ Lower down the islets Wome 
fewer and smaller, and the waters are collected into a section more and' 
more narrow and deep, as the sea is approabhed. 



AS TO THE 8VSFACE, FILL, WIDTHS AKD BEPTllS 01' TH£ PO. 

Plate Xm. — Gives a map of the Po, its affluents and delta, on which 
the principal embankments and canals are shewn ; also a section from 
Monte Viso to the Adriatic. Plate XIV . has longitudinal sections of the 
Po, Adige and Reno, in which are represented the ordinary and flood 
levels. 

The surftce fall of the River Po, in ordinary water, is from 34 inches to 
19 inches per mile, between the Dora and the Ticino ; firom 18 to 14 
inches per mile between the Ticino and the Adda, and from 14 to 
9 inches per mile, between the Adda and the Oglio. Between the Ticino 
and the Oglio the breadth at ordinary levels is from 330 to 660 feet, and 
in flood time from 1,600 to 5,000 feet ; but when the minor dykes are 



H 



u 



166 



coYored, the width of flood between the master dykes is from to 2,600 
to 10,000 feet. 

From the embonchore of the Oglio the ordinaiysur&ce fall is reduced to 
8 inches, and lower down to 2.0 inches per mile ; in this district the river 
is narrower, being 1,000 to 2,600 feet wide in ordinaiy floods, and in high 
floods 1,000 to 5,000 feet. 

Between the Tidno and Oglio the Po is no longer fordable, for at low 
water the least depths on the shoals are five feet : in deep pools the depth 
being 30 to 33 feet, and where there are defensive works (groins) the 
depths are 50 to 55 feet. Below the Oglio the least depth is 6 feet ; in 
the pools 30 to 37 feet, and when defensive works form obstacks, 77 feet 
of depth is attained. 

The greater or less inclinations, suspended matter and cohesion of 
allavlum, all tend to influence the coune and bed of the river. Above and 
below the month of a turbid affluent, the main channel becomes tortuous, 
and the slope diminishes ; the windings take up a width of 20 times the 
breadth of the main channel.* {See fig, 2, pUxte XIII.) 

The windings continually increase by eating away the concave side 
and filling up the convex with deposit to the level of ordinary floods, 
until a high flood cuts a more direct course, and forms islands of the 
pieces cut off. In some parts of the river where torrents enter, this 
operation is observed to take about 30 years ; these cuts are frequent 
where the alluvium is low, and there are cases where the saving of 
distance has amounted to 16,500 out of 23,000 feet, and 23,000 out of 
29,500 feet. 

Lombardini states authoritatively that the mean depth of the Fo at low 
water period has not altered materially from a.d. 1693 to ▲.»« 1813, 
certainly not more than 3 to 4 feet at any point. 



THB IBIBUTABIE8 OF THE PO. 

The Alpine Tributaries of this river are all highly torrential above the 
Ticino ; and this character appertains to all the streams descending from 
the north flanks of the Apennines. 

The Alpine affluents are known as limpid, turbid, and mixed, according 
to the lake through which they have passed, and the nature of their 
sources. The Ticino, like the Rhone above Lyons, is limpid ; but the 
Adda and Oglio are mixed, owing to the junction of turbid streams below 
their departuro from their lakes. 

The Iiacustrine rivers, Ticino, Adda, Mincio and Oglio, have their bed 
excavated to a great depth below the plain ; but those which come out 
direct from the mountains without lakes, are almost at the level of, or 
occasionally above the plain, at the points where they issue from the hill 
country. (See sections of the Adige and Beno.) In other respects the 
general character of all these affluents partake of that of the Fo. 

The Lacustrine rivers have a much less inclination than the plain 
through which they flow, which is formed of the granite and porphyry 
detritus derived originallv fh>m the Alps ; that is, these rivers are far 
more excavated in the high plain at their upper part than where they enter 



* Baumgarten says this is also the case cm the Garonne, where the bed of the 
river is 656 feet wide, and the windings take a spaoe of 13^000 feet; this pro- 
portion most vary greatly with the slope of the valley and mfttrfH^if of which 
itisfinmed. 



167 



the Fo. Thas the Ticino bed is 100 to ISO feet below the plain near Lago 
Ifaggiore, and only 50 to 65 feet at Favia ; the Adda is 100 feet below the 
plain at Treszo a Lago, and only 30 to 35 feet at Crotta, and 16 to 20 feet 
at Spinadesco, where it formerly flowed. The Oglio banks are also 
50 feet below the plain at Soncino, and only 16 to 20 feet at Calvatone. 

It is probable that this destmctiye character— this cutting down 
of the plain— may be due to the violent action of water, passing do^in 
too rapid a slope from the original surface of the plain, at the outlets 
from the lake, formed as the plain is of a moveable material. It is dear, 
both on hydraulic and geological data, that the plains wore not originally 
formed by rivers, but more probably by vast ^Laciers or fields of ice, 
which filled up the hollows of the present la^es ; for it is not easy to 
imagine that the lakes have been formed since liie great plains ; how 
they can have existed while the plains were beine fiUed out, is not ex- 
plicable to our mind, except upon a glacial, or other theoiy, of parallel 
character. Moreover, this view is confirmed by the fact that many of the 
smaller lakea have been manifestly formed by morainea projecting from 
spurs of the secondaiy Alps ; on examining the spots where the 
drift beds, forming the conmiencement of the great plains, touch and 
actually repose against the older rocks forming the spurs or sides of ravines, 
it will be round Siat the surfaces of the rocks are invariably polished and 
striated, in the direction of the mountains towards the plains. 

We make this digression, because the original formation, and after 
erosion, of rivers and their beds, involves the great questions of the slope, 
velocity, and power of moving waters, the limits of which, in the order of 
nature and physics, it is the object of this treatise to elucidate. 



A8 TO THE XMBAHKHEHT OF THE PO, AVD EFFECT OH ITS 

LEVELS. 

The great master-dykes are only occasional above Cremona, as will be 
seen on the map of the basin of the Po. Below Cremona, the river on 
both rides is entirely embanked in a continuous fonh up to the sea, 
being only broken at the affluents, where the embankments are returned 
on each side in a similar manner to those of the main rivers, until they 
are grafted into the high plains, where floods can no longer overflow 
them. The widths of flooded lands of the Po, between the great dykes, 
in round numbers are thus — 

Below Cremona, 22,000 feet ; near Santa Margarita, 20,000 feet ; 
Isola Pescaroli, 12,500 feet; at the Taro, 11,200 feet ; at Gussola, 16,500 
feet; at CaMilmaggiore, 8,250 feet; at Guastalla, 6,600 feet; between 
GuaataUa and the Oglio, an average of 10,000 feet; at the Oglio, 6,600 
feet ; near Bogoforte, 3,300 feet ; at the Mindo, 2,650 feet ; between 
Ostigiia and Massa, they average 4,000 feet ; irom the mouth of the 
Tanaroto the sea (several branches), 1,000 to 1,650 feet. 

The torrential tributaries of the Po are likewise embanked ; but much 
greater width is afforded for floods, in proportion to the area drained, 
than on the main channel ; this, of course, is a natural result of the 
increased speed with which the waters travel down, owing to the greater 
slope of their beds and propinquity to hill countiy ; for instance, where 
the Lombardo-Venetian Railway crosses the Sesia, it has 1,650 feet 
between its huiks, tiie drainage area being about 1,127 square miles ; the 
Trebbia has 1,970 feet, with 242 square miles ; the Adda 722 feet, with 



168 



338 square miles, inclading the Chiavenna and Ongina; the Taio 2,756 
feet, with 804 square miles ; and the Tanaro has 1,260 feet of width 
between its banks, where the railway crosses it, with 885 square miles 
of drainage area above that point. 

The insubmergible or master-dykes, so called, because .they are con- 
structed with the object of resisting all floods, are from twenty to twenty- 
six feet wide at top, and the slopes vary from one and a-half to two to 
one, but they always now repair at slopes of two to one : the slopes on 
the land side are strengthened by a set off about sixteen to twenty 
feet wide, at about ten to twelve feet below the top. 

The great dykes have attained their present perfection by constant 
repairs, and great amount of raising from time to time : and their 
breaches by floods have been less and less frequent since 1705, when the 
entire length of 50 miles below Cremona was destroyed ; but since their 
subsequent restoration, this length has never been breached. After the 
flood of November, 1801, they were raised about 10 inches above that 
flood; later they were raised about 30 inches above the flood of 
December, 1807, and lastly, they were carried about 32 inches above 
that of October, 1812. 

These floods were respectively 25.2 feet, 26 feet, and 26i.8 feet above 
the lowest water at Pontelagoscuro, and the only floods which have lisen 
higher since these dates, are those of November, 1839, and October, 185-7, 
when the maximnm height was 28.1 fe^t at the same place. {See Table 
of Heights of Floods, 'page 170.) 

The embankments above Cremona are generally covered or broken 
through in high floods. It appears probable that the smaller width of the 
valley, combined with the fact of the rivers descending direct from the 
mountains without the intervention of lakes in this part of the Po 
valley, would render perfect embankment more difficult, while the 
protected lands would not afford an area of sufficient importance for the 
expense. 

It wiU be seen that, owing to the great distance between the master-dykes, 
below Cremona, there is a reservoir for floods, which exercises much in- 
fluence in controlling and regulating the flow, so that a width of only 1,000 
feet is sufficient for the outlet at the lower end of the river ; this is shewn by 
the fact that Lombardini considers the maximum flood discharge of the 
Po not to exceed 5,150 cubic metres per second at Ponteli^foscuro ; 
whereas, at the same time, the flow of this river and its affluents combined, 
must have been equal to 15,000 cubic metres pouring into the great 
breadth of flooded lands below the Ticino. This large Quantity is 
equal to .75 of an inch depth over the entire basin brougnt down in 
24 hours ; but the actual flow was only, as above, about one fourth of 
an inch in depth. 

These wide spaces between the insubmergible embanlanents offer consi- 
derable amount of land for pasture, and owing to deposits from floods, they 
are higher than the inner lands, protected by the great, embankment. 
They are called " golenas" and are themselves protected by minor banks, 
made, and kept up at will, by the different proprietors, who are not per- 
mitted to raise them higher than about 5 feet below the top of the ad- 
jacent master-dykes. They have every kind of form and height, and are 
very similar to the older banks in the fens of this country. The golenas 
have a similar character to the forelands on our own rivers, such as those 
contained within the Bedford Level Banks ; others are to be found of 
a similar character in Holland, and in all low countries. Fig. 2, plate 
Xni., is a specimen of the golenas and master-dykes. 

High floods in the Po always go over the minor dykes protecting the 
golenas, of which it may be remarked that the soil is always dark ; whereas, 



169 



LBFT 


BAXK. 


mmHT BAinr* 


ena. 


Plain. 


Golena. Plain. 


4^ 


— 


16.7 7.9 


11.8 


3.3 


— 2.7 


12.2 


4.0 


12.8 2.0 


9.4 


2.4 


8.7 6.6* 


— 


— 


4.8 0.8 



that which is cultivated under protection of the master-drkes is of a light 
colour. We may remark here that this characteristic change of colour 
we have known to occur in this country in the case of lands newly em- 
banked from the sea, within two seasons of cropping. The following is 
a table of the height of the lands above the water levels, on the 22nd 
September, 1813, the height at Fontelagoscuro having been then 1.3 feet 
above ordinary summer level. . 

Height above River, in feet ... Golena. 
Between Stienta and Pontela^sonix) 
„ PontelagoBCnro and FrancoUno... 

„ Poleeella and Crespino 

„ Santa Maria and Cavanella 

„ At the Gnocca Branch (Adriatic.) 

*Tai8 part was raised by breach open between 1706 and 1728. 

This table shews the marked difierence of level between the golenas 
and the embanked country ; a difference which is caused by the warping 
up of these lands within the minor banks. But the levels shew 
it to bo a vulgar error to suppose that the Po is raised above the 
adjoining country. Further in the year 1847, Lombardini writes, 
that on the let^ bank of the Po, between Cremona and Casal- 
maggiore, the neighbouring countiy is from 11.5 feet to 15 feet 
above summer level, and at 2^ to 3^ miles, it is from 10 to 13 feet; 
thence, to the Oglio, it is from 15 to 16.4 feet near the river, and at a dis- 
tance 11.5 to 13 feet. From the Oglio to the Mincio, the lands at a distance 
from the river are 10 to 13 feet, and near the river from 13 to 16.4 feet 
above summer level ; from the Mincio to the Fosse d'Ostiglia, they 
are from 13 to 19.8 feet ; and finally, at the low parts of the marshes 
of Verona, the plains are from 5 feet to 6.6 feet above summer level; 
and again, further down where the Polesella Canal diverges from the 
Bianco Canal, the lands are from 8 to 13 feet above sunmier level. On 
the right bank the fiicts are similar, the ancient marshes of Boleno, now 
under cultivation, being from 5 to 1 1 feet above summer level of the 
river. 

The spring and surface waters of the high plain, which would accumu- 
late and drown the low lands during flood time, are carried from tlie high 
lands to the main river, either by canals in the form of catch drains in 
the central district ; or in the lower district by embanked canals, which 
pass the waters through the low plain, up to the river at its main dykes. 
These secondary embiinkments are of service by limiting the extent of 
flooded land in case of a breach ; they formed part of the original design, 
but have been much improved from time to time. Among numerous 
other instances may be quoted the Delmona canal, which was made about 
A.D. 1300 (the date of the great dyke below Cremona) for taking off upland 
water between Cremona and the Oglio. This work appears to have been 
unsufBcient, for about a.d. 1550 the Bobecco canal was made to carry 
water from VUlanuova, down towards the Oglio in one direction, and 
towards Cremona in the opposite one. 

The general effect of high floods on this river, and the manner in 
which they are reduced by breaches in the master-dykes, is shewn 
in the following page ; wherein is also shewn the volume and duration 
of some of the more important floods. 



^ teat 1 M CauOmaggiore, 71.S feol. 



It Iwla FcscaroU, 



171 



KXTRAftRDDTABY VLOOD OF OCT. SOIh, 1807, AVD OTHXBS 

AFFEOTLNO THB PO. 

The flood of October, 1857» sarpassed any previonsly known flood 
and caused immense damage to the embanked plains, on the 23rd of 
October. It carried away both road and railway bridges on the Dora 
Baltea and other tributaries ; and all communications were stopped in the 
various mountain passes. The storm commenced on the 1 8th and 19th by a 
violent hurricane from the south with deluging rains that extended over the 
Mediterranean and Adriatic, stretching from Naples to Dalmada: it 
reached the valley of the Po, during the night of ^e 2 1st, with an east 
wind, varying from south-east to north-east, accompanied by waim 
temperature rising from 57' to 63^** Fahr : this combined an enormous 
melting of the snow, in the Maritime and High Alps, with the rain. 
At Becca, the mouth of the Tidno, the water rose, in 48 hours (from 
the evening of the 20th to the 22nd) to 7.6 feet above ordinary floods, 
and about 3 inches more before midnight, attaining at its mRTimnm 2.75 
feet above the highest flood of October, 1846, or 23 feet above ordinary 
gammer level. The following table gives the particnlaxs of this flood. 





Dfttoof 
Kax. 

Flood. 


HatsM 

above 

OrdliuuT 

Sottmer 

LereL 


Height 
Above 
Lowest 
Water. 


Distaaee 

of 

SUtloni 

•IMrt. 


Time In 
whieh 

Cnstoof 
Flood 
pMeed 
down. 


Velocity 

M^nte 

of Qteat 

of Flood. 


KKMhlLTM. 


Jueooa ...... 

Fiaoensa.. 
CremDoa.. 
Bargoforte 
Ortiglia ... 


Oct. 
83midiit. 
23 8 p.m. 
^ 6 a.m. 

25 11 a.m. 

26 11 p.m. 


feet. 
»3.o 

*6.7 


feet. 

... 

s8.o 

X0.8 

»9! 

51-7 


feet. 

196^850 

U2, 170 

»98,48o 
t37»89o 


hours. 

•.. 
15 

»5 

19 

IX 


feet. 

fti8.6 

n5-7 
J71.5 

191. 5 


Velocity retarded 
at Gromona 
tiv the bursting 
of the banks 
above.l^whioh 
a vast area of 
country was 
delnged. 


Beoca to Ostiglia 


755*390 


71 


"77.1 



The addition of other affluents and regularity of channel made the 
velocity of the crest below Ostielia more constant. The onlj recorded 
floods that at all approached Ais of 1857, were those of 1705, 1801, 
Nov. 8th, 1 839, and 1846. The floods of 1839 and 1857 attained ezactlj 
tiie same height at Pontelagoscuro. See table, preceding pace. 

The mat flood of 1889 attained its nuudmum between the 12th and 
15th of November, when it burst the dykes below Bevere to the extent of 
2,500 feet ; the maximum which passed down in any one entire day was 
as above, 10,910,700 cubic feet, or 407.8 cubic feet per minute per square 
mile, which is equal to a depth of .253 of an inch, run off in 24 hours. 
But, when the dykes were broken through, the waters had to fill out over 
lands which were 19.5 feet below this mgh flood; this must have taken 
about 1 1 ,000.000 of cubic feet per minute, during two days in which it 
was swelling out over the marshes. 

Lombardint appears to consider that the maximum flow at this period 
attained 13,000,000 of cubic feet ; so that the total, including the quantity 
spread over the low lands, would have amounted to 24,000,000 of cubic 
feet per minute ; according to this, the quantity actually flowing by the 
main river and its affluents was equal to about 900 cubic kei per minute 
per square mile, which is .588 of an inch in 24 hours. 

It may be noted, as a proof of the difficulty of retaining rivers of 
this class within embankments on such extraordinaiy occasions, that the 
breaches above quoted were again followed by vast breaches lower down 
the river, on the 17th of November. These data and the other tables, 
evidence the wdl-kno\m fact that heavy floods of this kind cany a head 



172 



with them, or maximam point continaally moying forward at a somewhat 
aniform rate. 

Owing to their southerly position in first receiving rains, and their 
shorter course, the floods of the Apennine torrents generally precede those 
of the Po, whose Alpine tributaries are decidedly controlled by the great 
lakes. In the upper part of the Po, floods last three or four days, in the 
lower part fifteen to twenty days ; but that of 1839 was above the warning 
signal for seventy-seven days continuously. This approaches the cha- 
racter of a Nilotic flood; for 16.96 inches flowed off the entire area 
drained in the 77 days. 

We have no proper reference to the rainfall registered on the Alpine 
slopes during these great floods ; but on reference to the rain tables, some 
light will be thrown on the general diffusion of heavy fall along the 
South of Europe at all these periods. The rain at Florence in Sep- 
tember, October and November, 1839, gave 4, 5 and 8 inches respectively j 
while the 16.93 inches were running off the Po basin, the fall at Florence 
was 16 inches ; at Rome the fall in 1839 was a maximum, and in 
September l.'i.4 inches fell, being about three times the usual quantity. 
In November, 1840, the fall at Florence was about 6 inches, but the two 
previous months had about 9 inches ; the aggr^^te waa much above the 
average. In October, 1846, the rainfall at Florence gave 9.5 inches ; at 
Trieste and Milan the fall in this month was about 12 inches ; at Bor- 
deaux 6.9 inches, and at Bome 8.8 inches, all of which are more or less 
maximum quantities. 

Referring to the Table of Heights of the River Po at Casalmaggiore 
between 1827 and 1836, it will be seen that the rise corresponding to 
high flood is 16.1 feet to 17.6 feet, which would give about 11,500,000 
cubic feet per minute ; moderate floods rise 7.4 feet to 9.0 feet, giving 
about 4,250,000 feet ; and the general result shews that the River Po is 
in a state of flood of about 5,000,000 cubic feet for 37 days in the year, 
when it carries about dOOth part of its volume in the shape of sediment. 

Lombard ini considers that there is no increase in the actual discharge of 
the Po, in heavy floods, below the Ticino, owing to the vast quantity 
stored up by the rising of the waters over the valley. He says that the 
high flood of October, 1846, had ft velocity in the main channel, at Becca 
(the mouth of the Ticino), of 393 feet per minute, with a discharge of 
13,250,000 cubic feet; but that the flood had widened out to 4,000 feet 
in width, with a mean velocity of about 60 feet per minute. The mean 
of these velocities is not unlike that at which the head of the flood passes 
down the valley of the Po. It is evident that a width of 4,000 feet, with a 
rise of more than 20 feet, must absorb a vast quantity of water in the mere 
filling. It would take a week to fill such a width and depth in the length 
of the river between Becca and its sea mouth, at the rate of about 9,000,000 
of cubic feet per minute. Taking, therefore, the observed maximum 
discharge at Pontelagoscuro at 11,000,000, we have probably about 
20,000,000 of cubic feet per minute, as the maximum quantity due to the 
tributaries of the Po at this place, not actually flowing down (although 
flowing off the drainage area), owing to the impossibility of its passing off. 
The area being 26,754 square miles, the discharge would be equal to 822 
cubic feet per minute per square mile, or .51 of an inch in depth run off 
pei diem« 



THE FLOODS OF THE ALPINE TBIBTJTABIE8. 

In a flood lasting from the 8th to 23rd September, 1829, a period of 
fifteen days, the Lake of Como rose from 5.36 feet to 12.73 feet. During 
this time the flow into the lake increased from 1,191,500 cubic feet per 



173 



minnte to a maximnni, extending over twenty-four hoars, of 4,066,500 
cubic feet per mioate. On the 23rd this was reduced to 1,462,300 cubic 
feet per minute; the mean flow over the whole period being 1,776,460 
cnbic feet per minute. The mean flow out of the lake was 1,194,180 
cubic feet per minute during the same time ; the amount stored in the 
lake at the end of the fifteen days being 12,600,000,000 cubic feet, which 
is equal to 582,000 cubic feet per minute during that period. 

The area of the water surface of the lake increased from 56.72 square 
miles on the 9th to 63.75 square miles on the 23rd of September. 

The drainage area of the district, including the lake, is 1,728 square 
miles. The mean total flow into the lake was 1,037 cubic feet per minute 
per square mile, giving a total depth of rain run off or stored in fifteen 
days of 9.63 inches, or .64 of an inch per diem for fifteen days con- 
secutively. 

By the flood of the 21st to 22nd of October, 1857, LagoMaggiore 
"was raised 4.26 feet in twenty-four hours. The quantity flowing out, 
combined with the accumulation in the lake, during these two days, 
was 2,950 cubic feet per minute per square mile, giving a total flow of 
S.66 inches off the surface during the two days ; of which only one- 
seventh part was able to flow out of the lake during the period. This 
appears almost without precedent, and is evidently due to me melting of 
snows not less than to actual rain. 

The above flood in Lago Maggiore was exceeded by a flood of 
October 17-18, 1846, when the rise was 5.25 feet in twenty-four hours, 
caused by an excessive rain, accompanied by a sudden warm wind and 
rise of temperature from Fahr. 42<> to 63.5<*, which caused great melting 
pf snows in the Alps ; owing to the direction of the wind, this flood 
was chiefly on the Toce branch of the Ticino ; the main river not being 
much swollen. 

The storm of October, 1857, appears to have broken over the Alps ii} 
a partial manner, although, as will be seen by the following statement of 
the quantity gauged in the Italian Lakes during the flood, a flood at the 
Lake of Geneva, which occurred in 1840, is given for comparison. 



1857. 
Lago Kaggiorp 
Lue of Como.. 
LakeGarda 

1840. 
LakeofOeneys 



\^ 



October. 
2lBt to 22nd 
2l8t „ 24th 
20th „ 24th 
September 
1 7th ., 18th 



W3 



feet. 
7.88 
X.75 

y. 10 






feet 
II. i; 

4.73 
a-4J 

6.00 



mill. 

77 

58 

144 

£o8 






Sq. 
miles. 

1,670 
78« 

*t79^ 



8q. 
miles. 

*.49S 

i,7z« 

932 

1.000 



•a 
►»« 

a a 

Hi 



0.ft 
per M. 

1,550 

450 

75 

f,izo 



I 



? 



*-5 ii 



C.ft. 

pcrM. 
40c 
%$o 
Ico 

530 



I? 



Cft 
per H. 

»,950 
70c 

"75 
1,65' 



3^ 

009 



inches. 
I. S3 

•43 
.11 

I. at 



The flood of 1857 was rather below that of 1846 on Lago Maggiore ; 
but on Lakes of Como, Iseo and Garda it was not by anjr means a maxi- 
mum flood. A flood of June, 1855, appears to have reached about 
three times the above volume, or say 2,100 cubic feet per square mile on 
the Lake Como ; probably a similar amount is discharged in extreme floods 
from the Lake Garda. This table gives a proof of the concentration of 
great rain storms, inasmuch as it shews that the most violent storm of 
1857 was partial in its most violent efiects over the district, although 
the flood of the Po was the highest on record. 

It is remarkable that although the storm of October, 1857, did not pass 
over to the north side of the Alps, yet the south and east slopes of the 
Cevennes Mountains had deluging rains on the 10th and 25th of Septem- 
ber and 5th of October, 1857, which caused immense damage in the 



174 



Arddche. There wu an extreme sale on the 7th and 8th of October, 
1857, in the English Channel, on the coast of Dorsetshire. 

The example at Geneya, September 17th, 1840, was an occasion when 
the fifiU of rain in 24 honrs was 2.83 inches at that place ; an allowance 
is made for this in calcnlatins the amount of flow off the area due to 
the rise of the lake in the 24 hours. 

In the great flood of May 28 to June let, 1856, which so deluged the 
whole of the south of France, the Lake of Geneva rose altogether about 
11.6 iuchcs between the 27th and 30th, during 66 hours of which time 
it rose 8.7 inches. This rise represented 1,375 cubic feet per minute 
per square mile, of which 618 cubic feet was flowing out of the lake ; this 
would be at the rate of 2.5 inches in the 66 honrs, or .9 inch per diem 
off the surface. The rain that fell at Geneva flrom 10 p.m. of the 28th to 
8 a.m. of the 30th May, was 4.06 inches ; so that the flow off in 2.75 
days was as 2.5 to 4.06 = .61 of the observed rain fall at that place. 

The centre of this great rain, stonn of May — June, 1856, broke over 
the country stretching from the head of the Loire to the bead of the Rhone. 
The vapour which caused it was evidently driven up from the Atlantic ; not 
from the Mediterranean, otherwise, the southern slopes of the Alps would 
have felt the storm. It is highly probable that the ruin sources of France 
and Italy have this general distinction. 

We have given the diagram, fig. 4, on plate XIV. from various data 
and partly from Baumgarten (Fonts et Chause'es, 1847,) to shew the 
mean volume of the Rivers Po, Seine, Soane, Adda, and Tiber, with the 
rainfall and mean temperature for similar periods. The curves are 
highly suggestive, and indicate the great reduction which takes place, 
when snows cease to melt, and high summer temperature reigns ; and 
in the case of the Po, when irrigations absorb vast quantities of the 
perennial flow ; in strictly glacial rivers, however, the minimum flow is in 
severe frost. 



A8 TO THE PEBMAVXaiCT 07 THE BED OF THE PO. 

There is no doubt whatever that the average bed of the river above 
Ostiglia has remained constant for many centuries, notwithstanding that 
the bottom presents tmdoubtedly an extreme variable character, 
according to the local circumstances. It is below Ostiglia that the delta 
commences, and the surface gradually approaches &e sea level; the 
entire plain being of a much lower character than in the upper district. 
(See ante,) Lombardini considers that in n<r part of the Ferrarese 
plains has the bed of the Po materially altered, and certainly not more 
than about 5 feet in any point, since 1705; but that the floods un- 
doubtedly rise higher than formerly. This is explained by the fkct that 
the barrier banks have been continually strengthened, so that the 
lowering of the waters, by their bursting, does not now occur. Thus, 
it appears that since 1839 there have been no breaches of the banks, and 
that simultaneously the floods have not risen, except, as in 1857, by the 
magnitude of the floods ; as will be seen by the Table of Heights of Floods. 

The original embankment of a river undoubtedly always r^ses the 
level of fl(x>dB, and augments the mcunmum flood discharge, because the 
reservoir formed by the embanked lands is unavailable for the reception 
of flood waters ; but this amount of rise is limited, for the increased 
sectional area, formed by the body of water confined in one great canal, 
rapidly accelerates the power of discharge. 

Now it appears that since 1604 the river has extended its mouth 72,000 
feet seaward, and the fall from a point the same distance from the present 
mouth as Ferrara was firom the sea in 1604 (35 miles) is 7.64 feet, while 



175 



mtm 



■* 



the present diflference of sarfiice level between Feirara and the tea is about 
15.54 ; so that it is possible for the rise at Ferrara to hAve been between 
7 and 8 feet since that date This wonld give a fall of 7| inches per mile 
for the extension of the delta, bat the windings would reduce it to about 
5 inches ; but as the surface fall of the river is very small, it is probable that 
the actual raising at the parallel of Ferraia does not exceed half that 
quantity.* In floods, however, we have another state of things, and it 
is doubtful whether their velocity would permit much filling up of the 
bed ; the inference is, that there may be greater sectional area to provide 
for the reduced fall caused by extension of the delta. This is confirmed 
by the fact that the river is of very great depth in this part of its course ; 
indeed, the material of deltas of this class of rivers is generally of a 
lighter and more mobile character than the upper courses, and the greater 
sectional area is a natural sequence. 

Lombardini thinks that the curve of surface, formed by high flood 
waters, commences to bend towards the sea level at Fontelagoscuro, 
opporite Ferrara. See plate XTTT., section of the Fo in flood and ordinary 
waters. 

His conclusions are these : — 

** That where the Fo is embanked, its level is never above the neigh- 
bouring countiy.'* 

"That opposite Ferrara the surface of high floods is higher than 
formerly ; but that this is owing to the perfect state of the dykes, and 
the extension of the sea mouth since 1604 about 13 miles beyond the 
then distance of 35 miles." 

*' That lengthening the bed of the Fo acts in two ways on the height 
of floods — first, in raising to a small extent the height of ordinary 
waters in the lower section of the river ; and then in bnnging nearer to 
the sea the points where the profiles of flood and ordinaiy waters begin 
to converge." 

None of these data require, as a condition, that the bed of the river 
should have risen ; and indeed such a fact as the raising of the bed by 
sands and gravels collected between the dykes would be contraiy to the 
natural laws which regulate the flow of rivers with mobile beds. 

The Adige, however, say the opponents of the above theory, is an 
example to the contrary; for a portion is in fact higher than the 
adjacent country, as will be seen by the section, plate XIV. This occurs 
with many kinds of torrential rivers at the point where they flow out 
of mountuns into the low lands bordering the Adriatic. The sections 
of the Reno and Adige will shew this clearly. It may be remarked that 
the Adige changed its course, a.d. 589, from one much more northerly, 
and took a new channel among what were then low and marshy lands. 

Faleocapa, the engineer-in-chief at Venice, states that the bed of the 
Bienta is, at one part, above the surrounding country ; but he also corro- 
borates the general statements and aiguments of Lombardini relative to 
the height of the Fo. 

The Keno is quoted by Lombardini as a test of the effects of embank- 
ments. Its course was much altered in 1771, being cut off fix>m its 
ancient connection with the Fo bdow Ferrara, and embanked in a new 
channel, which had anciently formed a southern branch and sea mouth 
of that river. 

* The ancient coarse of the Po was throog^h the channel termed the Po de 
Volano, on the edge of which Ferrara is bnilt. A aectdon across the space inter- 
vening between the bank of this channel and the main river at Pontelagoacnro 
abewB that the site of the town is 9 feet aboo* the present loweat snnuner water, 
and the ancient river bed is 2 feet aboot the same lerel ; but this may have been 
raised aitificiaUy in the great length of time which baa ooeorred since this coarse 
was abandoned. 



iJ 



176 



Lombardini thinkR that between 1761 (when the new dykes were 
commenced) ancl the present time, the bed of the Reno has risen less 
than 4 feet; but even this had occurred in 1801, since which the bed 
has varied ftom time to time, sometimes being deeper, and again having 
filled up, probably according to the seasons, and the violence of floods and 
varying amount of sands brought down from the mountains. It is 
thought by the best authorities that the bed of the Reno has long since 
acquired a character of permanency. 

There is one remark of Lombardini well worth recording on this 
matter, viz., that there is too much embanking near the mouth of the 
Fo ; for the matters carried by the floods are thus cast into the sea, which 
would otherwise have been deposited upon the low lands ; the embank- 
ment having the double inconvenience of preventing the raising of the 
lands, and of extending the river mouth seaward. It is hardly necessary 
to add, that this remark would apply well to a river such as the Fo, 
carrying an enormous amount of alluvium, while to a smaller and less 
mountainous river, or one derived fh)m more primitive rocks, no such 
effect would occur. 



AS TO THE DELTA OF THE PO. 

We have treated of the Beno and the Adige as part of the River Fo, 
because it is clear that they have all been for greater or less periods 
joined, and the delta is in fact one joint operation of the major and 
minor rivers ; but inasmuch as they are of far more torrential character, 
and their mouths are nearer to their mountain sources than those of the 
Fo, it is probable that they have proportionally a greater influence on 
the. sea banks, or outlying projections of the delta. 

The southerly are the ruling winds of the Adriaitic, but those from 
the east are most violent. Their combined effect is to raise up the usual 
banks and bars fix>m the materials brought down by the rivers of Lorn- 
hardy ; and these are continually augmenting by blown sands, forming 
dunes. The ml ing drift of the coast is southwards, t. e, towanls Ravenna, 
according to Capt. Spratt ; and the increase of growth of the delta 
appears to be greatest in that direction. 

These dunes have been frequently formed on banks at a considerable 
distance from the shore, forming lagunes within them. Such are those 
of Venice and Comacchio ; and such also existed formerly, at the back 
of which the ancient town of Adria was built, thence called the city of the 
seven seas. Traces of these ancient dunes may be still seen, stretching 
from Brandolo to Mesola, and dividing into three branches at the crossing 
of the Fo. (See plate XIII. for these dunes and ancient sea^margin 
of the Delta.) 

Ravenna, which stood on the sea about 200 b.o., is an excellent 
measure of advance ; for it is now upwards of 4 miles from the sea. 
This gives a progress of about 10 feet per annum. Adria is situate 
more at the maximum point of growth ; 2,000 years since, it was a port 
of the Adriatic, and at present it is upwards of 20 miles from the coast. 
This would give to the delta an advance seaward of 52 feet per annum. 

Frony calculated that, between a.d. 1200 and a.d. 1600, the Fo advanced 
at the rate of 82 feet per annum, and formed land at the rate of 175 
acres yearly. Between a.d. 1600 and a.d. 1800, it is considered to have 
extended seawards, 229 feet, and in area, 280 acres per annum. That of 
the Rhone, since 1712, has not been more than 57 acres per annum. 
This is suggested to be by the superior depth of the mouth of the Rhone, 
which, at the distance of six miles from the beach, is (100 metres) 330 
feet in depth ; and the tide has a transverse velocity of 100 to 200 feet 



177 



per minnfe : whereas the depth of the Adriatic, at the same distance from 
the shore, is not more than 100 feet deep, and the transverse velocity not 
one tenth of the former case. It may he doubted, hoiv^ver, whether this 
is not the effect of superior amount of deposit in the case of the Fo and 
the two rapid torrents of the Adige and Beno descending into the same 
delta ; their mud may have jointly shoaled to a much greater extent, the 
adjacent sea hed during past ages. In reference to the amounts run off 
the respective areas, it is also evident that the disintegration of the Fo 
basin is greater than that of the Rhone, from the larger amount of 
rainfall evidenced by the larger mean flow. (See Table of Rivers.) 
The Italian slopes of the Alps are of a more recent and tertiary character 
than the Northern slopes, and those of the Jura and Cevennes mountainsi 
drained by the Rhone and its tributaries : this cause, acting for an immense 
period of time, has produced the marked difference in the extent and 
character of the deltas of rivers, which otherwise arc similar ; that is, the 
drainage area of the Po and minor branches, including the Adige and 
Reno, all of which have contributed to the great delta extending from 
Venice to Ravenna, is one third less than that of the Rhone, whilst the 
delta is larger, being about 2,800 square miles ; that of the Rhone being 
only 2,500 square miles. The question is, however, highly speculative, 
as we have no means of judging what were the relative depths of the 
gap to be filled up when the formation of the delta first commenced : 
a period probably coeval with that at which the river lines were created 
by the upheaval of the Alps. (See notice qftke Nile on this subject,) 

The following tables give particulars of the mean heights of the River 
Po, in ordinary and flood waters, with the observed levels and surface 
■lopes, and other information relative to the height of marsh lands below 
floods. Similar matter is also added of the 'RenOf the Adige, and the 
Rhone, which afibrd means of comparing the characters of these kindred 
rivers. The information is chiefly taken from Elia Lombardini, the 
eminent engineer-in-chief of the river Po, and from papers in the Ponts 
et Chauskes, bv several experienced engineers, who derive their matter 
chiefly fvom this great authority. From these authorities we have given 
the table of the heights of the more important floods for the past and 
present centuries, and the dischai^ and duration of the greatest floods. 
The portion of these notes on the Fo, which consists of an analysis of 
some heavv floods of its aflSuents, is given to shew the enormous character 
of some Alpine floods ; their effect on the great Italian lakes is to render 
them compensating reservoirs, to some extent controlling the diluvial 
rains and melting of snows, which periodically threaten the safety of 
eveiything on these rivers. 

We have omitted to describe the system of irrigation from the Alpine 
and Apennine rivers, being foreign to the special objects of this treatise. 
(See Bfurd Smith.) Along the whole southern slopes of the Alps, and 
on many of the northern ones in the south of France, the rivers are 
danmied up, and taken off at suitable points by numerous canals, whence 
smaller ones diverge, which irrigate the major portion of the plains of 
Tvrol, Lombardy, and Piedmont. The points of derivation are generally 
wnere the rivers debouch firom the mountains. In the Tables at 
page 156 is given an account of the volume used for irrigation over 
the plains of Lombardy, defining the rivers taken in tMs district. 
This does not include a large quantity abstracted irom the mountain 
streams in Piedmont and on the Apennine slopes. * 

* On the river Dora, alx>nt 12 miles firom Turin, at a point where it leaves the 
moantains, there are five bealareas taken off within a short diBtance ; in hot 
weather, their water disappears before it has passed over the twelve niiles of 
irrigated lands ntoated on the north of the river Po. 



Ifon.— Ordinary nuniner lerel 1a ths sero of the gwigfl i tba ffmiteflt drfmgbt of 
1817 having been l.SZ feet tnlow Uiia aero, and Uie gTei£«n OoDd of tSOl. Is.iSdBM 
thboTv Uiift HrD, Modlum floods BtuuliD^ S fael^ and ordinary flc 
top ofthBDjkea being" '—■ — "■ 




1-C 



L B«a. iiiil«. 



Qiurda Ferrwreae. 



■IJ 



Th« tmanlwiw of tha 
Ula beCnen Ponls Lr 
[oecoro (nd CkilDgn 
B probably oaoAfld b, 
wiere bendi in mi 

9 Borhcfl fUl of Uifl 



Plerofraneui . 



LETEU OF KAIUH LAin» nt BSUTIOF TO FLOODS. 



_..."f^C 

Tram tha OUio to tnei 
Uinda.Tii.^atHatioat 
Gomnle (Left) ) 

At TilU OudalU (Lenj... 

Ai Fanalone (Laft) 

AtTraldaBnlgwtnl 

Kbm Oofemolo J 



B«IoiT l4unid« 



I! 
,.V2, 



179 



TH E BIYEB P O, 

TABLB 07 KEX0HT8 AND SUBFACS SLOPS XH jmOTTOHT 

AVD nooD. 

The Flood is that of Korember, 1B30. The datum is mean level of the Adriatfo 
at Port ICatetra. Spring Tide ranges 2.86 feet. Neap Tide range s 1.77 feet 



Place of Ohaervsttoa. 



Source of the Po, at Monte Yieo. 

YiUa Franca 

PoQcalieri 

Honcalieri 

Turin— Month of Doora Biparia.. 

GhiTaeoo 

Mouth of the Dora Baltea 

„ Seeia 

Talenza 

Mouth of the Ttaiaro 

Sommo 

Tioino 

Olona 

Tidone 

Lambro 

Trebbia 



»t 
It 
>* 
*> 



H 
•» 



Month of the Adda 

Cremona 

Isola Peacaroli 

Caealmaffgiore , 

Mouth of the Croetolo 

Oglio 

.Mmdo 

M Becchia 

Oetifflia 

Quatrelle ^ 

Patantone 

Pontelagosouro (Ferrara) 

Zocoa 

PoleeeDa 

Cologna 

Berra 

Santa Maria 

CavaneDa di Po 

Taglio di Po 

Pier of Farsetti 

Port of Maeetra 



Distance 
from the 



miles. 
416.07 

3«7- 30 
378. 10 

359-^ 

330.67 
328. 10 

Sj.8| 
3.74 
474.04 

X4«.i7 
&18.51 

A16. 88 

208. Ai 

104.47 
194.80 

191. 8x 

174.30 
168.09 

15J.I8 

137.96 

114.91 

11^06 

96.83 

m\ 

61.16 
51.15 
44.59 

34.66 

30.51 
15.78 

»7-47 
15.11 

8.39 

0.00 



Level of 

ordinary 

Summer 

Water. 



fbet. 
801.74 
559.60 
510.71 
461.38 

450-47 
405.78 

385- 47 
314.04 
188. 31 

170.34 
107.00 

18J.53 
166.37 
153.48 
148.50 
136.16 
131.18 
no. 77 
104.11 
89. »4 

61.96 

43.66 
41.58 

13.16 
10.70 
16.17 

11.77 
11.05 

8.40 

6.95 

5-93 

1.36 
0.98 



Bise of 

Flood 

abore 

ordinaiy 

Summer 

Water. 



feet. 



17.8 



13.1 

■ • • 

18 3 
19.1 
1L.1 
16.1 
18.1 
19.1 

31.3 
19.0 

• ■ • 

18.1 

• •• 

17.7 
*S'5 



19.6 



0.0 



Surfkoe Foil 
per mile. 



In 
Drought. 



inches. 

• •• 

101.00 
50.71 
38.07 
33.60 

S-77 
.10 

16.59 
*5.55 

*3.45 
11.77 

11.10 

17.71 

17.80 

"597 
15.10 

14.00 

13.93 

11.67 
11.05 
11.40 
10.85 
8.83 
7.91 

7.99 



I 



.61 

6.01 
6.98 

4.18 
4.10 
1.58 

• • • 

}.c6 
1.54 

i:2L 



In 
Flood. 



inches. 



i 

] 
} 



11.04 

15-95 

11.11 
0.90 

6.17 
6.61 
7.16 
4.81 

9.06 

7.60 

6.58 

7.33 
7.17 

«5.45 



TH E BIVEB BHO JE. 

TABLB OF HBIOHIS ABD 8UBFACE 8L0PE IB BBOTOai 

ABB FLOOD. 

From Lyons to the Mediterranean. 
{AtM, dn TomU et Ckam9$ie§, Ui Serist, 1833.) 

Month of the Sa6ne at Lyons 

„ Oalaure 

„ Is6re i4>-85 357-39 •• 36.00 \ 39.37 

Doozdre 

Month of the Les 

Abre. Embkt. opp. Boqucmanre 65.37 71.41 ia7 ^ 34«5» *9.*o 

Wooden Bridge at Arignon ... 43* 83 11.3 

Mouth of theDurance 34-5' M.t f *5-S^ *^i4 

" Booha d'Ader" 



Aries 

Port de Bono— Low Water. 



106.16 


516.35 


"7-4 


• •• 


159.19 


409.39 


• •• 


«9.57 
36.00 


141.85 


357.39 


••* 


■ •• 


183.93 


• •• 


• •• 


78.68 
05.37 


110.70 


14.8 


46.86 


71.41 


ia7 


^ 34.5* 


• •• 


43-83 
34- 5« 


11.3 




• •• 


»3-! 
14.6 


" »5-90 


• •• 


18.45 




3>.|3 


14.04 


19.7 


J 


18.64 


5.87 


19.1 


10.1a 


0.00 


0.00 


3-3 


».45 



10.87 
9.08 



180 



THE BIVEB AD IGE. 

TABLE OP HEIGHTS AND STTSFACE SLOPE XH DBOUGHT 

AND FLOOD. 

The datum is meau level of the Adriatic, at the mouth of the BiTsr. 
From Section given in the " Annale* dee Ponte et Ckau$e4e$," 1861. 



Place of Obaervution. 



Pietra, near the Tyrol Bonndaiy 

Chiusa Grauge 

PesoantiDa Church 

Verona Gausre 

Conunenoement Right EmhauK. 

Albaredo Gauge 

Legnago Bridge 

Ca.stagnoro Sluice 

Badia , 

Barbugho Gauge 

Baora Padovera „ 

Arguillara „ 

Cavarzere „ 

Torre Nova SMoe 

Fofisone 

The Sea 



Distance 
from the 


Level of 
ordinaxy 


Rise of 
Floods 
above 


BurlkceFall 
per mile. 


Sea. 


Summer 


ordinary 






Water. 


Summer 


In 


In 






Water. 


Drought. 


Flood. 


miles. 


feet. 


feet. 


inches. 


inches. 


118.59 


384.69 


7.87 


• • • 


• ■ ■ 


116.83 


301.10 


II. 15 


85.18 


81.79 


107.81 


£40.40 


II. 13 


80.60 


81.04 


97.04 


164. is 
104.66 


10.17 


84.65 


85.71 


84.91 


10.53 


59.05 
37-76 


58.67 


74-04 


70-47 


11.71 


35-3* 


61.64 


5z.8o 


10.00 


17. II 


19.69 


5458 


44-39 


11.61 


14.16 


9.88 


49.9a 


40.13 


11.91 


10.97 
11.36 


11.86 


43. »7 


31-73 


13.41 


11.13 


l*-94 


11.33 
15.06 


14.40 


11.17 


11.03 


X6.58 


>3.77 
ri.46 


11.60 


11.80 


15.58 


S-74 


10.14 


11.60 


8.35 


1.83 


7.97. 


4.81 


11.36 


I.ZO 


0. 30* 


1.30; 


4.14* 


36.00* 


0.00 


o.oo* 


0.00* 


J.CO* 



Noxs. — The figures marked * are assumed, and are probably ooirect; the actual 
levels are not given in the published Section. 

THE BIVEB BENO. 

TABLE OP HEIGHTS AND PALL OP BED OP BIVEB AND OP PLOOD. 

The datum is mean level of the Adriatio, as above. 



Place of Observatioiu 



Foot of Mountains 

Ckmmiencement Ancient Embnk. 



Cento 

Casa del Dosso 

S. Prospero 

Gallo 



Traghetto. 

Bastia 

S. Alberto. 

L^onarda. 
The Sea.... 



Distance 

from the 

Sea. 



miles. 
80.87 
78.51 

77.95 
76.77 

73»3 

59-31 
51.13 

47.57 
44.11 

34' s 

18.11 

13.36 

17.80 

8.88 

70 

90 

1.41 

0.81 

0.00 



I 



Level of 
Bed of 
River. 



feet 
157.68 
119.37 
116.74 




31,50 

19.81 

11.40 

5.08 

.69 

• • • 

-4.63 

-9.41 
-5.91 
-3.18 



Level 

of 

Floods. 



feet. 
168.14 

M5. 59 
136.81 
111.39 
106. 10 

75- n 
67.4a 

61.17 

• ■ • 

49.11 
45.71 

44.59 

40. 16 

36.09" 
1490 

14.05 

11.38 

3.61 

0.00 



Fall per mile. 



Bed of 
River. 



inches. 

147.70 
50.89 

116.69 

11.74 
II. 51 

• •• 

14.11 

• •• 

14.69 

13-75 
18.11 

9.47 

• • • 

1.67 



Flood 
Surfieice. 



inches. 

117.65 

156.^ 
51.83 
16.69 
13.01 
13.5a 

• • • 

14.81 
1.46 
7.66 

10.96 
8.78 

15.05 

• • ■ 

5. "5 

33.94 

57.9" 
13.10 



The level and fall of Bed of River are given, as the levels of Water Surface in 
drought cannot be obtained. The fall of Bed in the lower part of Biver is oalonlated 
at 2.67 inches per mile, between 17.80 miles and the Sea. 



181 



BIVEBinXE. 



IKTEODUCTOBY BSMAHKS* 
(Bee Plate xm.) 

Girard, who was with the French in Egypt daring 1799 to 1802, 
gives a yeiy precise account of this riyer in a paper giyen in the Memoirs 
of Ae French Academy. Mr. Homer has collected many facts upon 
the Nile and its deposits in two papers given to the Royal Society, 1855 
and 1859 ; from these and Girard's paper, and from Messrs. Talabot and 
Stephen6on*8 snrveys, we are able to give the following remarks, for which 
also we have used, with great advantage, Captain Spratt's Surveys and 
Reports on the Deka of the Nile, and Submarine Coast of the Medi- 
terranean. Owing to the discussion of the Suez Canal question, matter 
has been given by these authorities which is new ; their very accurate 
researches have afibrded much assistance in the calculations of this 
article, and also in the deductions as to the volume of the Nile, for 
which we may refer to the Table of Rivers. 

The Basin of the Nile is distinctively tropical, and the curve of its 
rise and fall indicates' periodic rains similar to those prevailing in the 
India Peninsula ; these rains are probably of veiy great amount (like 
those of the Bombay Gh&ts) over large areas. The heavy character 
'of its flood is strongly marked by the quartzose sand, of which such 
iknmense quantities are brought down. This forms the universal base- 
ment bed of the 600 miles of valley below the cataracts ; of the delta ; and of 
the sea bed from Alexandria to Syria for a distance of 10 to 20 miles 
from shore in 20 to 40 fathoms of water, and finally cast up by the sea 
and blown into sand hills, forming a great portion of the desert between 
Pelusium and Suez. {Vide Spratt and Adm. Charts.) The mud of the 
Nile, in contradistinction to the sand, is probably retained upon the lands 
of Egypt in a far greater proportion than it is carried to sea, especially 
during the few thousand years in which £gypt has been cultivated. The 
entire length and breadth of the land is artificially warped, and the 
Telocity of watters in irrigation (hits probably would carry but little sand ; 
at the velocity of High Nile, this material would undoubtedly roll down 
the lower part and bottom of the main* streams to the sea mouths. Capt. 
Spratt*s dredgings shew Nile mud, with every proportion of sand, be^een 
1 and 50 per cent., within a few miles of the shore ; but beyond the 
littoral zone of mud, sand is more generally prevalent. The facts appear 
to indicate the deposits of sand in large proportion during the extreme 
flood, and deposit of mud, or sandy mud, in uie more quiet periods ; other 
extreme conations of the flood, probably afford vast quantities of both, 
in eveiy kind of ptDportion. 

To prove that the river brings a laige quantity of sand into the Medi- 
terranean during flood, he matte experiments during Low Nile at flve to 
ten miles above the Rosetta and Damietta mouths, and remarks thus : — 
'* By a dredge taken in seven ikthoms near Damietta, the proportion of 
yellow quartzose and black iron sand to black slimy mud was 45 per 
cent ; the sand in which, being of unequal size, explained the origin of the 
yariety of sand which is genimdly found on the dunes and on the shal- 
lows off the coast; and where the action of wind or wave sifts and 
githers them, according to their size and gravity. Four miles below 
amietta, the dredge in 28 feet brought up black slimy mud, in which 
the proportion of sand to mud was only 10 per cent. ; in the Rosetta 
branch, at about nine miles fxoai the entrance, the bottom contained 



J 



15 



182 



about 20 p^ cent, of sand ; and again> &t five miles, it contained abont 
40 per cent, of silicions sand. The sand and mad in this entrance 
came up in separate lumps, so that one sifting would yield 20 per cent., 
and another 50 per cent, or more ; shewing &t the mud was probably 
only a superficial ooveiing. Below this, at two miles from the entrance, 
in three fathoms, tiie bottom brought up contained only 15 per cent, of 
sand. It thus indicated the irregularity of the distribution at this 
its low water season. The river this year being unusually low and 
aluffgish, it transports comparatiYely little to the sea ; merely 
such light particles of matter as are easily held in suspension in 
moving water, which I found to be only 17 grains per gallon, with an 
average current of 88 feet per minute. So sluggish, indeed, was the 
Nile at this time, that if the sea was calm, hardly any discoloration or 
turbidity was shewn, except immediately off the mouths of the river, or 
on a narrow zone of two or three miles along the coast. The greatest 
strength of the current in the Damietta and Bosetta branches did not 
exceed 115 feet per minute at the surface ; but at the sides of the river 
and bottom it was insensible. Thus at dead Low Nile, when I examined 
the water, I found that it transported comparatively little matter to the 
sea, being merely such as it holds in suspension — as mud, or fine silicious 
particles. Therefore the finding of any sand at this time within the 
mouth of the river, under so sluggish a current, is an indication of the 
laige quantity of sand which the Nile must bring to the sea during its 
flooded condition. The surface water at Atfeh, in October, when the 
current was about 300 feet per minute, contained 67 grains of mud per 
gallon, which is just twelve times as much matter as the surface water 
at the embouchures contained at Low Nile in the month of May." 

Bearing in mind the manner in which local peculiarities of climate 
are regulated and absorbed by the vast extent of channel — lakes and 
divene branches of this great river, we may be sure that the rise and 
fall will evidence most distinctly the broad characters of the rainy season 
over this enormous basin. Without any direct knowledge of the moun- 
tainous reeion at the sources of the Nile, we must turn to analogy. In 
applying the known volume and periods of the Nile flood to the observed 
meteonnogy of India, and especially of its Peninsula, which is similar 
in its vast mountains and it8 latitude to that of Abyssinia, it is 
sufficiently evident that the Nile is fed by rains, commencing in May 
and terminating with October or November, after which the subsiding 
flood is the natmnl result of the springs and draining off of the copious 
supplies of the rainy months. The distance to be traversed from the 
rainy country to the cataracts is probably on an average 1,000 miles on 
each branch of the Nile ; requiring at least 20 to 30 days for appearance 
of the young flood at the latter place. To shew this analogy, we have 
placed on the plate XV. a diagram which shews the height and period of 
the rains of an averase of 10 places in the mountainous parts of the 
Indian Presidencies, tne details of which will be seen in the tables of 
rainfall for Bombay, Madras, Patna, Himalaya, Poona, Comorin, Cochin, 
Quilon, Yanrioor, Shenkottah. Moulmein, &c. 

The floods are felt to rise below the fint cataract about the 2lBt of 
June, and become sensible at Cairo in tiie beginning of July. This 
would make the travelling rate of the swelling river about 2 to 2| 
miles per hour, but the bends in the river would probably reduce this 
speed to one mile and a half per hour. The observations of the height of 
the river from July, 1799, to March, 1801, shewn on fig. 1, plate XV., 
were kept by the French at theNilometen at the extremity of the Island 
of Rhoda, near Cairo ; the year 1846 is also given from Mr. Homer's 
treatise. (Moyal Trans,, 1859.) During the first six or eight days the 



188 



Nik rues yeiy gradcudlj, after which its daily lise becomee- more 
rapid; about the 15th of August it has almost anived at half of its 
greatest height, which it attains ordinarily on the 20th to the SOth of 
September. When the maximum is reached, the river continues so for 
about 15 days, after which it commences to fall much more slowly than 
it had risen. On the 10th of Noyember the Kile has descended to half 
the heiffht, and its fall is continued until it arrives at its low state about 
the SOuL of May in the fbllo^ring year. After this the river ceases to 
vaiy, excepting that it fiills off gradually, owing to the intenae heat, until 
the new flood again makes its appearance. 

When the Nile enters Egypt in flood time, it is charged with sand and 
mud which give its waters a reddish colour; the river remains thus 
charged during the whole period of its overJUnp^ and only graduidly 
loses colour after it has returned within its channel, when it finally 
becomes perfectly clear. The bearing of this in fertilising the valley of 
"Egjpi will be seen on reference to the section, fig. 5, plate XV., which 
has the minor canals of iirigation and banks for retaining water dis- 
tinctly marked thereon. 

There is a period, after the flood has become red and turbid, when the 
waters assume a greenidi hue. It would appear probable that this is 
from melted snows, for at this time the water is considered unwhole- 
some ; and from time immemorial the Egyptians have stored water for 
use until the unwholesome period has passed away. 

The diwam, plate X v ., has a year's curve of heights of the Kile, 
taken at Bnartoum, where the Blue and White Kiles join ; this point is 
about 1,600 miles above Cairo, but by the bends of the river is much 
fiutber ; it is about 1,280 feet above the sea. The juxta position of the 
two curves enables one to form a tolerable idea of the manner in which 
the flood moves forward ; the interval is about a month, and the pace 
appears to be about 66 miles per diem, or 240 feet per minute, if the 
distance be 2,000 miles ; this velocity indicates that the distance may be 
between these estimates. 



DISOHABGE, VELOCITY, SUBFAOS FAT.T«, AND HEIGHT 
OF INUNDATIONS OF THE NILE. 

linant Bey considers that at Cairo Low Kile gives 877,000 cubic feet 
per minute, and at High Kile 22,000,000 cubic feet. This latter cannot 
be the whole ta so much is paned off by the great canals and other 
direct deviations on its 600 miles of course ; for the derivation of the 
Magixmr (afterwards called the Canal of Joseph) is 326 miles above 
Cairo, and its course is generally fh>m 6 to 13 miles distant with in- 
numerable smaller cross canals connecting it at High Kile with the main 
river. Girerd gives a section of the Kile at Manfalout (20 miles below 
Siout), shewn in fig. 8, which on March 27th, 1799, had 12,150 s. feet of 
section widi a velocity of 118 feet per minute, giving a dischaige 
of 1,433,700 cubic feet per minute: a section (fig. 4) taken at 
Siout on the following day had an area of 6,050 square feet, with a 
mean velocity of 238 feet per minute, giving a discharge of 1,440,000 
cubic feet per minute ; but this was on Uie Sist of March, 1799, when, 
of course, the Kile was still 2.5 feet above its lowest. He computed 
High Kile at the same place to have a velocity of 888 feet per minute, 
with a sectional area of 56,000 square feet, and a dischaige of 21,728,000 
cubic feet ; but this is subject to the same remark as to other outlets for 



184 



the flood waters. Fig. 4 gives a section of the Bosetta hranch taken b]r 
Mr. Ronse at his railway bridge, KafDr Zeit, in 1852, and again in 1854, 
shewing an immense erosion of the bed in that short period. The area 
of this section at High Nile on October 5th, 1851, was 44,600 feet; 
October 2nd, 1852, 85,700 feet ; and October 5th, 1853, 52,500 s^are 
feet. The Low Kile of June 22nd, 1852, was 13,800 squall feet; and 
June 2Srd, 1853, 14,000 square feet. 

The fall of Low Nile of 1853, between Kaffir Zeit and the sea, appeared 
to be about 7 feet, or .108 feet per mile : this would give a mean yelodty 
of 110 feet per minute, with a sectional area of 14,000 square feet ; 
the consequent discharge would be 1,540,000 cubic feet per minute, by 
the Rosetta Branch. This calculation is probably much in excess, as 
no allowance is made for inequalities of fall and bed below the section. 

The High Nile area of 1853, at 6 inches per mile fall fixnn Kaffir 
Zdt to the sea, gives by calculation a velocity of 320 feet per minute : 
the consequent discharge is 16,800,000 cubic feet per minute, by the 
Bosetta Branch; this calculation gives a close approximation to 
velocities which have been ascertained. 

From the foregoing data we are inclined to estimate a High Nile flood 
at not less than 30,000,000 of cubic feet per minute, and it is probable 
that an extitutrdinaiy year has a much greater Toliime. In' the table of 
the dischaige of rivers we have embodied the above, and alk> have given 
a rough estimate of the area drained by the Nile. Although only very 
approximate, this is probably not far from the truth. The area may be 
taken to extend frojn an average line of 10« to 24" north latitude, where 
the river enters Egypt, and any supply from rain ceases beyond thd mere 
occasional torrents from the mountains, forming its narrow valley for 
600 mifes ; a district having very littte rain, and in lower E^ypt none. 

It is curious to observe, that it would take 32 days to absorb 3 feet 
in depth of water over the five millions and a half acres of lands irrigated, 
(estimated by Gimrd) at the rate of 15 millions of cul^c feet per minute, 
which is very probably the utmost which is devoted to irrigation ; for a 
laige share of the entire flood must inevitably go to the sea mouths. In 
the extremely dry state of Egypt, when High Nile approaches, it is 
not unlikely that 3 feet and upwards could be taken into the soil and 
stored in the canals. According to the supply taken in Lombardy it 
would take 120 days to give a total depth of 3 feet of water ; it is there- 
fore probable that at least 3 feet- is consumed, and this quantity agrees 
with the general height of inundation and elevation of the minor dykes 
above the cultivated lands. 

Assouan, at the foot of the first cataract, is 365 feet above the sea, being 
583 mites above Cairo, whose plain is about 66 fleet above the sea. The 
mean fall of the valley is therefore about six inches per mile, which 
represents probably with sufficient exactness the fall of High Nile. The 
surface fall of Lou; Nile probably follows the law of all other rivers that 
flow in their own alluvhmi ; being in flat pools with very small velocity ' 
succeeded by short intervals of rapid fall. The inundation is about 63.5 
feet above the sea at the apex of the delta, 30 miles below Cairo, giving 
a fall of 2.7 inches permUe between these places. When High Nile is 70 
feet above sea at Cairo it raises ordinaiy sea level at the Damietta mouth 
about 3.5 feet, giving a mean fall of about 5.36 inches per mile ; but 
intermediate parts vary from 7 to 2.7 inches per mile. The levels shew 
an increase of fall, in flood time, on entering the delta, like that of the 
Po. (See Tables of the Po, and plates XIII. and XIV.) Quati^lle on 
the Po, 12 mihs above Pontelagoecuro and Ferrara, represents the apex 
of the delta of the Nile. 

High Nile floods about 36 feet at Esneh, 100 miles below Assouan ; 



185 



80 feet at Qaeneh, 190 miles fiom Assouafi ; 33 feet at Siout, 350 i&Ues 
below Assouan ; 28 feet at Memphis, whidi is 13 miles aboY£ Cairo, 
where the flood is as follows : — 









Height aboi 
Hi^Nile. 


retiheSea. 


Maximam 








Lpw Nile. 


Rise. 




Tear. 


Day. 


feet. 


feet. 


feet. 




" 1799 


Sep. 23. 


4S8.63 


46.17 


22.46* 




1800 


Oct. 4. 


72.25 


>f 


26.08t 


At Cairo. ..^ 


1846 


Oct. 10. 


68.14 


ft 


21.97 




1«47 


»♦ 


71.46 


»» 


24.29t 




1851 


M 


72.32 


f> 


26.15 


Alt Memphis 


1851 


l» 


78,00 


50.40 


27.605 


At Kafi\r 1 
Zdt ... 


r 1851 


Oct. 5. 


32.32 


• • • 


« • • 


1852 


Oct. 2. 


26.82 


9.55 


17.27 


1853 


Oct. 5. 


34.43 


7.27 


fi7.16 



In comparing the ralne of the flood of these particular years, it may 
be useful to bear in mind, that when High Nile is only 17 feet above Low 
Nile at Cairo, the inundation is disastrously deficient ; when the diffe- 
rence is 28 feet, the flood is equally disastrous from excess. 

The cross sections of the Nile vaiy greatly from the nature of the 
sands and friable soil in which the Hdver flows t it is perpetually under- 
cutting its banks until they fall in and fresh slopes are thereby formed 
or more direct channels are cieated. The sections on plate XV. shew 
clearly the kind of changes that take place. The slopes at Manfalout 
(flg. 3) were about two to one on both sides of the river, with a mean 
velod^ on the 27th March, 1799, of 118 feet per minute ; the slopes at 
Siout (flg. 4) were three to one on one side and sixty to one on the oppo- 
site side, with a mean velocity on the 28th March, 1799, of 238 feet. 
Girard attributes the flat side to its being oompcwed of soft matter de- 
posited from recent ero^ons elsewhere. 

The bottom of the Nile and all deep cuts in Egypt are said to be 
sand, without exception, and the slopes indicate this ; many of the great 
artificial canals have failed from the running quality of sands in the lower 
cuttings. The section fig. 4 has a slope of about thirty to one ; the 
changeable character of the bed is strongly shewn in this section, 
which between June, 1852, and Janufuy, 1854, had about 900 feet in 
length removed to a depth of 10 feet, giving an increased sectional area 
of 9,000 square feet below the mean level ; this was promoted by some 
railway works erected on the banks in the interval ; but it is a proof of 
the extreme mobility of the soil. 

The canals which have been originally cut by the hapd of man, have 
side slopes of about one ii^ fourteen. 



AS TO MODS OF Ht^GATIOK AND DEPTH OF WABPED 
LAKD OF EOTFT, AND THE BISE OF LAND AND EX- 
TENSION OF THE DELTA DXTBINa FAST AGES. 
Flg. 5, plate ^T. gives a section taken near Siout for about 11,000 
feet on a straight line from the river towards the Libyan moi^ntain ; it 
resulted that tiie plain was nearly horizontal, falling about 1 in 3,000 
from the river bank (which is generally the case with flooded lands), and 
that its general level was 29 to 30 feet above Low Nile. This point, it 



• Considered low. 
t Considered high 
t This was the 24th caUt mark. 

§ This was an averageof 3.0 feet above the general eaifhM» of plain at Memphis, 
which is IS miles above Cairo. 



186 



win be obierved, is at Siont, and does not agree with the mean lerel of 
High Nile before referred to as 24.6 feet at Cairo. It may be taken as a 
rale, that the particular height cf a plain formed by recurrent floods at 
any given point is always governed by the mean height of the flood at 
that point. The mean height cf flood is aeain rnled by the local fall 
of the yallej, direction of stream, chanurter of soil« and conseqaently area 
of water way, and greater or less frequency and severity of bends. 

Of all the great works of Egypt, the canals of irrigation are probably 
the most ancient ; they are taken off at yarious points on either bank of 
the Nile, and carried out as the level will permit, up to the borders of the 
Desert. There are recnrrent transverse banks which cut the valley ob- 
liquely ; they commence at the desert and terminate on the river Nile, 
crossing the main canals, so that, when closed at any point of 
intersection the water conducted by the canals rises until it attains the 
level of the river at the point of derivation. Thus the whole space, 
comprised between the intake of the canal and the transverse dykes 
(banks) forms, daring inundation, an immense pond. When one 
of these spaces has oeen sufficiently watered, the barrier across the 
canal is cut through, and another area is covered in the same manner up 
to a second dyke ; the same kind of operation is frequently carried on by 
an intake of water direct from the Nile. The valley of Upper Egypt thus 
in flooddme is a succession of ponds, in steps below each other, following 
the gradual fall of the valley of the river itself. The transverse dykes are 
from 3 to 5 feet above the land, which is always frxmi 24 to 30 inches higher 
on the up-stream than on the down-stream side of the dyke. When the 
valley opens out towards Lower Egypt, the canids become of very large 
character, and similar to the Nile itself, and the embankments are on an 
immense scale. 

When the canals are filled at High Nile, they are closed by a 
bank of earth at the intake, and also at all other points where the 
transverse dykes cross them ; this operation prevents the waters from 
flowing out at Low Nile, and they are thus preserved for artificial 
irrigation and other uses during the spring and summer months. The 
water-wheels, screws, and other contrivances used fbr this purpose on the 
Nile are among the earliest recorded peculiarities of the valley. Girard 
found the water of an irrigation canal, near Siont, was only 16 feet 
below the plain, in March ; while the Nile was about 30 feet below same 
level ; it is thus not only the immediate warping of irrigated lands by 
High Nile which is so beneficial, but the after-store of water always at 
hand for use in a rainless countrv. 

The banks are generally just above flood level, and form roads or 
paths, by which the inhabitants pass between the villages, which them- 
selves stand upon ground raised by the rduse of the inhabitants into 
small hills.* 

In the delta there are very great artificial canals issuing from the Bosetta 
and Damietta branches, which again supply smaller channels, and across 
these are the dykes traversing the counUy in every direction. The flood 
waters not used, finally lose themselves in the lakes and marshes on the 
Coast of the Mediterranean. 

It has been considered that the Nile in flood has the power of depositing 
^th part of its volume, but this kind of estimate is excessively vagae. It 

* On flg. 6, the boring made 1^ Girard throaeh one of these dykes, shewed a 
depth of 12.8 feet of made groand, based on pore Nile mad. This made ground is a 
regular feature of Egypt; It is caused by the gradnal raising of the embankment, 
aa the plain has been warped up by sncoissive deposits of ages,— in seoola 
seoulonun. 



187 



18 certain that the coloar of its ^vaten is seen far oat at sea, and 
potable water may be taken np, more than three miles from the sea 
months, at High Nile. Girard considered that the irrigated lands of 
Egypt were abont 5,600,000 acres ; this inmiense area for deposits ought 
to haye a yery sensible effect in controlling the seaward extension of the 
delta, strained as the waters are by artificial poanding, compared with 
riyers snch as the Fo and the Rhone, which are scarcely permitted to 
deposit. It must, however, be recollected that the character and amount 
of matters carried, are very different in one ease from the other. The 
Nile flood is nndonbtedly generated by a monsoon, similar to that which 
falls so heavily on the mountains of the Indian Peninsula, in a latitude 
parallel to tlie sources of the river, where the torrents are of the most 
destmctiye character ; the mere grinding together of rocks in floods, 
formed by a rainfall of 3 to 9 inches per diem in hill country, is sufficient 
to produce immense quantities of sand ; of course, where tertiary or 
valley formations are subjected to tropical rains, the presence of flne 
mud requires no theory. 

At Siont and above, the depth of Nile sediment in its pure state, was 
found by Girard to be very variable, but on an average it seems to be abont 
10 feet ; below this there was a mixed character of Nito mud and grey 
micaceous sand, and on an average the depth to water was about 21 feet 
below the plain, so that as water generally existed in pure grey micaceous 
sand, we may consider that this pure material varied irom between 10 
and 21 foet below the surface. Mr. Homer's borings on the other hand, 
at Heliopolis, were about 28 feet to water, through about 20 foet 
of NUe sediment and of other beds (below the top stratum which 
is always pure Nile mud), which were generally mud and grey sand ; but 
when water came freely there was strong evidenc^e that sand beds wero 
reached or were very near, although the pure Nile sand was not reached 
so frequently, or at snch small depths, as at Siout. 

At Memphis the plain was about 3.5 feet below High Nile of 1851, of 
which the rise there was 28 feet ; water was reached at 17 feet below the 
plain ; mud and sand mixed, or pure beds of sand were ^enUly found 
10 to 14 feet below the surface. This yariation in the bonngs is remark- 
ably similar to the dredgings taken by Captain Spratt off the coast of the 
delta; the results haye also the usual generic character of yalley 
deposits, in the capridoos yariations of the beds beneath the upper 
alluvium. (See Jig. 5.) 

Girard attempted to ascertain the depth of the Libyan rocks bdow the 
plain of the Nile at Siout, and in^. 5, he found that there was pure sand 
for 16 feet below the bottomof the pits nearthe river; or, in other words, that 
the sand did not cease at the depth of 36 feet below the plain in the middle 
of the valley, below which he had no means of boring. He sunk a pit 
abont 900 feet from the edge of the cultivated plain, at a place where the 
ground was of the calcareous gravel and rolled flints of the desert, being 
8.5 feet above the land formed by the Nile ; the rendtgaye beds of yellow 
sand and clays, and at bottom a depth of 4 feet of sands and gravel and 
rolled flints, terminating (at 13.5 foet below the plain) with the calcareous 
beds of the hills Girard's conclusion was, that the lower beds of the 
Nile deposit, are probably heavier gravds, reposing on the calcareous rocks 
inclining fitom the adjacent hills ; this remark applies to Upper Egypt. 

The deepest borings taken at Mr. Homer's instance, at Heliopolis, 
near Cairo, gave a depth of 59.8 feet, where the ground was 67.30 
feet above the sea, so that the boring was down to within 7.4 feet 
of sealeyel; the last 11.5 feet of the boring was the pure sand, with 
occasional bits of pottery and brick. Similar borings at Memphis gave 
a succession of Nile deposits for 40 feet. The usual mud and sands, with 



=J| 



188 



bits of pottery apd l>rick, ^ere BtUl biooffht up with the tool at the 
bottom of the holes ; tifiiB occurred in aU the borings referred to by 
Homer near Cairo, bat not with Girard at Siout. 

The general resalt of these experiments appears to be that the ancient 
Nile trough, formed by the Libyan and Arabian mountains graduidly 
deepened and widened out into the delta, forming originally thejSih or sea 
mouth of the trough. The first deposits were evidently sand throuehout 
the Nile, from the Cataracts to the Delta ; but from analogy we should 
opine that heavy gravels may occur beneath these sands in the upper 
valley. These basement sands are distinctively silicious, precisely 
ideoJiic^ with thope now forming the Mediterranean coast of the 
delta. It is i^ the jpature of things that the deposits must have 
been deeper at the lower than at the upper end of the river, and this 
is shewn strongly by the borings. Whether the fragments of potteiy 
were deposited in situ in the Memphis and Heliopolis borings, or were 
brought down by floods, is d9abtfal ; ^fnt seeing that Capt. Spratt found bits 
on the sea coast to windward of the Bosetta mouth, brought down by 
eyery syccesfive flood fix>m middle or Upper Egypt, it is highly probable 
that Mr. Homer*s fragments were thus deposited. 

From a careful perusal of Mr. Horner*s investigations, I sQe nothing 
to refute the clever arguments of Girard, by which he arrived at the 
conclusion, from buri^ monuments 2,0(K> years old, that the mean 
secular rise had been .433 of a foot, or say 5.2 inches at Assouan, 
and .394 of a foot, or 4.7 inches per 100 years at Cairo. This would 
give from 4,000 to 6,000 years for the present depth to have been 
accumulating afler the sand period had gradually closed ; this small 
length of time is not inconsistent with a far longer period for the 
strata of the delta to have been in progress of collection. The rise of 
the sea bed of the Mediterranean along the shore of the delta, has but 
little relation to that of the ppper part of the Nile, where the land 
is 400 feet above the sea, and only six to ten miles in width ; nor is the 
depth of 6Q feet without a bottom near Cairo much proof that the depth 
of deposits is not very much greater ; nor, on the other hand, is there any 
proof that there may not have been bars of older rocks across the valley 
at some pcMjit or points, such as the apex of the delta, or nearer Cairo, 
for instance. Pure Nile sands are now being deposited 20 miles out from 
shore in 240 feet of waiter, and Nile mud and sand mixed are found up 
to 14 and occasionally 20 miles from shore, in depths ranging from 200 
feet at 14 miles, to 700 feet at 20 miles of water; so that there will be at 
some period, at least 240 feet up to 700 feet in depth of Nile deposits, 
without any necessity for much raising of the Nile or its banks at Cairo 
on hydrodynamic considerations : aldiough the formation of 240 feet 
of new beds, in a distance of 20 miles seaward to the present mouths, 
would involve only i^^ut 9 feet of rise in the water to give the same 
power of discharge to ,the river, yet additional erosion of the Bosetta and 
bamietta branches, or formation of a new one, would remove any 
necessity for this raising of the Nile. According to Girard*s estimate, it 
would take 2,300 years for the valley of Elgypt to be raised 9 feet at 
Cairo, where it is still narrow.; how much larger a period would be re- 
quired where there is the vast area of the delta for deposits ! 

The seaward extension of the delta would appear in the case of the 
Nile, from the causes above suggested, to be progressing at an extremely 
slow rate, the area for deposits being practically unrestricted, and the 
prevalent winds affording 300 miles of leeward shore and sea bottom 
to receive the Nile drift. It is most useful for the engineer to apply 
these facts, which have to such an extent the record of past ages, 
afforded by no other river. Alexandria, for example, still continues 



189 



a good barbov, after an existence of 2,200 ^ean (while others of 
a few years hasre been lost, or only struggle for an existence), simply 
from its position being to windward of the Nile; while, therefore, 
it is prudent to contemplate in some cases a rapid progress of effects in 
hydraulic works, it is equally wise to discriminate where progress may be 
marrellonsly slow. In the one case engineering works may be success, 
in the other failure may be a certainty. 

It is aigued by some that the Nile delta advances from 9 to 
10 feet per annum at the present day ; but the mere littoral advance 
does not afford an exact criterion of the actual amount carried down from 
the basin, which in this case is probably superior to that of any other 
river ; in the first, because it has such an immense depositing area in 
Egypt before reaching the sea ; secondly, because of the great extent of 
under water shoal receiving deposits ; and thirdly, because the prera- 
lent winds acting on the sands and mud are continually carrying them 
shoreward and leeward. Captain Spratt considers that the Nile does not 
deposit, per se, more than 12 miles in breadth at each mouth, at which 
point the depth is from 120 to 150 feet in depth, nor does any Nile de- 
posit exist more Xhan ^that distance to westward of the Rosetta mouth. 
I apprehend that he considers the remainder of these immense submarine 
Nilotic deposits are carried to the leeward by ocean currents and winds, 
and he asserts that there is proof of the sand being drifted in 8 or 
10 fathoms water. It is not easy to conceive that there can be much 
strict diffusion of High Nile water beyond this distance. 

With his remarks on the Nile delta. Captain Spratt gives some 
interesting particulars of the delta of the Danube, which is estimated by 
the late commission to haye advanced about an average of one mile 
(half a mile to one mile and a half) in 26 years past, for a width of 
12 miles in front of the Kilia months. This amounts to an increase sea- 
ward of 203 feet per annum, and an increase of 295 acres of delta per 
annum. The amount of deposit in suspension in ordinary summer 
floods when solidified is about ^ of the volume of vrater: and at 
periods of average flow j^Jqq. — {Hartley's Bepori.) 

The surfi&ce of the Danubian delta has about 5 inches per mile fall 
towards the sea. The surface of the river has a fall of about 3 inches 
per mile, with a Telocity of 2} miles per hour, during ordinary summer 
floods ; the surface fall is about 1^ inch per mile, with a velocity of 1 
mile per hour, when the water is low. 

The sea margin or base of the delta is, in the case of the Rhone, 80 to 
100 miles ; that of the Po is 70 to 90 miles ; that of the Nile upwards of 
200 miles ; but if it be taken to reach Syria, as much as 3.00 miles in 
length. 



COMPABISON OF THE PO WITH THE NILE AND OTHEB 

BIVEBS. 

The basin of the Nile is probably fortyfpld thft of the Po ; the monthly 
heights at Khartoum shew more gradusd rise and more sudden fall than at 
Cairo. The maximum flood discharge at any one time does not exceed 
threefold ; but the time of flood is much longer than that on the Po. 
This discrepancy arises from the more periodic and tropical character of 
the Nile floods, and from the very great distance traversed by the waters 
before flovring through Egypt. £ength of distance on river courses 
always equalizes floods, spreads them out in time, and renders them more 
uniform ; in fact their flood condition renders them compensating, like 
immense lakes. If we were to take the Nile at a point about 2,200 miles 



190 



fit>m the Mediterranean, we shonld possibly approach to parallel condi- 
tions in these two. rivers, with the exception of the great difference of 
climate. It is not, therefore, remarkable that the deposits and their stra- 
tification in the valley- of the Po are as irregular as those of the Nile are 
nnifonn. Detritus in the one case has been ground and sifted through 
2,500 miles of rapid course from table lands, whereas the valley of thePo 
is an immense fiat basin at the foot of most precipitous mountains ; a large 
portion of the feeders being torrents which debouch atonce into the flooded 
area. This torrential chiuucter and propinquity of mountains to the sea 
mouth therefore, to some extent, afford a stronger effect in transporting 
massive detritus to the sea, than the opposite conditions of the Nile. In 
this class of the river may be placed the Ganges, Amazon, and Orinoco. 
The Mississippi is similar in the length of course, and enormous extent 
of its basin : but absolutely the opposite to any other river in the com- 
paratively small rainfall on its basin, taken in its entirety. Its sources 
being among snowy mountains, afford considerable rainfall, but they 
are in a high latitude ; the great interior continent, and the flat slopes of 
the country below the Missouri, and even much of the mountainous 
country of New Mexico, afford but small rainfall. {See Table ofMainfaU 
of North America, ) 



191 



THE OAKOES. 



nrTBODUOTOBY REMAKES. 

This lirer is still withcmt an historian ; the best notice of it np to the 
present moment is by Major Bennel in the Philosophical Transactions 
for 1781. The Ganges, combined with the Bnrrampootra, drain the vast 
range of Asiatic Monntains between the head of the Indus and the 
sonrces of the Irrawaddj; and some of its branches drain a great por- 
tion of central India, even to the mountains in the north of the Bombay 
Presidency. The length of main river is 1,500 miles, and the area 
drained is not less than 700,000 square miles. Its lowest time at the 
head of the delta is April, and at the end of that month it commences 
to rise about an inch p«r diem for the first fortnight, it then augments 
to 2 or S inches per diem before any rain falls in Bengal ; when the rain 
becomes general the rise is about 5 inches per diem. Rennel considered 
the rise at Allahabad to be flnom 30 to 45 feet; at Jellingy the rise in 
May was 6 feet, in June 9.5 feet, in July 12.5 feet, and in the first half 
of August 4 feet, making a total rise of 32 feet ; at Dacca the rise in 
May was 2.4 feet, in June 4.5 feet, in July 5.5 feet, and in August 1.9 
feet ; total 14.S feet At Custec the rise is 31 fcst at 240 miles from the 
sea ; at Luckipoor, near the mouth, the rise is 6 feet, like it is at Calcutta. 
About the middle of August the waters stand awhile, after which the 
decrease is 3 to 4 inches to the end of September; 3 to l^ inches per 
diem to the end of November, after which the fall is about half an inch 
per diem until February or March. 

At Calcutta there is a mean difference of from five to six feet in the 
tide level between t he pe riods of drought and flood ; this will be seen in 
a diagram, plate Xvli., whereon a year's springs and neaps are pro- 
jected, offering a curious development of the law of tides when altered 
by swelling waters ; a more particular description of these tides will be 
found in Division III. (See The Hoogly.) 



FLOODS AND RAINS. 

As the floods of the Ganges arise secondarily from difiusion of rains 
over a very broad area down to the very mouths, the effect is entirely dif- 
ferent from the rise of the Nile, the flood of which proceeds chiefly from 
rain and snow near its sources. The rains appear to commence at 
Daijeeling in May (but sometimes in March) and terminate in Sep- 
tember or early in October ; at Patna they commence in June and cease 
in October ; at Calcutta they commence in May and cease in October. 
.In comparing these facts with the rise of tiie Ganges, we may safely 
conclude that the early swelling of the river dates m>m the melting of 
snows as the season advances into March ; but the Soane, Chumbul and 
other rivers have probably a shorter rainy season, extending from June 
to September. The tables of rainfall shew that the period of flood 
waters must vary considerably ; Kennel notices that in 1774 the floods kept 
up a month after their nsual time. (See Division JF., Rair\faU of 
India,) In the immense flat plains of the Ganges and its delta the 
local rains are sufficient to cause inundation independent of the over- 
flowing of the river itself, and as the banks are always higher, owing to 
being exposed to greater amount of warping, the low country isfre- 
quentiy under water before the river has actually overflowed its banks. 
When this finally occurs the extent of flood water is almost the largest 



192 



in the world, for the snn may be seen to rise and set in the vast 
inundation. The fall of the Ganges valley is very similar to that 
of the Nile, and the delta has great general likeness, except in the much 
greater number of arms and creeks and sea mouths into which the 
Ganges is divided ; the similarity arises from the same primary laws which 
regnkte the flow of water. Rennel found that sixty miles of the plain 
had nine inches fall per mile, and the windings of the river would 
reduce this to four inches for the surface water. Below the Jumna the 
width in diy season is on an average three-quarters of a mile with a depth 
of 30 feet, and a velocity of about 240 feet per minute ; in inundation ihia 
width is increased occasionally to 7 and 9 miles wide (Boglipoor), and 
the velocity in the deep chanels is 440 feet per minute, but the inunda- 
tion velocity is about 44 feet per minute. From the original surveys of 
the East Indian Railway between Calcutta and Bajmahfu, made by Mr. 
C. Greaves, C.E., it appears that the fall of the Bhaugirutte, between 
Rajmahal and the Minsapore creek of the Hoogly, is S.37S inches per 
mile, on the length of 190 miles ; but the slope of the valley is 4.970 
inches per mile on a direct course of 129 miles. 

The deposits forming the bed and banks of tlie Ganges are perpetuaUy 
in course of erosion and re -formation ; when the river current has com- 
menced to cut out a bend, the advance proceeds at the rate of one mile 
in 10 or 1 2 years. Rennel observed the mouth of the Jellingy river move 
downwards three-quarters of a mile in 1 1 years ; and by two surveys of a part 
of the bank of the Ganges, he found that 1 1 mile had been removed in 9 years. 
The erosion is aggravated by the dry seasons, when the steep and under- 
mined banks become cracked, and fall off ftom want of .sufficient slope 
or tenacity. The section of the Nile and curves of the Po shewn at 

Elates XIII. and XY. describe very nearly the state of the Ganges, which, 
owever, is on a much larger scale in any respect than either of thosa 
rivers. The inundated lands and delta of the Nile is ever3rwhere more 
or less artiflcially embanked, the Ganges on the other hand haa no proper 
embankments other than the minor arrangements of the cultivators 
of rice grounds to retain the exact height of water necessary to float the 
shooting plants. 



THE DELTA, 

The deUa of the Ganges can scarcely be separated from t;hat of the 
Bunampootra, for the waters of both mingle in flood season, the total area 
can be litde short of dOO miles sea mai^n, and ^00 to 250 miles to 
the apex. The sea margin has no less than eight important creeks or 
rivav, some of which always cany water, others only in flood time, and 
others are tidal without any present communication with the main river. 
Each of these eight openings is thought to have been in its time principal 
outlet of the Ganges. 

Rennel states that there is no appearance of other than deposited mud 
between the Tiperah hills and the province of Burdwan, nor on the north 
up to Dacca and Bauleagh. In all the sections of the numerous rivers 
of the delta, nothing but sand and black mould appear in regular layers 
until we come to the clay which forms the basement bed. There js no 
substance as coarse as gravel, until we reach 400 miles fromt^ sea where 
a rocky point projects, and in all parts of the delta, whether jemote from 
the great rivers or otherwise, the soil is either red, yellow or deep brown. 

The flow of the Ganges estimi^ted by Renn^ wijl be fo(md in the Table 
of Rivers. 



193 



FLOW FBOM 8EWE&S AHl) WATER SOPPLT 
nr THE METEOPOnS. 



In contradistinction to the foregoing subject, the flow of sewers is of 
conrse wholly artificial and dependent greatly upon ^be supply of water 
which may be afforded in each particular case. There is also the general 
fact that natural rain or streams are carried off in a highly different 
manner by sewers, so that eyen the natural springs themselyes are 
altered in character and become in towns almost inyariably mere feeders 
to the bottom of sewers, which offers the line of least pressure for their 
exit. It is thus probable that the City of London was well supplied with 
springs between the Fleet and BatcUffe along the bed of grayel which 
forms the Northern bank of the Thames, and the upper districts had 
many excellent conduits or water fountains, all of which haye now 
disappeared excepting in name. 

There was only partial information on this subject up to 1852, when 
Mr. Haywood, the Engineer of the Board of Works of the City of 
London, made the most accurate measurements of all the chief sewers in 
that district for a continuous period. Since this, gaugings of other great 
metropolitan sewers were taken by Mr. Bazalgette, and later, a more ex- 
tensiye series was taken by Messrs. Simpson, Galton and Blackwell, when 
leportiBg on' die phm for main drainage of the metropolis. The three 
following pages giye the reisult of their inyestigations both for the flow of 
sewage and the supply of water, which haye a close relation — ^it is un- 
necessary to describe these tables, as they haye the entire facts condensed 
thereon from several tables issued in the Blue Books of 1857, containing 
the reports and long discussions which took place at the time. The 
total flow of sewage at that time on the North and South of the Thames, 
appeared to be about 36 gallons per diem, per head of population, ex- 
cluding rain, the water supply was about SO gallons per head. This 
diflerence of six gallons may be attributed to springs and artificial pumping, 
of which the aggregate quantity must be considerable, from breweries and 
other large establishments haying deep wells. The total surplus quantity 
appears to be about 1,770 cubic feet per minute, which if divided oyer 
the 70 square miles, is about 25 cubic feet per minute, per square mile, 
or nearly six inches per annum, distributed on the surface ; this would 
indicate that the effect of rain is felt indirectly in the gaugings, as the 
supply from wells and springs above wouid scarcely amount to that 
quantity. 

The gaugings in the subsequent tables were made in the spring months 
of 1857. 

The authorities from whom we are now quoting observed that the 
Savoy Street sewer discharged on the 20th of June, 1857, about twenty 
times its minimum and six times its ordinary maximum flow ; the rain 
on this day was .9 of an inch, between 12 at night and 1.45 a.m., and 
'08 more fell before noon. The ordinary and maximum flow in three 
important sewers on the morning of the 20th of June was thus : — 



194 



Norfolk Street Sewer 

£6sex Street Sewer 

Northnmberland Street Sewer 
Savoy Street Sewer , 



Area. 



Acrea. 

79 
92 

370 
15* 



Mean 

ordinary 

flow 



Cubic Feet 
permln. 

21 

71 
320 



flow on 
MUiJane. 



Moan flow 
per aere. 



Maximit 

flow 
per acre. 



Oubic Feet Cable Feet 
permin. permin. 



58 
490 

I410 

3100 



I. II 

•77 
.86 



C. Feet 
permin. 

3.05 
5.25 

3-75 
20.50 



The maximum flow appears to hare followed the rain within a veiy 
short time, as, indeed, was to be expected, for the areas are small and the 
slope of the sewers very rapid ; the streets are of a good class, and the 
houses generally well drained : this applies especially to Northumberland 
Street Sewer, which drains Regent Street. The maximum flow in 
Savoy Street Sewer took place at 2 a.m. ; the flow fell to 1,060 cubic 
feet at 2.15, and to 638 cubic feet at 2.30 a.m. 

By gaugingS'of various sewers in Westminster, made in the summer 
of 1845, Mr. Hawkins, C.E., reported that the mean summer dis- 
charge of the Westminster district, urban and suburban^ was .277 of a 
cubic foot per minute per acre ; the urban only was .876 of a cubic foot 
per minute per acre. 

The general conclusion at which the referees arrived, in reference to 
the Metropolis, was, that the great intercepting scheme should be arranged 
to carry off from urban districts with about 80 persons per acre, about 
two-fifths of an inch of rain during the eight hours of maximum flow ; 
this opinion has relation as much to questions of dilution as to the actual 
quantity necessary to be intercepted for abstract purposes of drainage, 
for a very large quantity of heavy rain would still nave to flow away by 
other channel. This fact should be borne in mind in all systems of 
artificial drainage, for the surface flow of water is great, with heavy 
rain ; in point of fact, heavy storms cannot get into the best system of 
sewers, before they have made their way elsewhere. This natural opera- 
tion is indeed generally not without benefit, and the only cases in which 
it cannot operate are those of absolutely flat areas, which, practically, do 
not often occur in closely built towns, sewered in the modem fashion ; cer- 
tainly such cases ought to have the principle of interception applied to 
them in the broadest acceptation of the term. 

In some of the earlier blue books, upon the question of size of sewers, 
it was suggested that they should be made large enough to cany one inch 
of rain per hour, i.e. 60 cubic feet per minute per acre ; this is the 
calculated quantity which ran in some London sewers in the thunder- 
storm of August 1st, 1846. The flood levels given in evidence, genendly 
indicate a £scharge from thunder-storms c? 25 to 35 cubic feet per 
minute from each acre of urban drainage ; this is equal to 1.66 and 2.33 
inches of rain in 4 hours — a quantity which it would be perfectly extrava- 
gant to attempt to carry off artificially on a laige scale. 

The following tables shew the oscillation of flow in the sewers for 
each portion of the 24 hours, and likewise the variation in demand upon 
the water companies during the same periods, with the relative quantities 
for each day of the week, and for summer compared with other ordinary 
seasons. This information was furnished to the referees by the com- 
panies, and contains matter in a form never before obtained on so complete 
a scale. The tables will be applicable generally to town supplies, where 
the chief difficulties and expenses of distribution exist in the variable 
character of draft on the mains. 



195 



ME TBOPOLITAg SEW EB8. 

BUMKABY OF TEE FLOW OF SEWAGE IH EACH DAY, 

With the oorresponding ooantity per Acre, and per head of povralatioii, of Ae Area 
dridned ; aa gaaged In 1857 by the Refereea on the Metropontan Drainage. 



Frinoipel Sewera. 



Counter'a Creek, Eensing-\ 
ton Branch / 

Htfflf^lagh 

King'aBcholar'B Pond 

NorOiumberland, Bavoy, \ 
Baaez A Norfolk Streets. / 

Fleet 

London Bridge 

BatcUflb Cross 

Upper B£Bra 

Qrosa Eslamatoof Flow for ) 
Metropolis North of the > 

Thames ) 

Ditto South of the Thames 
TotaJ (exchisive of Raip) 



Area 
Drained 



Acres. 



1,807 

4*150 
x,8xo 

4>220 

x,»50 
1,098 
3,650 



43.695 



Popula* 

don p«r 

Acra. 



No. 



*3 

9» 
»5I 

51 
86 

«35 

7-3 



6x 

16 

35 



Fopal»> 

tion ia 

Dbtriek 



No. 



41,300 

131, 100 
167,700 

160,000 

X39,ooo 

"94. 750 

148,230 

26,850 



1,963,000 

693,000 
1,656,000 



Flow of 
Sewage. 



Cabe feet 
^ diem. 

3S3»8a> 

9H»894 
11^3*830 

783,3^1 

i»74'»77S 
1,318,830 

905,910 

210,030 



11,513,227 

3*736,550 
15,208,083 



Flow 
per Acre 



Cube ft. 
I^diem. 

'X96 

223 
661 

1,206 



4»3 
586 
825 

57 



365 

86 

202 



Flow par 

Head of 

POpul^ 

tion. 



Cube ft. 
^diem. 

8.6 

7.0 
7.0 

4.8 

6.4 
6.1 

7.8 



5.9 

5.4 
5-8 



DETAII8 OF FLOW IH EACH HOITB, 



Downsevera] 


I important Sewers, with the Gross Average Flow in fourteen 








Sewers m dry weather. 








Hour. 


Counter's 
Creek. S. 


Bane- 
lagh. S. 


Neiiham- 
b«rlMd 

DWWm 


Fleet. 
S. 


London 
Bridge. 


HaeknsT 

Brook. 

S. 


S. 


Total Flov 
of 


I a.m. 


0,360 
8,520 


18,885 


8,160 


36,075 


25,965 


28,020 


6,270 


104,048 
181,108 


* I, 


16,350 


7»845 


33,645 


»5ii55 


26,940 


6,o]o 


3 ft 


8,280 


15,240 


7»455 


32,835 


24,420 


26,385 


5.615 


174,689 
168,959 


4 I, 


8,205 


14,624 


7»335 
7,695 
8,130 


30,540 
30,870 


24i435 


25,650 


5,220 


1 " 
>, 


8,040 


12,705 


24,495 
24,690 


25, 155 


5,235 


166,975 


7,020 
10,875 
17,100 


14.205 


35,550 


24,570 


5.385 


174,081 


■I " 


19,800 
«,755 


14.040 
a8,275 


&.U 


17.380 
09,000 


25.965 
26,250 


5,880 
7,005 


225,068 
361,899 


9 *, 


ao,835 


35,790 


38,100 


103,800 


!'*945 


28,170 


7*965 


464.104 


10 „ 


ax, 500 
*5,635 


55,200 


39»3'5 


104,295 


82,980 


29,220 


9,240 


518,877 


" »> 


6i',4»S 


34. '85 


124,455 
124,635 


8g,430 
88,380 


30,240 


10,875 


552,247 


W M 


«o,295 


»8,545 
27,165 


30,990 


11,670 


558,990 


I p.m. 


18,075 


63,000 


123,570 


82,155 


31,170 


11.775 


541,444 


* M 


15,825 
16,230 


15,800 


101,465 


75,420 


32,040 
32,265 


13,050 


498,540 


3 .» 


23,460 


97»o65 


7I.J25 


11,105 


470,505 
487,986 


4 ,. 


14,805 


58,035 


24,360 


106,305 


Z9»875 
82,890 


31,310 
32,670 


12,780 


6 „ 


17,040 


55, *75 


27,015 


108,570 


13,020 


494.408 


17»9*5 


51,510 


25,395 
19,080 


89.055 


V'lf^ 


32,745 


11,460 
10,680 


443.437 


I " 


17,010 


47,385 
46,185 


72,945 
03,090 


63,885 


35.055 


383.940 


16,260 


15,930 


52,905 
43,095 


35,070 


V^ 


342,751 


9 f« 


41,850 


13,230 


53,750 


34,245 
31,860 


300,230 


10 „ 


13,635 


36,420 


10,770 


47*295 


35,670 


7,980 


262,094 


" » 


11,445 


31,800 


9»945 


42,780 


31,515 


30,240 


7,140 
0,420 


235.215 


" « 


10,590 


26,850 


9,»35 


39.795 


28,080 


29,070 


218,068 


Total... 


353,880 


914.894 


460,365 


1,741,775 


1,318,830 


716,295 


210,030 


8,420,566 



NoTB.— The Sewers marked S. drain more or leas Suburban districts. 



Eight Hours Haximtmi Flow, 9 a.m. to 6 p.m. 

Ditto Mean Flow, 7 to B ft.m and 6 to 11 p.m 
Ditto Hean Flow, 11 p.m. to 7 a.m 

Total Flow in 24 hours of the principal Sewers < 



Quantity 
Cubic feet 



4.122,097 
2,793.672 

1,503,897 



8,420,566 



Per 

Centage. 



49. 
33. 
18. 



100. 



196 



^ 



MET BOPOLITAir WATER SUPP LY, 

SUMMARY SHEWING NUMBER OF HOUSES AND 

QUANTITY OF WATER SUPPLIED 

By the varioaa Water Companies in 1857. 



Name of 
Company. 



N. Bins. 
Chdaea.. . 
EaetLondon 
G. Jnnction. 
Hampetead. 
New Birer . 
W.Hiddleflz 



Total 



8. SiSB. 

Kent 

Lambeth ... 
Soathwark 
AYaozhaU 



Total 



Groaa Total 




70,876 

I7,7»6 

6,708 

96*99* 

48,409 



246,014 



17,150 
44»5»9 



90.987 



n7»<»> 



Mean Daily Supply 
InApriL 



Cubio 
Feet. 



9U> 
4,380, 

1,009,981 

«oj,o87 

3,204,636 

»»074.4J6 



OallODB. 



5,810.419 
lA, 880, 475 

6,312*383 

1,269, X96 
20,028,979 

6,715.350 



8,807,50455,046,901 



»3» 
210 

356 

206 

236 



224 

mn 



Bummer Daily Supply. 



Cabio 
Feet. 



>*097.999 
2,880,000 

1,085,730 

a»3»396 
3,525,100 
1,310,836 



10,123,061 



GallonB. 



6,862,492 
18,000,000 

6,785,812 

1,396,225 
22,031,875 

8,192,727 



63,269,131 



466,218 
958,566 

1,694,960 



3,119,744 



11,927,248 



2,913.862 
5,991,036 

10,593,500 



<9. 498. 398 



74.545.300 



170 
204 

238 



214 



221 

mn. 



600,000 
1,131,107 

1,949,204 



3,780,311 



<3.903.37» 



3,750,000 
7,069,420 

12,182,525 



23,001,945 



86,271,076 



H 



271 

*54| 

3«3 
208 

227 

288 



»7*| 
mn 



218 

273 



M4 



a45 
ran. 



Largeat 
aiqjpiy in 
anyone 
day of 
April. 
Oflllona. 



7,315,800 

«5.9i5,«75 
7.084,575 



7.785.675 



3,497,662 
7»436,65i 

",557.000 



".49».3>3 



II 

Il 



12.2 



15.9 



12.9 
mn. 



20.0 
24.1 

9.1 



15-3 



13.8 

mn. 



In addition to the above, the TraflUgar Sqoare Well snpplied SOO^OOO gallons 
per day, to the Qovemment OflOces, &o., and the Plomatead waterworks 
supplied 660.000 gallons per day, to 3,150 houses. 

The populatfen on the North side appears to average 8 persons, and on the 

South Bide 7 persons to each house. 



EAST LONDON WATERWORKS. 
aVAHTITY 07 WATER PUMPED DAILY, 

From 28th March to tod May, 1857. 



DATS. 



Quantity in 
Cubic Feet 



DATE. 



Quantity in 
Cubio Feet. 



DATS. 



Quantity in 
Cubio Fo 



Maroh 






Ainril 



I* 
,1 
*, 
,, 
,* 
If 



28 

*9 

30 

31 
I 

2 

3 

4 

I 

r 



2,502,400 

I, IOC. 582 

2,306,518 
2,308,188 
». 364, 845 

».377,»9» 
2,396,823 

*. 347. 790 
1,180,140 

a. 396, 579 
*, 397. 066 

*«37^,675 



April 



,, 
,* 
», 
>i 
*, 
I, 
,* 
II 
,* 



9 
10 

II 

12 

i| 
14 

;i 

il 

'9 

20 



*.S78,4n 
2,122,854 
2,262,5(8 
878,480 
2,546,428 
2,212,905 
2,304,262 
2,312,404 
2,366,289 

*.398,9'3 
1,175,188 

2,350,852 



April 



*t 
f» 
,1 

!• 
f. 
If 
If 
If 



If 

May 



21 
22 

*3 

M 

29 

30 

I 

2 



»f455.M6 
»i 410, 359 

a. 35", 55* 
2,402,504 

». 463. 571 
1. 147.409 
*. 390. 949 
ai4o>i546 
2,401,108 
2,458,482 
2,472,254 
a. 463. 354 



TABLE SHEWnra PROPORTION PUMPED DURnTQ SAGS 

HOUR OP THE DAY, 

The total quantity beinsr taken » 100. 00 



Hour 
ending. 



p.in. 
If 
f, 
„ 
ff 
f. 



I 

9 
10 

II 

12 



Propor- 
tion 
Pumped 



3-41 

3.07 

*-54 
a- 45 
2.33 

2.01 



Hour 
ending. 



a.m. 



*, 



I 

2 

3 

4 

I 



Proper 

tion 

Pumped 



2.15 
2.09 
2.09 
1. 98 
2.26 
2.64 



Hour 
ending. 



a.m. 



„ 

,t 
ff 
•f 



I 

9 

10 

II 
12 



Ehropor 

tion 

Pumped 



4-69 
6-75 
6.57 
6.53 
6.40 

6.10 



Hour 
ending. 



p.m. 
If 
II 
II 



I 

2 

3 

4 

I 



Propor- 
tion 
Pumped 



6.32 
5.81 

5-95 
5,65 

5-55 

4-55 



19T 



DBIAIL8 07 aVANTITT 07 WATER 8I77FIIED HOUBLY 

Trom 6th to 11th April, 1857. 

CHELSEA WATERWORKS. 



Hoar 



9 I- 
>o „ 
II 






* „ 
I » 
4 », 

M 

Total \ 
Night/ 



i 



I 



9 » 



tf 



10 

II 
» 

1 pjn. 

2 »i 
I » 
4 f. 

Total Dagr 



Grofls 
Total 



} 



Snnday 



QaUons. 
9«»4oo 

lift, 000 

115,600 
8), 100 

40.000 
f*»ooo 

48,800 

£,800 
,000 
60,000 

Jl,O0O 



800,800 



Kondar 
April 8th 



Gftllons. 
40,100 
40,aoo 
19,800 
40,100 
75,000 

55, MO 

i},8oo 
55,100 
55,100 
75,000 
li,«oo 
96,000 



600,000 



Tuesday 
April TttL 



Qallona. 

179,100 

119,100 

iJ7»6oo 

94,400 

94,400 

n4.400 

oil 800 

109,600 

Ot,100 

89,600 
160,600 
118,400 



1,600,400 



111,000 

103,000 
130,000 
110,000 

110,000 

37,000 

55,000 
37,000 
10,000 
10,000 
10,000 
J7»300 



€,801,100 



57I»ooo 
J43.00O 
55»»ooo 
57J»ooo 
410,000 
411,000 
389,000 
411,000 
494.000 
411,000 
150,000 
175,000 



1,000,300 5,111,000 



1, 822,000 



687*000 
64^,000 
630,000 
630,000 
5»7»ooo 
4p,ooo 
367,000 
430,000 
504*000 
430,000 
110,000 
100,400 



5,715,400 



7,315,800 



Wednea. 
April 8th. 



Qallona. 

«55.4oo| 

99.400 

71,400 

08,000 

07,100 

I7,*» 

155.400 

92.400 

111,800 

119,000 

105,800 

176,400 



1,400,000 



590,000 
5p,ooo 
550,000 
490.000 
470,000 
144. 000 
319,000 
367,000 
410,000 
348,000 
130,000 
110,180 



4,798,180 



6,198,180 



Thnrsd^ 
April Otn. 




Friday 
ApzillOth. 



Qallona. 

S 77. 000 
07,900 
.»oo 
- .700 
17,100 
50,000 
56,000 
05,100 
54.600 
54,600 
44.«oo 
63,700 



600,000 700,000 



574.000 
550,000 
540,000 
5J5.000 
440.000 
30&,ooo 
103,000 
a6o,ooo 
450,000 
390,000 
130,000 
139,050 



4,763,050 



5. 163,050 



566,000 
516,000 
501,000 
501,000 
447.000 
388,000 
197,000 
lib, 000 
187,000 
lU,ooo 
108,500 
118,050 



4.»»5.55o 



4.9*5.550 



Batnrday 
Aprillltb, 



Qallona. 
33,600 
81,100 
93,800 
105,000 
19.900 
5>.8oo 

51,100 
51,100 

J4.J00 
41,000 
58,100 
58,100 



700,000 



660,000 
630,000 
570.000 
600,000 
510,000 
300,000 
110,000 
550,000 
530,000 
300,000 
160,000 
160,100 



5,100,100 



5,900,900 



SOUTHWARK AND VAUXHALL WATERWORKS. 



I 

9 

10 

II 
11 

I 

1 

S 

4 

I 



pjn, 

M 

»» 

M 

n 



n 
$f 
ft 
tt 
»t 



Total ) 
Night; 



2 



». 
>* 
•> 
•* 
t. 



436,000 
383,000 
117.000 
118,000 
184,000 
111,000 
86,000 
91,000 
109,000 
^90.000 

000,000 



1,104,000 3,363,000 



498. 

3U* 
306, 
an, 

t59» 
i«5. 

«7. 

9«. 
III. 
101, 

eti 
1. 



000 



000 
000 
ooo 
000 

000 
000 
000 
1 000 
000 

000 
000 



3,135,000 



9 

10 

11 
11 

1 p.m. 

* » 

3 •• 

4 ,. 

Total Day 

Qroaai 
Total / 



138,000 
*74.ooo 
358,000 
411,000 
a56,ooo 
111,000 
166,000 
111,000 
106,000 
100,000 
01,000 
87,000 



1,431,000 



3,636,000 



660,000 
679,ooo 
665,000 

500,000 
581,000 
598,000 
556,000 
4B9.000 
461,000 
461,000 
445.000 



6,778,000 



10,141,000 



664, 

681,000 

681,000 

591,000 

580,000 

|68,ooo 
601,000 
540,000 
480,000 
458,000 
431,000 
419,000 



9,957,000 



470,000 
185,000 
181,000 
a37.ooo 

I0«,O0O 

86,ooq 
88,000 
107,000 
198,000 
506,000 
004,000 



3,390,000 




3,511,000 



507. 



gB,ooo 
3,000 
660,000 
i,ooo 
r.ooQ 
581,000 

597,000 

488,000 
f50»ooo 

466,000 
458.000 
506,000 



6,711,000 6^8)1,000 6,847,000 



10,111,000 



681,000 

050,000 
601,000 

hooo 

)l,O00 

6Qa,ooo 

551,000 

401,000 
400,000 

501,000 

438,000 



|79» 
601, 



10,358,000 



411,000 
387,000 
*91.ooo 
119,000 
171,000 
105,000 
80,000 
93,000 
108,000 
«97,ooo 
511,000 
598,000 



3,181,000 



411,000 
179,000 
3x4.000 
a|7.ooo 
160,000 
111,000 
97,000 
101,000 
188,000 
351,000 
553 » 000 
657,000 



3,561,000 



g8,ooo 
1,000 
667,000 
507,000 
5^»ooo 
S97.000 
603,000 
581,000 
496,000 
401.000 
451. 000 
438,000 



10,100,000 




6,819,000 7,001,000 



10,564,000 



16 



I9d 



Hote.— Af to Wells through Chalk into the Lower Oreen-iaad. 

These wells ha^e been, withcmt doabt, ansuccessful in the London 
Basin. Attempts to obtain water in this way have been recentlj made at 
Warren Fann, near Brighton, at a point aboat 410 feet above the sea ; 
the well has pierced 1,282 feet of the cretaceous series, and finally 
pierced the gre^-sand at that depth, when water was met with. On the 
23rd of Mfl^h, 1862, or about a week after the occurrence, this had 
risen 700 feet in the shaft ; it is probable that the permanent height of 
the water will not exceed high-water level. 

The snbcretaceons or green-sand rocks are not always productive of 
water. Degouss^ experienced failures at Evres and Feni^res. This 
want of success has been more striking in this country ; for instance, a 
well at Hastings has been sunk 553 feet ; hitherto without success. 

A well sunk in the Wealden series, at Wamham C!ourt, near Horsham, 
passed at 142 feet into red clays and sandstone, without obtaining 
water. At Red Hill also, Docwra traversed the sands and loam of the 
green-sand series to a depth of 438 feet, when the red clays and sandstones 
were met with similar to the Horsham case. Both these cases were failures 
in rocks very similar to those met with in the Highgate borings. A 
bore at Stowmarket, made at a point about 250 feet a^ve the sea, and 
sunk to a depth of 895 feet, was successful in obtaining water in the 
lower green-sand. — (From O, B. BumeWs paper.) 

Af to Xean Le^el of flea and efEbet of Floods at Mouths of BiTsra. 

The law of gravitation does not permit the mean sea level to vary 
materially at any point of the globe where there is a free interchange of 
waters ; high and low waters may differ considerably, owing to were 
being a greater tidal wave at one point than another contiguous, but the 
mean half-tide level ought to be the same. It will be seen by the 
recorded levels in various examples set out in this work, that there are 
small apparent differences round the coast of England, but the true mean 
levels may not yet be satisfactorily ascertained ; we may refer, for an 
example of this, to the record of the tides at Holyhead, page 215 ; here 
the winter gales cause a difierence of 10 inches, but this would only 
represent a mean elevation of 5 inches. There is certainly a tendency 
in the mean tide level to rise at the head of long estuaries ; but where 
veiy great obstructions exist to the propagation of the tidal wave, high 
water reduces itself below the level of the original wave. 

It has been ascertained by levelling across the Istlmius of Panama, 
that the Pacific and Atlantic are on the same level ; in the course of the 
levelling for the Suez canal, it was ascertained that low water of the Bed 
Sea and Mediterranean, at Suez and Tineh (Pelusium), are very nearly at 
the same level, Suez being about 1 inch lower. 

The mean rise of tides at Suez is somewhat above that in the 
Mediterranean, but the maximum difference is not more than 31 1 inches. 

The rise of equinoctial springs at Suez is 7.9 above low water in ^e 
Mediterranean at Tineh, and low water at the same period at Suez is 17.7 
inches below the lowest water at Tineh. 

The floods of great rivers, without doubt, sensibly affect even the height 
of the open sea, as their waters do the character of sea water. For 
instance, the colour of the Ganges may be seen, at times, 20 miles oat 
fix)m the coast; this also occurs with the great rivers of China; 
Admiral Smvthe says that at High Nile potable water may be 
taken up on the surface of the Mediterranean, out of sight of land. The 
greatest rise of High Nile, at its mouths, is about 42 inches ; such a 
volume as this would probably require a fall of one inch per mile for the 
first 3 to 5 miles of the open sea beyond the bar. 



199 



NOTES 

TABLE OF THE FLOW OF RiyEBB-Paget 200 * 20L 

The following pages gtye the mean, maximum, minimnTn , and 
ordinaiy summer flow of some of the more important rivers, and also of 
lome minor streams, with the ratio of their flow and discharge, which 
may he found at other places in Division II. Some of the examples 
are collated from the letter-press, so as to give at- one view a com^* 
parison with others, of which the data have heen collected from various 
sources, quoted in each case. . Lomhardini has generally procured his 
account of the rivers of France from papers in the ** Annales des Fonts et 
Chaussees,** hj engineers connected with their management. 

It will be seen in the Tables of Flow that the mean flow of rivers 
varies greatly in different years, governed as they are by the varying 
rainfidl ; this will therefore affect those examples which are quoted only 
from certain years, or isolated observations. The minima and 
maxima are also subject to these remarks. Glacial rivers, such as 
those off the Alps and Jura, have in their "ordinary summer flow" 
almost the maximum of the year; but in lowland rivers this period 
frequently gives the minimum discharge. When exandnins the tables, 
it is necessary to have these exceptional facts in mind ; they will be 
seen clearly by examining the flow of the Saone, Arve, Rhone — pages 
157, 158, 160— and also in the article on the Biver Po. 

The Mississippi. — The flow is given by Prinsep as taken at Natchez, 
about 60 miles above the Delta. At lowest ebb the breadth was 2,400 
feet ; depth of channel, 80 feet ; mean depth being 50 feet, sectional area 
120,000 square feet, and velocity about 50 feet per minute ; the maxi- 
mum being 88 feet. In freshes this river has at the same place a width 
of about 2,700 feet, greatest depth 120 feet, and mean 100 feet ; with 
an average velocity of about 220 feet per minute. 

Prinsep thinks the rainfall of the Ganges area may averaee 50 inches, 
and that of the Mississippi 18 inches : it may be presumed that the latter 
is somewhat too low. It is veiy doubtful what the exact area of the 
basin of the Mississippi may be. 

The Nile.— The area of the basin of the Kile is only approximate. 
Talabot makes the mean flow of the Nile at Cairo for four years (1844-7) 
6,057,000 cubic feet per minute, and represents a mean height of 
10.59 feet on the Nilometer; it is a gQK)d deal less than the mean 
flow named in the table ; both are probably far below a maximum year, 
for the mean flow is computed from the mean height of the year; 
the amount which would flow above that level is far greater than anv 
dischaive when the river is below the medium level. The Rosetta mouth 
of the Nile is 1,968 feet wide and 5,25 feet deep at lowest water ; the 
Damietta mouth is 984 feet wide and 8.22 feet deep at the same period. 
(See article on Nile, page 181.) 

The Oanges. — The quantities at Benares were taken fh)m a section 
^ Prinsep, 25th of April, 1829, *< after a long interval without rain." 
The area of the section was 48,650 square feet ; width, 1 ,400 feet ; and 
mean depth, 34} feet ; the mean velocity being 23.5 feet per minute. 
The maximum discharge at the same place is computed, when the river 
was 3,000 feet wide; with an average depth of 58 feet, and sectional 
area of 175,000 square feet, the mean velocity being about 440 feet per 
minute. (See Pkte XVI.) 

[For eoTiHnuation, see Page 202.] 



200 



TABLE OF TH] 



TOTAL ESTIMATED DI8CHAB0E; 

In diffBrmt oonditions. 



iname of Biver. 



MlMliwIppl .. 
Nile, at Cairo., 



(Hnges, at Benares .... 

„ at Kot 

„ at Sikreegnlee... 
Oauvery, Madras r 



Bhine, at Lanterboniig^ ... 
Seine, at Trojes, 1848-55 

„ atPariB 

Eure, at its month 



Ooronne, at Marmande ,. 

Saone, at Treyonx 

Bhone, at Genera 

at Ayignon •••.»• 



N 



Ardeohe, 1857 

Erieux, 

Douz, 

Arve, at Gfeneya, 1856 ... 






Ogllo and Oherio ..... 

SOnoio , 

Adda, below L. Como .. 
Tloino, belowL.Maggiore 

Po, at Pontelagoflcaro .... 

Tiber, at Rome 

Severn, below Gloacester 
Lee, at Peilde's Weir..., 



Thames, at Staines 

Medway, at Preston 

Nene, at Peterborough .. 
Shannon, at Killaloe..., 



Bann, 1856 

Broana, Peibane, 1852, 6 
Robe, Mayo, 1851, 52 ... 
Rivington Pike, 1847, 8 



Loch Katrine 

Looh Lubnaig, 1847, 54 
Teith, at Deanston, 1826 
Brookbum, 1852 



Area of 
BmiHi 



B«.1IUm. 

886,000 
600,000 



180, 
192 

33o» 
3»» 



),000 

000 
000 
000 



63,000 



100 
II 



»7»i 
a, loo 



20, 028 

3yOOO 

35» 745 

900 
328 

244 
772 

740 

788 

1,670 

2,420 

a6» 754 
6,458 

3,890 



3,086 
481 
620 

4»57i 

2,205 

446 

109.4 

16.25 



71.6 
69. 
191. 

4-3 



1 



Zttimated or ObMnred IMfchaige. 



Mevi 



aftptrmln. 

33,000,000 
10,044,000 

15,000,000 

... 
30, 000, 000 
1,012,500 

2, 343, 600 
42,380 
529, 700 



1,440,920 

1,018,000 

640,500 

3,640,000 



266, 800 

158,910 
163,150 
396,210 
646, 230 

$, 644, 300 
618,230 

••• 

»3.53o 
100,000 



209, 150 

44»»5o 
14, 100 

2,850 

26, 170 
25, 050 
... 
900 



Ordiiuuy 
Sunmar. 



0. ft per Bin. 

• • • 

1,440,000 



\riTi<»ww»r> 



9«5, 300 

9»535 
241,540 

34,000 

317,850 
922, 300 

863,330 
1,483,150 

10,600 



423, 100 

76, 280 
116,530 

72,04c 
224, 590 

if379»33o 
391,970 

33, "o 
8,450 

45,000 
2,520 
5,000 

54,852 

110,430 
26, 590 

4,550 
2,000 

21, 100 

17,480 

3,820 

392 



0. ftpermln. 

6,000,000 
722,000 

1, 140,000 

828,000 

1,260,000 



5,785 
158,900 



127, 140 

79, 770 

195,000 

985,000 



42, 380 

74,160 

48, 730 

152,550 

453, 4»o 
33,900 

... 
4,120 

35tOoo 
2,209 
2,000 

..f 

6q,8oo 



1: 



300 

1,050 

394 

7,00c 
1,78c 
2,268 



aiLpc 

60,000,000 
21,720,000 

77,100,000 

••• 
108, 000, 000 
19,200,000 

10,616,200 

395t4oo 
3,813,800; 

1,053,000 

22,250,000 
3,825,450 
1, 105,000 

21, 188,000 

17,000,00c 

6,350,000 

790,000 

1,270,000 

678,000 

»94«5 

'>^5. 
3.813, 

«3.a5i, 
3>^9»4; 

75>f»i 
598,03 



140, 

4.388, 

662,. 
238,- 

115, 
6,- 

150, 
328, 



I 



201 



L.OW OP RIVERS. • 



DISCHABOE nr BELAXIOV TO AREA DRAIHED; 

With tha Depth nm off th*t Are*. 



DIteharge par Square Idle. 



Anniial. 



0.f.p.iiili> 

37- »5 
16.74 

83-33 

■•■ 
90.91 
31.64 

37.80 

35- 3a 
30.96 



71-95 
88.13 

213.50 
101.33 



0X9. Bin 

••• 
2.40 



345.6c 

114. 74 

207.04 
Z37.25 
267.04 

136.21 
95.80 

30-47 
32.40 



94.85 

98.99 

128.88 

175.38 



Ordry, 
Sommr 



15.89 

7-95 
14.12 

15.46 

15.87 

79.85 

221. 11 

41.49 

11.78 



548.06 

103 08 
147.89 

43 -H 
92.81 

51-55 
60.69 

8.51 

19.03 

14.58 
5.26 

S.06 

12.00 

50.08 
59.62 

4^-591 
123.08 



ICini- 
mum. 



O.Lp.iiiIi) 

6.77 

1.20 

6.33 
4-31 

3-82 



4.82 
9.29 



6.35 

6.91 

65.00 

*5 74 



365. 50 294. 69 

359- 39*50- 79 

20.00 

209. 2c| 91 . 63 



57- a7 
94.11 

29.18 

63.04 

16.94 

5-*5 

*•• 
9.28 

"•34 

4-59 
3-»6 



31.65 

18.61 

9.60 

97.76 
11.87 



Ifazlmiun. 



0. ft p«r Bin. 

67.72 
36. »o 

4*8-33 

*•• 
327. 27 
171.23 



5* 

50 



149 

3*9 

222.90 

748.64 



1,110.95 
331.18 
368.33 

59a- 75 

i8» 888. 89 

"9>359-76 
3,237.00 
1,645.08 

916.22 

373- 73 
1,014.97 

i>575-95 

495 19 
562. 01 

193.19 

1,347.00 

129. 66 
291.06 



960. 



300.41 

534-53 
1,057.22 

395- 38 

»,094.97 
4, 705. 88 



Batio of MaaiL IMr- 
okugo taken aa LOO 



^o OidjToM^ 



Ito 

• •• 

0.14 

«•• 
••• 

• •• 



0.42 
0.22 
0.46 



0.22 
0.91 
1.03 



• •• 

• •• 



1-59 

0.48 
0.70 
0.18 

0-35 

0.38 
0.63 
... 
0.62 

0.45 



0.53 
o. 60 
0.32 
0.70 

0.81 
0.70 
... 
0.441 



Ito 

0.18 
0.07 

0.08 

0.04 



0.14 
0.30 



).o9 
>.o8 



0.0 

o 
0.30, 



••. 

0.27 
0.45 

O. 12 
0.24 

O. 12 



0.30 

o.$5 



0.33 

o. 19 
0.07 
0.14 

0.27 

... 



To Max 
ixnmn. 



Ito 

1.82 
2.10 

5-M 
••• 

3.60 
18.96 

4-53 

9-33 

7.20 



15.42 

3-76 

17.15 



4.76 

4.27 
1.80 
4.28 

5 90 

3.63 
5.87 
.•• 
44.21 

4.00 



3.17 
5.40 
8.23 
2.25 

5-73 
13.09 



... 
... 



Depth 
run oft 



iSSm 



8.4c 
3.78 

18. 8c 

20. 51 
7-M 

8-53 

7-9$ 
6.98 



16.23 
10.9c 
48.2c 
22.86 



78.72 

48. 45 
46.71 

53-5* 
60. 24 

• 

30-73 
21 . 62 

• ■ ■ 

6.9c 

7-3« 



21.44 
22. 3S 

29.14 

39.8c 

81.7c 

81-33 

... 
47.4c 



Authofitj. 



Approximate 
Giracd 

Friniep and otfaen 

ft 
ft 
Baud Smith; mpptor. 

DefoDtaineaPtB. et.Ch 
Fonts et Chamo^ee 

St."ciair. Fta. et Ch. 

Lombardini 
Hjd. CommiMioii 
Bufonr and othera 



Mardignj, Pu. et Ch. 
f» 

FanlChldz 

Lombardini 

*i 
ti 
t» 

f» 
YentuoH 

Beechey 

Bennie, 1787 
Approximate 



Betagfa 
B.Stepbenflon*sBeport 

Bateman 
Leslie, Bateman 
Bateman 



200 



TABLE OP THl 



TOTAL ESTIMATED DI8CHAB0E; 

In different oonditions. 



Hiiae of Biver. 



MlMliwIppl .. 
Nile, at Cairo., 



(Hngee, mt Benares .... 

„ at Kot 

„ at Sikreeg^ee... 
Oa^very, Madras t. 



Bhine, at Lauterbouig ... 
Seine, at Trojes, 1848-55 

„ at Paris 

Eure, at its month 



Ooronne, at Marmande.. 
Saone, at Treronx. 
Bhone, at Geneva.. 
H at Avignon 



.•••f . 



Ardeohe, 1857 

Erlenx, 

Donz, 

Arre, at Geneva, 1856 ... 



»t 



i> 



Ogllo and Oherio ...., 

Mlnoio , 

Adda, below L. Como ., 
Tiolno, belowL.Maggiore 

Po, at Pontelagofcnro .... 

Tiber, at Rome 

Severn, below Gloucester 
Lee, at Peilde's Weir..., 



Thames, at Staines 

Medway, at Preston 

Nene, at Peterborongh ... 
Shannon, at Eillaloe 



Bann, 1856 

Broena, Perbane, 1852, 6 
Robe, Majo, 1851, 52 ... 
Rivington Pike, 1847, 8 



Loch Katrine , 

Loch Lubnaig, 1847, 54 
Teith, at Deanston, 1826 
Brookbum, 1852 



Area of 

BMiHi 



Bq.]CaM. 

886yOoo 

600y 



GOO I 



180,000 

192,000 

330,000 

31,000 



63, 

«7» 



000 
aoo 
III 
zoo 



20,028 

3yOOO| 

35. 745 

90Q 
328 
244 

772 

740 

788 

1,670 

2,420 

a6> 754 
6,458 

3.890 
444 

3,086 
481 
620 

4.57X 

2,205 

446 

109.4 

16.25 

71. 6 

69.7 

191. 

4-3 



i 



litiinated or Obeenred Uieliarge. 



Mevi 
Axmoal. 



0. ft. p«r nala. 



33,000,000 
0,044,000 



1 5, 000, 000 

30, 000, 000 
1,012,500 

2, 343, 600 
42, 380 

5*9. 700 



1,440, 

1,0x8, 

640, 

3.640. 



920 

000 
500 
000 



266, 800 

158,910 
163,150 
396,210 
646, 230 

$. M> 300 
618, 230 

... 
13.530 

100,000 



209, 150 

44.150 
14,10c 

2,850 

26, 170 
25,050 

. .. 
90c 



OrdJnazy 



0.ftp«raain. 



1,440,000 



0. ft. p«r nln. 

6,000,000 
722,000 

I, 140,000 

828,000 

1,260,000 



9«5. 300 

9.535 
141,540 

34.00c 

317.850 

922, 300 

863,330 

1,483,150 

zo, 600 



423, 100 

76, 280 
116,530 

72,04c 
224, 590 

1.379.330 

391,970 

33. "o 

8,450 

45,000 
2,520 

5,000 
54. 85* 

110,430 

26, 590 

4,550 
2,000 

21, 100 

17,480 

3,820 

392 



\riTi<»ww«ti 



V WW 

5.785 

158,900 



1*7. 140 

79. 770 

195,000 

985,000 



42,380 

74,160 

48, 730 

i5».55o 

453. 4»o 
33.900 

... 
4,120 

35,000 
2,209 
2,000 



69,80c 



1: 



30c 
1,05c 

394 

7,00c 
1,78c 
2,268 



UarimBm. 



G.ILp«r 

6o,ooOyOOo 

21,720,000 

77,100,000 

••• 
108,000,000 
19, 200, 000 

10, 616, 200 

395.400 

3,813,800 

1,053,000 

23,250,000 
3,825,450 
1, 105,000 

21,188,000 

17,000,000 

6,350,000 

790,000 

1,270,000 

678,000 

a94.5oo 
1,695,000 
3,813,800 

13,251,000 
3,629,470 

751.450 
598,070 

400,000 
140,000 

4. S^Sf 000 

662,400 
238,400 
115,66a 

6.4*5 

150,00c 
32.8, 00c 



201 



sOW OP RIVERS. • 



DISCHABOE nr SELATIOV TO ABEA DKAIHED; 

With tha Depth nm off th«t Atm. 



Disehargi par Square Idle. 



■ 



ICettD 
Aminftl. 



CLLpLnlB 

37- as 

16.74 

83-33 

90.91 
31.64 

37. So 

35-3* 
30.96 



7«-95 
88.13 

213. 5c 

101.33 



214. 74 
207.04 
237.25 
267.04 

136.21 
95. So 

••• 
30.47 

32.40 



94- «5 
98.99 

128. 88 

175.38 

365. 50 
359- 39 

209.2c 



Ordry. 



0X9. Bin 



2.40 



15.89 

7-95 
14. 12 

15.46 

15.87 

79.85 

221.11 

41-49 
11.78 

• ■• 
«•• 

548.06 

103 08 

147.89 

43.14 

92.81 

51-55 
60.69 

8.51 

19.03 

14.58 
5.26 
8.06 

12.00 

50.08 
59.62 

4«-59l 
123.08 

294.69 

250. 79 

20.00J 

91.63 



ICini- 
mnm. 



01.pwnlD 

6.77 
1.20 

6-33 
4.31 

3.82 



4.82 
9.29 

... 

6.35 

6.91 

65.00 

»5 7M 



. .. 
... 



57- a? 
94.11 

29.18 

63.04 

■ 

16.94' 

5.a5 

... 
9.28 

11.34 

4-59 
3»6 



31.65 

18.61 

9.60 

24.25 

97.76 

as- 55 
11.87 



MftTJimini. 



To Old 

giimxnr 



0.ftp«r mJn. 

67.72 
36. 20 

428.33 

• *« 
327. 27 
171.23 

149.52 
329.50 
222. 90 
748.64 

1,110.95 

331.18 
368,33 

59a- 75 

18, 888. 89 

"9» 359- 76 
3,237.00 

1,645.08 

916.22 

373- 73 
1,014.97 

i>575-95 

495 »9 
562.01 

193.19 

1,347.00 

129. 66 
^91. 06 

960.00 

300.41 

534.53 
1,057.22 

395- 38 

»»094.97 
4, 705. 88 



Batio of Moan IMa- 
ehaigo taken aa LOO 



I 



ToMini- 
mmn. 



ito 

••• 
0.14 

••• 
••• 
••• 

•«. 

0.42 
0.22 
0.46 



0.22 
0.91 
1.03 



"•59 

0.48 
0.70 
0.18 
0.35 

0.38 
0.63 
■•• 
0.62 

0.45 



0.53 
0.60 
0.32 

0.70 

0.81 
0.70 

• •a 
0.44 



Ito 

0.18 
0.07 

0.08 

0.04 



0.14 
o. 30 



0.09 
0.08 
0.30 



0.27 
0.45 
O. 12 
0.24 

O. 12 



0.30 
0.35 



... 
0.33 

o. 19 

0.07 
0.14 

0.27 



To Max 
immn. 



Ito 

1.82 

2.10 

5M 

••• 

3.60 
18.96 

4.53 

9-33 

7.20 



15.42 
3.76 

17.25 



4.76 

4.27 
1.80 
4.28 

5 90 

3.63 
5.87 

••• 
44.21 

4.00 






3.17 

5.40 
8.23 

2.25 

5-73 
13.09 

••. 
•*. 



Depth 

ran oft 



iSSm 



8.4c 

3.78 

18.8c 

••• 
20. 51 
7.14 

«-53 

7.95 
6. 9S 



16.23 
19.9c 
48.2c 
22.86 



78.72 

48.45 
46.71 

53- Sa 
60.24 

30-73 
21.62 

• • • 

6.9c 
7.3» 



21.44 
22. 3^ 
29.14 
39.8c 

81.7c 

81.33 

... 
47.4c 



Autheeitj. 



Approzimate 
Giracd 

Friniep and otfaen 

fft 
Baiid Smith; iq;>prox. 

DefontainesPtB. et.Ch 
PontB et Cbaoflste 

St!*Clair. Fte. et Ch. 

Lombardini 
Hyd. CJommisaoQ 
Bufonr and othen 



Mardign7,Ft8.etCh. 
t» 

Fanl Ch'idz 

Lombardini 

fi 
f* 
t> 

>t 
YentuoU 

Beechey 

Bennie, 1787 
Approximate 



Betagh 
B.Stepbenflon'sBeport 

Batpman 
Leslie, Bateman 
Bateman 



202 



Notes, &c., Cconiinued /ratn Peige 199 J 

The gaoeing at Kot, near BtJleah, was taken by Lieat. Garforth, 
B.E., in ttie first week of Maj, 1850, " when the river was at its 
lowest." The sectional area was 5,876 square feet, width at water line 
1,125 feet, mean Telocity 141 feet per minate. The maximnm velocity 
in mid-channel was 196 feet per minate, which greatly exceeds that of 
places where the river is deep ; the maximum depth in this section was 
9 feet 5 inches in a narrow place only 120 feet in width, the remainder 
of the section genonlly vaiying from 4 to 6 feet in depth. 

Sikregnlee is 30 miles above the delta ; the Ganges has here received 
the Gogra, Gunduk, Koosee, Sone, and other rivers, whose united volume 
is frequentlv more than that of the Ganges proper, Jumna, and other 
affluents which form the river at Benares. The gaueing in the table was 
taken on the 9th of March, 1829 ; the breadth was luwut 5,000 feet ; the 
depth, 3 to 5 feet; the sectional area, 15,000 square feet; the mean 
velocity about 86 feet per minute. At the top of the Iroshes the breadth 
of the river is about 10,000 feet; mean. depth, 28 feet; and sectional 
area, 280,000 square feet ; the mean velocity being about 440 -feet ptr 
minute, and maximum about 600 feet per minute. 

The Seine. — The area of this river is in great part oolite, green-sand 
and other tertfaiy formation. The quantities given for Paris are from 
recnsters between 1777 and 1825. 

In August, 1858, the flow fell to 185,000 cubic feet, or 8 cubic feet per 
minute per square mile ; this was the period when the Rhine and the 
Danube were so excessively reduced bv a long drought. 

The Thames was also veiy low in the summer of 1858. 

The Seine at Troyes is the mean of eight years, 1848-56. The 
maximum was on the dOth January, 1850. The mean of all the flooda 
for the period was 266,994 cubic feet, or 220 cubic feet per square mile. 

The Rhone. — ^This basin is highly mountainous and glacial; the 
river is said to have an ordinary discharge in the later summer months, 
of 529,000 cubic feet per minute above Lyons ; 678,000 below Lyons 
after the Sadne has joined ; 878,000 cubic feet below the Isere and 
Dr6me ; and 985,000 at Avignon. The great flood of May, 1856, dis- 
chaiged at Valence for eleven days, an average quanti^ of 15,000,000 
cubic feet per minute, or about 500 cubic feet per mwute per square 
mile ; this would represent a depth of 10.23 inches run off in the eleven 
days, or 0.93 inches per <^iem ; the maximum depth run off on one day 
must have greatly exceeded this quantity. 

The Ard^ohe. — This River, and the Erieux and Doux, drains pre- 
cipitous mountains, which are celebrated as being subject to excessive 
rains. Joyeuse is situate in this district. (See Rainfall of France, 
stations, Pnvas and Viviers ; also page 161.) 

Loch Lubnaig.— The minimum flow off this district was in 1847, 
1,780 cubic feet ; on July 18th, 1848, it was 2,445 cubic feet ; on the 1 7th 
and 18th June, 1849, the minimum flow was 2,003 cubic feet per minute. 

The Teith. — This district is highly mountainous ; the river is formed 
by the water flowing from Lochs Lubnaig and Katrine. The quantity is 
for the month of May, June, July and August, 1826, when there waa 
excessive drought for 100 days; the total quantity run off the area of 
191 square miles was only 1.24 inch for that period, giving a mean daily 
flow of .0124 inch in depth. The flow in May was 6,950 cubic feet per 
minute; in June, 2,268 ; in July, 3,117 ; in August, 3,154 cubic feet.* 
^. -— ' - ' ■ ■ — ■ — ■ 

* Other details of the distiictB quoted will be fonnd among the tables, fto.. in 
Division n. 



MANUAL OF HYDEOLOGY. 



DIVISION III. 



TIDES OF THE SEA, ESTUARIES, 



▲VD 



TIDAL RIVERS, 



TABLES OF DOCKS, 



Sto., dto. 



DIYISION III -TIDES, ESTUARIES AND TIDAL 

RIVERS. 



TABLE OF COHTEHTS. 



On the Tidal WaV6.--OeneTal oonBicIeratioii of the effbofcs of Tidal 
Action. Table of the len^ of wave» depth of water, and cor- 
reepondti^ vdod^p] of a simple wave 

Ally's Bemarks. The v elooitj of the Wave depends upon its length, 
and the depth of Water. The Free Tide wave. Table for the 
Bemidinmal Free Tide Wave. The Forced Tide Wave 

Great Primary Wave of Translation ; Scott Bossell's Bemarks on 
its form and velocity in various Channels. Waves of the Sea 
belong to the Oscillatoiy order of Waves, which become Waves 
of Translation on approaching the i^ore. The Tidal Bore. 
Effects of Deepening ftstoaries on the Tidal Wave, and Bemarks. 
The vcdodty of the propagation of the Wave does not vary with 
the veloci^ of its genesis. The velocity increases with the 
height of the wave and the depth of water. Experiments on 
the Biver Clyde, and ooncliiaing Bemarks by Airy and 

XlrUBOoU* *■« ••* •«« •• •■• ••« ••• ••• •■• 

Tides of the Irish 8eB.-~Captain Beeohey's Paper on. The tam 
of the Stream simnltaneons. Direction of the Stream. Details 
of its Progress and Strength. The Tides of the Irish Sea par- 
take of the nature of Biver Tides 

Duration of Tide at various Stations. Mean Level of Water higher 
at Springs Uian at Neaps. Apparent mean place of the Water 
at Holyhead. Influence of the Of&ng Stream on the Tides of 
the Irish and Britidi Channels. Tidal Nodes 

Tides of fhe En^sh Channel and North Sea.— Captain 

Beeohey's Paper on. Dover the point of meeting of the Tides 
of the Uhannel and North Sea. High water at Dover five hours 
later than at the Start. Maximum rate of the Stream at half- 

lAUv ••■ ••• **• •■• •■• ••• *•• •■• ■■• *•• 

Lines of Gotidal Waves. Influence of Shallow Seas and Channels 
in retarding the Tide Wave, and in increasing the Magnitude 
of the Tide. Ally's remarks. Influence of Shoals and Islands 
on the Tide in the open Ocean 

On the Diurnal Inequality. Dr. Whewell's remarks. Depends on 
the Moon's Declination, Betardation of the Tide produced 
t^ friction. Diurnal Inequality at various Stations. On the 
Coast of North America the Diurnal Inequality follows the 
Changes of the Moon's Dedination almost instantaneously. 
Influence of Deep and Shallow Seas on Cotidal Lines. Cotidal 
Lines run almost parallel to the Shore. Semidiurnal Tide in 
the Thames, Humber, and at Plymouth. Ordnance Datum, and 
concluding Bemarks 

Tides of Rivers and EBtuarlea. 

General Considerations and Bemarka on the Tables 

Tkb Tbakss. 

Bemarks on. Efibcts of removing Old London Bridge, and 
deepening the bed of the river. Effects of the Winds on the 
Tide. Tables of Time, and Heights of High and Low Water in 
1823 and 1846. Comparative sections between Westminster and 
London Bridges in 1823, 1831 and 1846. Velocities of Flood and 
Ebb Tide, in 1831 and 1883. Average levels of High and Low 
Water in 1888 and 1834. VekKdties of Flood and Ebb Tide, 19tli 
June, 1834. Comparison of Tides on removal of Old London 
Bridge. Tables of Tides of the Thames 



PAsa 
806—207 



207—211 



211—216 



216—218 



218—219 



219—221 



221—224 
224-226 



226—281 



16* 



236—238 
289-240 

^ 240-241 



Thx WAmrr avs Yau. tkam 

BexnarkB on their Tidal flow, and the Manhes at their outlet. 
Tides of the Wayeney 

Thx Nurx. 

Great improrementa eflbcted in the Diatrict drained by the 
Biver during the last forty jrears. The New Gnt. Bffeot on 
the Tide of the Nene. Improvements still to be eflbcted. Tides 
or bOo JNene.ii •>• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• !•> 

Thx Oubx. 

Improvements eflbcted by the Ban Brink Cat, and Bir John 
Bonnie's new ontfftU ... ... ... ••• ... ... 

Teb Huxxxx. 

Tides strong, and carry mach silt Boom for Improrement of 
the Marsh Lands bordering on its estoary. Tides of the 
Humber at Great Grimsby 

Thx Tat. 

Improvements eflbcted by the Messrs. Btevensom Besolta of 
the Improvements. Tides of the Tay 

Thx Ttks 

Works' in Progress. Bar at its Month. Liability to Floods. 
Tides of the Tyne. Table of the Bise and Fall. Velocity of the 
head and foot of a Tidal Wave. Inclination of Water Surface 246—240 

Thx Gltdx. 

Great Improvements eflbcted. Tides of the Clyde. Table of 
Tidal Observations. Velocities of the head and foot of a Tidal 
Wave. Inclination of Water Surface. Mean Tidal Bange and 
Duration of Flood and Ebb Streams. Mean Velocities of Flood 
and Ebb Streams 260—263 

Thx MsBBiiT. 

Character of the Estuary 264 

Tides of the Mersey. Table of Bise and FalL Spring and Neap. 
Velocities of head and foot of Tidal Wave 266—267 

Thx Dxx. 

Character of the Estnaiy 264 

Phenomena between Greenfield and Chester 268 

Thx SxTxax. 

Phenomena of the Bore of the Severn. Table of Velocity of the 
Tidal Wave and Bore at Spring Tides. Captain Beechey's 
Bemarks on the Bore and Character of the Biver. Borings and 
Stratiflcation ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 269—262 

Tides of the Sevem.—Table of heights of High and Low Water. 
Of average rate of Crest of Tidal Wave and Bore. Of toM 
and area at summer low water. Of the Severn in flood. Of 
VelocitiesoftheTidal Wave and Bore 268—266 

Thx Avoir. 

Character of Biver. Effect upon Tides 262 

Table of Bise and Fall of Spring and Neap Tide, with Levels of 
Surfooe at Low Water „ 266 

Thx Ssiira. 

Its Phenomena. Charaoter of Channel and description of 

V'OUjtdO ••• ••• ••• ■«• ••• ••• •«• •«■ ••• 3SO7^^280c9 

The Bore and its Velocity. Nature of Pro^^Tation 268—269 

Table of Bise and FaU of a Spring Tide, v elocities of the foot 

and head of Tidal Wave 270 

Thx Gthondx. 

Bemarks on Estuary. Beference to Plate xn 271 

Thx Hooohi^t. 

Efibcts of the Tide on the Biver in Flood 271—272 

Table of Spring and Neap Tides for 1843-44 273 

TxDAii CuBvxs. — Concluding remarks. Beference to plates of tidal 

CIUt^Gd ■•• »•• ••• •■« ••• ••• ■•« ••• «•• 2/0 



Docks in Great Britain. 

Post ov Loimoir— Dimensions and Area of Docks, and Length and 
Width of Entrance Locks, with Level of Sills belew Trini^ 
Bigb Water ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 274 

BivxB Mbbsxt.— Dimensions and Depth over Sills of Docks and 

Basins, ko. Besults of Tidal Observations at Liverpool ... 276 

GxvxKAXi Taxlx of Dimensions of Docks in the United Kingdom . . . 276 



205 



DIVISION in. 



TIDES, ESTUAMES, AOT) TIDAL EIVERS. 



OH THE HBAL WAVE, 

The Civil Engineer ought to be intimately acquainted with the pheno- 
mena and theoty of tides and waves, and of their practical development 
under the varying conditions met with in . the ever-changing aspect of 
coasts, rivers and harbours. The effect of tidal action for long past ages 
has to be distinguished from what has been created by original geological 
structure ; the form and material of coasts and estuaries being nequently 
rather a cause of obstructions, or defects, than an effect. Legal questions 
also arise, and possible results of artificial works are suggested, to combat 
and understand which it is frequently of the most vital importance to be 
mblo to study existing examples and efiect of previous engineering opera- 
tions. This is the more necessary, because in the case of tidal works, as 
in river alterations, and in the occurrence of accidents or damages by 
floods, events are often referred to the wrone cause, or their share of 
contribution towards a new state of things is c^cure or remote. 

If the reader of these notes should desire to make himself master of the 
subject as far as theory can carry him, the most elaborate and invaluable 
treatise on Tides and Waves, by the learned Astronomer-Royal, and 
the series of papers by Lubbock and Whewell in the Philosophical Trans- 
actions, will afford all that can be desired of theoretical computation and 
practical deduction. We cannot attempt to follow these treatises in 
detail, but, to shew the enormous practical effect of depth and freedom of 
motion in length of waves, we quote the following table of the velocity 
of free or solitary waves, with their relative length and velocity, 
and depth of water required to produce such velocity : this table is com- 
puted from the mathematical formula for a simple wave in a non-elastic 
fluid. {See Airy on Tides and Waves, Encyelo, Metrop,, p. 291.) 



Depth 


leagth of Wave In feet 


of 
Wmter 


1 


10 


100 


1,000 


10,000 


100,000 


1,000,000 


10,000,000 


Inftet 


Cerreiponding velooity in feet per iooond. 


1 

lo 
loo 

1,000 

IO,O0O 

100,000 


i.i6 
1.16 
i.i6 
i.i6 
i.i6 
i.i6 


5'U 


10.88 
11.61 
11.61 
11.61 
11.61 


5.67 
17.91 

53-39 

7«-54 
7»-54 
7'. 54 


5.67 

116.14 
116.14 


5.67 

«7.93 
56.71 

179.11 

533.90 
7«5-43 


5.67 

»7.93 
56.71 

179-33 
1688. J 


5'^ 

»7-93 
56.71 

>79.33 
567.10 
1791.1 



Professor Airy proceeds to shew from this Table that — 
"1st. Wben the length of the wave is not greater than the depth of 
water the velocity depends (sensibly) only on its length, and is propor- 
tionate to the square root of its length. 



17 



^ 



206 



" 2nd. When the length of the wave is not less than one thonsand 
times the depth of the water, the Telocity of the wave depends (sensibly) 
only on the depth, and is proportionate to the square root of the depth. 
It is in fact the same as the velocity which a free body would acquire by 
falling from rest through a height equal to half the depth of water. 

*' ;jrd For interme£ate proportion of length of wave and depth of 
water, the velocity can only be got by the general equation. 

** The wave originally produced by the action of the sun or moon, 
may be called Uie Free Tide Wave. The semi-diurnal tide wave is of 
this character, and may be taken to have a period of 12 hours 24 minutes ; 
now, by the foregoing table we see that a wave exceeding 1,000,000 feet 
will travel with a velocity sensibly independent of its length ; on this 
principle, therefore, is calculated the following 

TABLE FOE THB SEia-DIUBVAL 7BEB TIDE WAYS. 



Depth of 

Water, in 

feet. 


Velocity of 

flree tide wave 

per eeoond, 

in feet 


Length of 
fireetide 

wave, 
in miles. 


Space 
desoiibed by 
dree tide wave 

per hour. 

in miles. 


I 


5.67 


47-94 


3.86 


4 


11-34 


95-89 


7-73 


lo 


17-93 


151.62 


12.28 


10 


25.36 


214.42 


17.29 


40 


35-87 


303.24 


24.45 


60 


43-93 


371.38 


29.95 


80 


50.72 


428. 88 


34.58 


100 


56.71 


479. 46 


38.66 


200 


80.20 


678. 05 


54.68 


400 


113.42 


958.91 


77-33 


600 


138.91 


1174.4 


94.71 


800 


160.40 


1356. I 


109. 36 


1,000 


«79-33 


1516.2 


122.27 


2,000 


253.61 


2144.. 2 


172.92 


3,000 


310.62 


2626. I 


211.78 


4,000 


358.67 


3032. 4 


444-55 


5,000 


401.00 


3390.2 


273-41 


6,000 


439- »7 


3713-8 


299. 50 


7,000 


474- 47 


4011.4 


323. 50 


8,000 


507. 23 


4288.3 


345- 84 


9,000 


538.00 


4548. 5 


366. 82 


10,000 


567. 70 


4794. 6 


386. 66 


20,000 


802.00 


6780. 5 


546. 82 


30,000 


982. 25 


8304-4 


669. 71 


40,000 


1134.2 


9589. I 


773- 3» 


50,000 


1268. I 


1072X. 


864.59 


60,000 


1389. I 


11744. 


947.11 



'* The dinmal and other tidal waves, so far as they are free, may be 
all considered a« travelling with the same velocity, bnt the colnnin of 
lengths of the wave mnst be doabled for the diurnal wave." 

In addition, however, to the free tide wave^ which is that originally 
prodnced by the san and moon, bnt not affected by them in the velocity 
of its propagation, we have that which Professor Aiiy calls the forced 



207 



tide wave, produced bj the immediate action of the snn and moon, with 
its highest or lowest point always at a determinate distance in that place 
(in the sapposed canal) at which the disturbing forces vanish. 

The following contains the substance of the general results of the 
inquiries made by the Committee of the British Association, in 1887, in 
a report for which we are indebted to Mr. John Scott Russell, who 
claimed to hare discovered the existence of a great PRiiLutT wave of 
fluid, difiering in its origin, its phenomena, and its laws, from the 
undidatory and oscillatory waves. The report stated — 

** 2. That the velocity of this wave in channels of unifonn depth is in- 
dependent of the breadth of the fluid, and equal to the velocity acquired 
by a heavy body falling freely by gravity through a height equal to half 
the depth of the fluid, reckoned from the top of the wave to the bottom of 
the channel. 

" 3. That the velocity of this primary wave is not affected by the velocity 
of impulse with which the wave has been originally generated, neither do 
its form or velocity appear to be derived in any way from the form of 
the generating body. 

" 4. This wave has been found to diflfer from every other species of wave 
in the motion which is given to the individual particles of the fluid 
throns;h which the wave is propagated. By the transit of the wave the 
particles of the fluid are raised from their places, transferred forwards in 
the direction of the motion of the wave, and permanently deposited at 
rest in a new place at a considerable distance from their original position. 
There is no retrogradation, no oscillation ; the motion is Si in the same 
direction, and the extent of the transference is equal throughout the 
whole depth. Hence this wave may be descriptively designated the 
GREAT PRiMAST WAYS OF TRAi^SLATioN. The motiou of translation 
commences when the anterior surface of the wave is vertically over a 

fiven series of particles, it increases in velocity until the crest of the wave 
as come to be vertically above them, and from this moment the motion 
of translation is retarded, and the particles are left in a condition of 
perfect rest, at the instant when the posterior surface of the wave has 
terminated its transit through the vertical plane in which they lie. This 
phenomenon has been verified up to depths of five feet. 

*' 5. That the elementaiy form of the wave is cycloidal ; when the 
height of the wave is small in proportion to its length, the curve is the 
prolate cycloid, and as the height of the wave increases the form ap- 
proaches that of the common cydoid, becoming more and more cusped 
until at last it becomes exactly that of the common cycloid with a cusped 
summit ; and if bv any means the height be increased beyond this, the 
curve becomes the curtate cycloid, the summit assumes a form of un- 
stable equilibrium, the summit totters, and foiling over on one side forms 
a crested wave, or breaking surge. 

The report stated — 

'* That in the rectangular channel the velocity is that of gpravity due to 
half the depth. In the sloping or triangular channel the velocity is that 
due to one-third of the neatest depth. In a parabolic channel the velocity 
is Aat due to three-eighths or three-tenths of the greatest depth, accord- 
ing as the channel is convex or concave ; and finidly that the velocity of 
the great primaiy wave of translation of a fluid is that due to gpravity 
acting through a height equal to the depth of the centre of gravity of the 
transverse section of the channel below the surface of the fluid. 

" 7. The height of a wave may be indefinitely increased by propagation 
into a channel which becomes narrower in the form of a wedge, the in- 
creased height being nearly in the inverse ratio of the square root of the 
breadth. 



208 



** 8. If wares be propagated in a chanod whoae depth dimimsheB uni- 
formly, the waves will break when their height above the sorface of the 
level fluid becomes equal to the depth at the bottom below the surface. 

** 9. The great waves of translation are reflected from surfaces at right 
angles to the direction of their motion without suffering any change but 
that of direction. 

" 10. The great primary waves of translation cross each other withont 
change of any kind, in the same manner as the small oedllations pro- 
duced on the surface of a pool by a falling stone. 

*' 1 1. The WAVES OF THE SEA are not of the first order — they belong 
to the second or oscillatory order of waves— they are partial displace- 
ments at the surface, which do not extend to considerable depths, and are 
therefore totally different in character from the great waves of transla- 
tion, in which the motion of displacement of the particles is uniform to 
the greatest depth. The displacement of the particles of the fluid in the 
waves of the sea is greatest at the surface, and diminishes rapidly. There 
are generally on the surface of the sea, several co-existent classes of oscil- 
lations of varying direction and magnitude, which by their union giva 
the surface an appearance of irregularity which does not exist in nature. 

" 12. When waves of the sea approach a shore, or come into shallow 
water, they become waves of translation, and obeying the laws already 
mentioned, always break when the depth of the water is not greater than 
their height above the level. 

*' 17. A tidal bore is formed when the water is so shallow at low water 
that the first waves of flood tide move with a velocity so much less than 
that due to the succeeding part of the tidal wave, as to be overtaken by 
the subsequent waves, or wherever the tide rises so r^idly, and the water 
on the shore or in the river is so shallow that the height of the first wave 
of Uie tide is greater than the depth of the fluid at that place. Hence in 
deep water vessels are safe from the waves of rivers, which injure those 
on the shore. , 

"18. The identity of the tide wave, and of the great wave of transla- 
tion, shew the nature of certain variations in the establishment of ports 
situated on tidal rivers. Any change in the depth of the rivers pro- 
duces a corresponding change on the interval between the moon's transit 
and the high water immediately succeeding. It appears from the obser- 
vations in this report, that the mean time of high water has been rendered 
37 minutes earlier than formerly by deepening a portion of about 12 miles 
in the channel of a tidal river, so that a tide wave which formerly 
travelled at the rate of 10 miles an hour, now travels at the rate of nearly 
15 miles an hour. 

" 19. It also appears that a laige wave or a wave of high water of 
sprine tides travels faster than a wave of high water of neap tides, shew- 
ing wat there is a variation on the estf3)lishment, or on the interval 
between the moon's transit and the succeeding high water, due to the 
depth of the fluid at high water, and which should, of coarse, enter as an 
dement into the calculation of tide tables for an inland port derived frouk 
those of a port on the sea shore. The variation of the interval will vaiy 
with the square root of mean depth of the channel at high water." 

The report suggests that *' these results give us principles, 1st, for the 
construction of canals ; 2nd, for the navigation of canals ; Srd, for the 
improvement of tidal rivers ; 4th, for the navigation of tidal rivers ; 5th, 
for the improvement of tide tables. 

Considerable light will be thrown upon these propositions, by careful 
examination of the examples of river and estuaiy tides, given in a sub- 
sequent part of this division of our treatise. 

The following experiments were made for tiie purpose of determining 



209 



whether the velocity of the so called great primary wave were not 
affected by the initial velocity given to the fluid at its generation by 
the moving body. The velocity of genesis, or of the vessel by whose 
displacement the elevation of fluid was produced, is given in miles per 
hour, and the time occupied by the wave in describing 700 feet is given 
in seconds. 

Velocity of genesis. ^^t^^^ Interval of time, 
(i.) 5mileaanhoui 700 feet 62. seconds 

(a.) 3 II 700 n 61, „ 

(3) JO ,. 700 „ 61. „ 

(4.) 7 •I 700 fi 62. „ 

(5-) 7 I. 700 .1 62. „ 

(6.) 4 I. 700 i» 61.5 M 

" From this it is manifest that the velocity of the propagation of the 
wave does not vary with the velocitv of its genesis. 

** To determine whether the height of the wave produced any variatioa 
in its velocity, the following experiments were made : — 

Height of the wave Space t-i^_ -1 

above the leveL described. interval, 

(7.) 6.0 inches 700 feet 61.50 seconds 

(8.) 5.0 „ 700 „ 61.75 I. 

(9-) 3-5 11 700 11 61.50 » 

(10.) 2.0 „ 700 „ 63.50 „ 

" It appears from these examples that, in a given reservoir of fluid, 
the higher wave moves more rapidly than the lower ; and it was after- 
wards found that the increase in neight wa« equivalent, in its effect on 
th^ velocity, to an equal addition to the depth of the fluid in the 
reservoir. 

** To detennine whether the depth of the fluid affected the velocity of 
the wave, the following experiments were made in the «ame channel filled 
to different depths : — 

Depth of fluid. Space described. Velocity of wave. 

(11.) 5.6 feet 486 feet 9.594 miles an hour 

(12.) 3.4 „ 150 „ 7.086 „ 

" The former of these observations is exclusive of the height of the 
wave, and adding six inches to the depth of the fluid in this case, the 
height of the wave being already add^ to the depth in (12), we find 
that the velocities are nearly proportional to the square roots of the 
depths, and are nearly equal to the velocities that would be acquired by 
a heavy body in falling through heights equal to half the depth of the 
fluid. 

" In the last case the channel was rectangular, and consequently the 
depth of the fluid was uniform across the whole depth of the channel ; it 
was next of importance to ascertain what law held in those cases where 
the depth diminished towards the edges of the channd. For this purpose 
two channeb were selected having the greatest depths in their middle, 
and diminishing towards the sides. The following are the results :-* 
Ch-eatest depth in 

the middle of Bpaoe described. Velocity of wave* 

the channel. 
(13*) 5*5 feet 1000 feet 7.84 miles an honr» 

(14.) 4.0 „ 820 „ 6.09 „ 

" In these instances the diminished depth at the sides has diminished 
the velocity of the wave below that due to the greatest depth in a ratio 
in the first example nearly of 9.5 to 7.8, and in the second of 7. to 6. 
See Experiments (11) and (12). 



Ic 



210 



■M 



IS.) 
(16.) 

(»7.) 



depth. 
5.6 feet 

5-5 
5.5 



H 



>» 



Space 
described. 
486 feet 
a,038 

lyOOO 



tf 



It 



Telocity. 

9.59 miles 
8.83 

7.84 



ft 



tt 



" The following three experiments are instructive as having been made 
on channels in which the maximum depth was nearly the same in all ; 
but in (15) the deptib remained constant to the side which was vertical, 
in (16) the sides had a slope of nearly 20^, and in (17) a slope of nearly 
40<*, so as to diminish the depth towards tiie sides. 

Form of 

channel. 
Rectangular 
Slope of 20* 
Slope of 40« 

** From these it is manifest that the depth of the channel, while if 
modifies the depth of the fluid, affects the velocity of the wave. It was 
not found that the breadth of the channel produced any similar effect. 

The report contained experiments made on the river Clyde between 
the Bromielaw and 20 miles below Port Glasgow ; they are described in 
the following table, and wiU be better understood by referring to the 
plan and section of this river, plate XI. 

Diff.oflevelatU.W. 

Glasgow 1 0.1 inches. 

9.1 inches. 

Clyde Bank 7.0 inches. 

6.1 inches. 
Bowling 5.2 inches. 

1.2 inches. 
Port Glasg. 0.0 inches. 



Station 
Station 
Station 
Station 
Station 
Station 
Station 



1 
2 
3 

4 
5 
6 
7 



ao 



Diff. at L.W. H.W. time 

^33 inches. 83 mins.^ 
31 inches. 76 mins. 



27 inches. 
25 inches. 
12 inches. 

5 inches. 

o inches. 



61 mms. 

43 mins. 

24 mins. 

6 mins. 



o nuns. 




From this it appears that the wave of high water travelled 



From 
From 
From 
From 
From 
From 
From 
From 



9 
8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 



to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 
to 



8 
7 
6 
5 
4 
3 
2 
1 



in 6 min. 
in 9 min. 
in 6 min. 
in 18 min. 
in 19 min. 
in 1 8 min. 
in 15 min. 
in 7 min. 



::: 'jra«}«°°ae.'"'«>°'- 

::: tIls;i}Sh°°a«"«"'0'>'- 

::: 1:1 ra«}«"»a«anho«r. 

::: ::?lmiIS}'5-iies-ho«. 

" These results shew that in the deep water being between 40 and 60 
fathoms, or between 240 and 860 feet deep, the wave travels at the enor- 
mous rate of 80 miles an hour ; that on reaching water from 20 to 30 feet 
deep, the velocity is diminished to 20 miles an hour ; and from 5 to 3 
where the river is wide, shelving, and shallow, the velocity of the tide 
wave is retarded to 8 miles an hour ; while on ascending further up, 
where the bank is nearly upright, and the contracted width gives an 
increase of mean depth, the velocity has a corresponding increase to 15 
miles an hour. It will appear, on consulting plate XI., that the average 
depth of the river, fhim 1 to 3, was 15 feet. From 3 to 5 the river 
is wide and shallow, spreading over extensive banks, where there are not 
2 feet of water, for which we may take a third part of the greatest as a 
mean depth, or about 5 feet. In the division from 5 to 7, both depth 
and breadth increase veiy rapidly, and 25 feet may be taken as the mean 
depth. From 7 to 9 the depth became veiy great. The following 
is a condensed table of the results of the above experiments . 



Velocities of the tide- 
wave as observed. 

80 miles an hour. 

20 miles an hour. 

8.1 miles an hour. 

15 miles an hour. 



Mean depth. 

240^360 feet. 

25 feet. 

5 feet. 

15 feet. 



Velocity dne 

to depth. 

60 — 80 miles. 

19.3 miles. 

8.6 miles. 

X4.9milea. 



211 



Mr. Scott Riu8en*8 experiments were originated by his investigations 
into the fact of light canal-boats requiring less proportionate power for 
hauling them at high speeds than at Uie lower rates previously adopted. 
This was a strong exemplification of the free wave which will travel 
along a canal of a given depth, k, at the velocity defined by v' «=gk; 
while this wave is constantly movine forward at a considerable speed by 
the action of a moving vessel, the forced wave is also produced, whica 
is immediately created by and follows the speed of the vessel itself. If, 
then, the vessel moves more slowly than the/re6 wave^ the forced wave 
precedes the centre of the moving body, and the power necessary to keep 
up speed is great in proportion to the velocity attained. If, on the other 
hand, the vessel moves more rapidly than the free wave, the vessel is 
kept somewhat in advance of the forced wave, and the power required 
for maintaining the speed of the vessel is less than in the former case. 
But if the vessel moves with a velocity equal to, or slightly exceeding that 
of the free wave, then it is carried sdong on the top of ^e wave, and of 
course in advance of the forced wave, and the power required is less in 
proportion than at lower speeds, and in some cases absolutely less. (See 
Mr. Scott Russeirs paper, in Edinburgh Trans. voL xiv.) 

The remaining experiments have not much practical bearing upon 
the objects of this treatise ; we have abstracted the essential parts of the 
Ck>mmittee*s Report to the British Association ; for the subject is one 
which had never been previously treated in a comprehensive way. The 
results are highly instructive to the Civil Engineer, when dealing with 
tidal rivers and canals, especially in experimental investigations, and in 
the application of theory to practical designs. This subject may be 
pursued by consulting the tables of tidal observations for the various 
rivers and estuaries at the sequel of this division with the plates, more 
especially those relating to the Clyde, Avon, Severn, and Seine. 

Professor Airy regwls the great primary wave as simply the solitary 
wave in its earliest and simplest condition, in which a particle is actually 
moved a certain distance by the wave, and then remains at rest in a new 
position ; this wave, he observes, by mathematical reasoning, may travel 
without any force to maintain its motion provided it be long in proportion 
to the depth of the fluid, and that its velocity be |/gk; k being the 
depth, and g the force of gravity in feet per second. 2 * 

As to ordinary waves, Mr. Russell's experiments shew that a wave 
always breaks when its elevation above the general levd becomes equal 
to the depth of water ; this fact is strikingly evident in the breaking of 
surf and in the bore ; as the friction on the bottom shortens the wave 
in proportion to its depth, it topples over. In a similar manner the 
effect IS produced when the wave is urged on by wind in open sea, until 
its height becomes greater than ^vity will permit the wave to stand. 

It is the same law of friction mterfering with the free action of a wave, 
that renders the effect of tides, and the currents consequent upon them, 
so different in the varying conditions of rivers and estuaries, when, in 
addition to the effect of the narrowing sides, we have ^e general fact 
that the elevation of the tidal wave haa a sensible proportion to the depUi 
of water in which it is generated. 



TIDES 07 THE IHIBH SEA. 

As an excellent and accurate example of tidal action in seas and 
estuaries, we give the following abstract from a paper in the " Fhilo-» 
sophical Transactions " for 1847, being Observations on the Tides of the 
Irish Sea, and upon the great simihun^ of Tidal Phenomena of the 



* 



212 



Irish and English Channels, by the late Captain F. W. Beechey, R.17., 
F.R.S. The facts deTcloped by the snireys of this lamented officer, 
assisted by the present hydrographer, Captain Washington, and other 
most able marine surveyors, afford complete formnln for the laws which 
govern tidal flow and currents in confined seas. 

" The observations have shewn that, notwithstanding th^ variety of 
times of high water thronghout the channel, the turn of the stream is 
simultaneous ; that the northern and southern streams in both channels 
commence and end in all parts (practically speaking) at the same timCf 
and that time happens to correspond with the time of high and low water 
on the shore at Morecambe Bay; an estuary rendereid remarkable as 
being the point where the opposite tides, coming round the extremities of 
Ireland, linally meet. So that it is necessary only to know the times of 
high and low water at Morecambe Bay to determine the hour when the 
stream of either tide will commence or terminate. 

** The chart of curves or lines of direction of the stream, plate II., 
will shew at once the effect of the tide upon a vessel, wherever she may 
be placed in the channel, and especially direct her where, with a beating 
wind, she will be beneflted by standing in shore or otherwise ; and taken 
in connection with the very valuable series of observations which were 
carried round Ireland by the Ordnance at the suggestion of Professor 
Aiiy, we are made acquainted with several curious facts : first, that 
whilst it is high water at one end of the channel, it is low water at the 
other ; that the same stream makes both high and lower water at the 
same time ; that there are two spots in the channel, in one of which the 
stream runs with considerable velocity without the water either rising or 
falUng, and in the other, that the water rises and falls from sixteen to 
twenty feet without having any visible horizontal motion of its snrfkce ; 
and that during the first half of the flowing, and last half of the ebbing 
tide-wave, the stream in the south channel runs in a contrary direction 
to the wave, and goes up an ascent of about one foot in 4| miles. 

" Plate II. shews the lines of direction of the stream with the rate of 
the tide at its greatest velocity on the day of syzygy, all being reduced 
to the same standard. 

*' An inspection of the plate will shew that the tide enters the Irish 
oea by two channels ; of which Cam sore Point and Pembroke are the 
limits of the southern one, and Rathlin and the Mull of Kintire the 
boundaries of the northern. 

" The stream in the sputhem channel (as before stated) has been 
ascertained to move simultaneously in one vast current throughout; 
running six hours nearly each way, at an average rate of from two to 
three knots per hour at the height of the springs, increasing to four 
knots and upwards near the banks and at the pitch of the headlands ; its 
times of slack water corresponding sufficiently near for all practical 
purposes with the times qf high and low water for the day at More^ 
eambe Bay, or more correctly at Fleetwood^ which is twelve minutes 
earlier than Liverpool. 

" The central portion of the stream of flood or ingoing stream^ runs 
nearly in a line from a point midway between the Tuskar and the 
Bishops, to one six miles due west of Holyhead ; beyond which it begins 
to expand eastward and westward, but its main body preserves its direc- 
tion straight forward for the Calf of Man, which it passes to the east- 
ward with increased velocity as far as Langness Point, and then at a 
more moderate rate on towards Maughold Head. Here it is arrested by 
the flood or southern stream from the north channel coming round the 
Point of Ayre, and is first swayed round to the eastward by it, and then 
goes on with it at an easy rate direct for Morecambe Bay. 



213 



I 



" The outer porHonj of the stream are necessarily deflected from the 
coarse of the great hody of the water by the impediments of banks on 
the Irish side of the Channel, and by the tortuous form of the coast on 
the Welsh. The eastern portion passing Linney Head rushes with great 
rapidity between the Smalls, Grassfaolm, and Milford Haven, towards 
the Bishops, which it passes at a rate of between four and five knots ; 
sets sharply round those rocks in ' an E.N.£. direction, right over the 
Bass bank, and into Cardigan Bay ; makes the circuit of that bay ; and 
set out again towards Bardsey at the other extremity of it ; then sweep- 
ing to the N. by W. past the island and through the sound, it gradually 
takes the course of the shore, round Carnarvon Bay, filling the Menai 
Strait as far as Bangor ; but the stream still continuing outside towards 
the South Stack, which it rounds, setting towards the Skerries at a rate 
of upwards of four knots ; and finally, turns sharply round those rocks 
for Ijverpool and Morecambe Bay ; completing in its way the high water 
in the Menai, and filling the Dee, Mersey, and Ribble. 

**ThQ western portion of the stream, after passing the Saltee. runs 
nearly in the direction of the Tuskar, sets sharply round it, and then 
takes a N.E. ^ N. direction, setting fair alo&g the coast, but over the 
banks skirting the shore. Abreast of the Arklow is situated that 
remarkable spot in the Irish Channel, where the tide neither rises nor, 
falls. The stream, notwithstanding, sweeps past it at the rate of four 
knots at the springs, and reaches the parallel of Wicklow Head. Here 
it encounters an extensive bank recently known ; and whilst the outer 
portion takes the circuit of the bank, the inner sweeps over it, occasion- 
ing an overfall and strong rippling all round the edge, by which the bank 
may generally be discovered ; beyond this point the streams unite and 
flow on towards Howth and Lambay, growing graduaUy weaker as they 
proceed, until they ultimately expend themselves in a large space of 
BtiU water situated between the Isle of Man and Carlin^ord, where 
occurs the phenomenon of the water rising and falling without having 
any perceptible stream. This space of still water is marked by a bottom 
of blue mud. 

" In the north channel the stream raters between the Mull of Kintire 
and Rathlin simultaneously with that passing the Tuskar into the 
southern channel, but flows in the contrary direction. It runs at the 
rate of three knots at the springs, increasing to five knots near the Mull, 
and to four near Torr Head on the opposite side of the channel. The 
eastern branch of this stream turns round the Mull towards Ailsa and 
the Clyde, a portion passing round Sanda up Kilbrannin Sound and 
Loch Fyne. 

" The main body sweeps to S. by E., taking nearly the general direction 
of the channel, but pressing more heavily on the Wigtownshire coast; off 
which it has scooped out a remarkable ditch, upwards of twenty miles 
long by about a mile only in width, in which the depth is from 400 to 
600 feet greater than that of the general level of the bottom about it. 
Near the Mull of Galloway the stream increases in velocity to five knots, 
the eastern portion tunis sharply round the promontory towards the 
Solway, and splits off St. Bee's Head ; one portion running up the Sol* 
way, and the other towards Morecambe Bay. 

'* The central portion fix>m a midway between the Mull of Galloway and 
the Copeland Islands, presses on towsutls the northern half of the Isle of 
Man, and while one portion of it flows toward the Point of Ayre, the 
other makes for Contrary Head, and is there turned back at a right 
angle nearly to its early course. Passing Jurby it reunites with the other 
portion of the stream, and they jointly rush with a rapidity of from four 
to five knots round the Point of Ayre, and directly across all the banks 



214 



■ki 



lying off theife, and eatching np the ttteam ftom the aoath dlatinel o^ 
Maughold Head, they hnrrv on together towards that great point tA 
nnion, MoreCambe Bay. This Bay, the gtand receptacle of the stfteams 
ftom both channels, is notorious for its huge banks of sands heaped np in 
terrible aifrav Against the mariner unacquainted with its locality, and 
also remarkable for a deep channel scoured out by the stream, and known 
as the Lune Deep, which, to the wary navigator, is the great hidden 
beacon of his sa&ty, and serves him, alike in fog or in sunshine, as a 
guide to his position, and to a harbour of safety in case of need. 

" We have now only to speak of the western Umit of the stream, which 
we left off Torr Head running at a rate of four knots off the pitch of the 
point. Hence it strikes directly towards the Maidens, boiling over the 
Highlander and Russell rocks, and other reefs in the vicinity of that 
dangerous group ; and takes the direction of the coast again from Muck 
Island to Black Head, at the entrance of the Lough of Belfast, which 
it fills. 

" The portion of the stream which sets up the Lough spb'ts again off 
Grey Point ; one portion flowing up towards Ghmnoyle, while the other 
bends back along the diore of Bangor, Qrimsport and Orlock, and blends 
with the general stream which has ccHne on from the Maidens and Black- 
head, and passes with it through the sounds of the Copeland Islands. 
Hence it proceeds along the coast, brushes the South rode, and runs on 
towards St. John's Point ; off which, the stream, like that coming from 
the southward, expends itself in a laige space of still water, which re- 
mains undisturbed although pressed upon by streams from various 
quarters. 

" Such is a general description of the streams in both channels which 
attend thefiowing qf the water, or which, for the purpose of distinction, 
we may designate the ingoing stream, 

" The ebbing or outgoing streams do not materially differ from the re- 
verse of these, except that in the southern channel they press rather more 
over towards the Irish coast. 

'* This is a general idea of the course of the streams throughout the 
Irish Sea, represented in plate II. ; but besides these there are (as usual) 
at all the points and headlands, when abrupt, counter streams or eddies 
beginning at about two hours after the offing stream, increasing with the 
strength of the tide, and occasioning races and overfalls at the places 
marked on the chart. In the direction of the offing stream there is as 
little variation of the current at the different hours of tide as will be met 
with in any sea of similar extent, and indeed it is only with the slacken- 
ing of the tide that the variations occur, which happens from about forty 
minutes before to about for^ minutes after high or low water at More- 
cambe Bay. 

During the time these observations on the stream were in progress, 
others were made upon the rise taidfall qf the water at several stations 
in the channel, and wherever piactiad at places in the offing. By 
combining these observations with the range of tide on the coast of 
Ireland, published in Professor Whewell's admirable paper on the Tides 
in the * Philosophical Transactions' for 1886, Part H., and with observa- 
tions nuide by Captains Robinson, Denbam, Frazer, Sherringham, 
Williams, &c., Captain Beechey constructed a chart of lines of equal range 
of tide, plate I. The seaman may ascertain by a simple inspection of 
this chart, wherever he may be placed in the channel, the amount of 
spring range to which he has to adapt his soundings ; the curved lines 
denote the range of tide at the places over which they pass, on a day 
when a spring tide at Liverpool rises thirty feet. 
"All the tides of the Iriui Sea partake of die nature of river tides in 



215 



having their ebb longer than thehr flood, except those of Toskar attd 
Holyhead, which are the reverse. The following table of the times of 
ebb and flow was compiled from the mean of many observationB ; the 
cases are given in the order in which the places occur. 

DXTRATION OF TIDE. 

Bifling. falling* 
h. m« h. nil 

Tnskar , 6 27 .«« 6 8 

Bardsey «.i«*..«. 5 24 ... 6 51 

Holvheieid 6 18 ... 6 o 

Peel, Isle of Man 6 o ... 6 15 

Hamsay, Isle of Man... 5 48 ... 6 35 

Fleetwood 5 4^ ••• ^ 39 

** The change at Holyhead is remarkable, and if we follow the durations 
up to Bamsay, we shall see that Feel also, an intermediate station, is 
affected. The cause of this may possibly be connected with the effort of 
the water to nuuntain its level ; for in projecting the curve of the wave 
on paper, this peculiarity, In connection with the veiy short flood of 
Bardsey, has the efl^BCt of teducing the curve from what it would assume, 
were Holyhead similarly influence with other plaoes." 

In the Irish Sea it was found that the place of the waier at the heiff' 
tide interveU did not correspond with that of a xiuurk at the ha(f range qf 
the waife^ but that it was always below it, shewing that the upper half of 
the wave rose and fell more rapidly than the lower. It was also found 
that the curve of the Irish Sea tide did not correspond with that of the 
Bristol Channel tide ; that neither followed the law of the sines or cor- 
responding areas of tidal intervals. . 

" In connection with the range of tide is that of the apparent mean 
elevation of Uie water. All the observations confirm the remark of 
Froreasor Aiiy (Fhil. Trans. 1845, Part I. p. 31 ), viz., that this mean level 
is higher at the springs than at the neaps. The mean place of the water, 
however, for an entire lunation, during the summer months at least, is 
tolerably constant, and affords a fiur standard to which the reductions 
used in our nautical surveys mav be refexred in the event of the gauee 
being removed by which the observations were made ; annexed is the 
result of observations made at Holyhead during nearly four entire years. 

APP AHXHT KSAV PLAOE 07 THE WATSR AT HOLTHSAD. 



Month. 


1888. 


1889. 


1846. 


1847. 


' Uean of 
Months. 


Januaiy ... 
Febmaiy ... 

March 

April 

May 

June 


ft. in. 
IX 3J 
xo 6i 
xo I 
xo X 
xo % 

xo X 
xo 6 
xo 4 
xo 6} 
xo 7 
10 7 


ft. in. 
Xo 6 
10 3 
xo a 
9 xo 

9 9 
xo X 

xo 1} 

9 xo 
xo 7 

'o 3* 
10 2) 

XX a 


ft. in. 

10 o) 

" \ 
xo xf 

xo X 

XX X 

xo 8 
xo 7J 
10 6 


ft. in. 
XO 7 
9 xo 
xo 4 

9 "i 

9 "i 

9 ««>f 

9 «<^f 
xo 3J 

xo xo 

xo 9i 

xo II 


ft. in. 
xo 9i 
xo li 

10 li ^ 

9 "*1 1 

^ "f 1 

10 ojj 1 
xo o|j 

10 7 
xo 6f 
10 9i 


July 


. / 

August 

September . 

October 

November.. 

December... 


Mean of) 
the year 


xo 5 


10 a| 


xo si 


xo 3l 


10 3i 



216 



Captain Beechej proceeds to trace the course of the stream from 
Pembroke to the Land's End ; to connect the tides of the Irish Sea with 
those of the Bristol and English Channels, and finally with those of the 
offing. The following observations will be explained by reference to 
plates III. and IV., which shew the tidal streams in the English and 
Irish Channels respectively. 

*' It seemed evident that the water was infinenced by forces acting in 
opposition nearly to each other, and that there was a tide in the offing 
whose streams of ebb and flood did not correspond with those of the 
channels. By applying this idea first to the English Channel, the ob- 
servations responded to it ; and carrying it to the offing of the Irish Sea, 
and considering that channel as comprising the Bristol Channel within 
its limits, as the English Channel does the Golf of St. Malo, the idea was 
confirmed so far as the observations themselves extended. This offing 
stream appears to be of great extent, setting to the north and flonth along' 
the coast of Biscay and the British Isles, mnning six hours nearly earn 
way, and exercising an influence with more or less effect over all the 
waters of the channels and estuaries it passes in its progress, diverting 
their courses, and in some cases, when the streams oppose, wholly over- 
powering or reversing their direction. From the connection of the 
observations of the Irish Sea with thobe of the Bristol Channel, it is clear 
that the whole of the ebb or outgoing stream of the eastern half of the 
Irish Channel runs into the Bristol Channel, and forms the flood or ingoing 
tide of the northern half of that great estuary ; and vice versd the ebb 
or outgoing stream from the northern half of the British Channel, forms 
the fl<Md of the Irish Sea, each tide passing to and fro with great rapidity 
rcund St. 6ovan*s Head. The centre and southern half of the Bristol 
Channel receive their waters from the offing and the English Channel, 
the coast stream bringing the waiters up from the Land's End And the 
English Channel, as the stream on the northern half did those of the 
Irish Channel, and vice versd. 

** The great offing stream at the entrance of the English Channd 
^tends its influence as far up as Cape La Hague, beyond which, owing 
perhaps to the sudden contraction which there occurs in the Channel, the 
stream suffers no interruption, but, as in the Irish Sea, passes up and 
down the Channel six hours nearly each way as far as a line joining 
Dungeness and Cape Grisnez, the apparent virtual head of the tidu 
channel. Here the influence of the North Sea stream begins to be felt, 
and here, as in the Irish Channel, again the time of high and low water 
at the virtual head of the tide regulates the turn qf the up and down 
stream along the whole Channel as far as the contraction. Beyond this 
the offing stream being governed by its own high water, and that occurr- 
ing at about six hours earlier than that at the head of the Channel, the 
offing stream cither butts against the returning streams from tlie channels, 
or withdrawing its water, solicits their streams and thus alters their 
course, making them for the most part set across the Channel in curves 
more or less bent as the spot is more or less removed from the offing ; so 
that there seems to be but one hour's tide each way that passes clean 
down the Channel from Beachy Head to Scilly, and round the Land's 
End to Britol. The outgoing stream from Beachy Head encounters 
the ingoing stream of the offing tide somewhere about the Start Point, 
and both. are turned down into the great Gulf of St. Malo, which seems 
to receive the accumulated waters of these opposite tides. 

" Whether or not this influx is Instrumental in raising the water here 
to the extraordinary height of forty-seven feet perpendicular range at 
springs, or whether *it be owing to its form and position as regards the 
adv^cing tide wave, is a problem ; bat it is a coincidence that cannot 



217 



escape obeervation, that this spot like the Bristol Channel, is the concen- 
tration of streams ftom opposite directions ; that it has its waters raised 
to the same extraordinary elevation nearly to a foot, and that its time of 
high water is nearly the same. 

*' On the change of tide, this great bay, like the Bristol Channel, as it 
reodyed so it returns its waters in opposite directions, the tide splitting 
somewhere between Aldemey and the Start ; but here especially, as also 
in a similar locality in the Irish Channel, we are in want of observations. 

** In tracing these streams, it was impossible not to be impressed with 
the many coincidences which assimilate the tidal phenomena of the two 
channels, so much so as to render it probable that they are subjected to 
precisely the same laws. 

" Considering the Irish Channel to extend from a line adjoining the 
Land's End and Cape Clear to the end of the tidal flow, which is either 
at Morocambe Bay or Peel, in the Isle of Man ; and the English Channel 
as reaching from a line connecting Ushant with the Land's End, to the 
end of its tidal flow, or to Dungeness, we shall then see that the 
English Channel, from its outer Hmit to the end of its tidal stream, is 
262 geographical miles, and that the Irish Channel, from its western 
limit to the end of its tidal stream, is nearly the same ; being about 265 
geographical miles. In both channels the stream enters from the south- 
west, and flows up until stopped by a counter stream. In both channels 
there is a contraction of the strait almost midway, by the promontories 
of Cape La Hague in one instance, And St. David's Head in the other, 
and at veiy nearly the same distances from the entrance. This contrac- 
tion is, in both eases, the commencement of the regular stream, which 
flows six hours nearly each way, the turn qf the stream throughout 
coinciding with the times of high and low water at the virtual head of 
the channel, situated in both cases about 145 miles above the contraction, 
and that time being very nearly the same, viz., lOh. 50m. at full and 
change ; below this contraction, away from the land, the stream in both 
cases varies. its direction nearly every hour, according to the force 
exerted upon it by the opposing ofiing stream. 

*' In both cases, between the contraction and the southern horn of the 
channel, there is situated a deep estuary, the Bristol Channel and the 
Bay of St. Malo, in which the times of high water coincide, and where, 
in both cases, the opposing streams meeting in the channel pour their 
wateis into these gulfs, and where the tides in both places rise to the 
extraordinary elevation of forty-seven feet at the syzygies. From the 
Land's End to the meeting of these streams in the Bristol Channel is 
seventy-five miles, and from Brest to the meeting of the streams off 
Guernsey the same. A still further coincidence is apparent between the 

Phenomena of these channels. In one, at a place called Courtown, a 
ttle above the contraction of the strait, and at 150 miles from Cape 
Clear (its entrance), there is scarcely any rise or fall of the water ; and 
in the other channel (about Swanage), situated also a little above the 
contraction of the strait, and just 150 miles from the Land's End, there 
is only five feet rise of the water at a spring range. In both cases these 
points of small range of tide are situat^ on the opposite side of the 
channel to that of the high elevation above mentioned, and in both cases 
these spots are the no& of the tide-wave (on either side of which the 
times of high and low water are reversed). And again we trace a simi- 
larity in an increased rise of the water on the south-east sides of both 
channels abreast of the virtual bead of the tide ; at Liverpool in one case, 
where the range amounts to thirty-two feet, and at Cayeux in the other, 
where it is thirty-four feet. 
** It may also be shewn that the progress of the tide-wave along the 



218 



^°ll 



5» 

3» 
i6 

7« 
75 






81 



649 

397 

193 

959 
921 



Bide of the channels opposite the node is not yeiy dissimilar. Beckoning 

in both cases from the line which we have liefore drawn, as the outer 

limits of the channel, wc find that in the English Channel, horn the line 

to Cherbooig, opposite the small range of tide — 

Ifiles 
per hour. 

JL ne wave travels. •• *«• ••• ••• ••• 

In the Irish Channel, from a similar line to 

Bardsey, it travels 

From Cherbonrg to Havre 

Fr6m Bardsej to Holyhead 

Prom Holyhead to end of tide .. 

Dieppe to the end of the tide 

These numbers are given roughly, merely ibr the purpose of shewing the 
general resemblance in the character and motion of the wave ; and it is 
probable a more judicious selection of positions and numbers would 
give a still nearer coincidence. Besides which we are somewhat uncer- 
tain as to the establishment at our starting-point. As a comparison, 
however, the numbers run fairly together. In both cases the retardation 
of the tide-wave about mid-channel, and the great elongation of the 
wave towards the end of the strait, are remarkable, especially in the Irish 
Sea. 

'* Lastly, we may notice a singular coincidence in more respects than 
one, indeed, between the situation of the node placed by Professor 
Whewell in the North Sea, and a corresponding point of small range 
and inversion of tide at the back of Kintire. The node or hinge of the 
tide in the North Sea is curiously enough situated as nearly as possible 
at the same distance from the head of the tide qf DungenesSf as the 
node at or near Swanage is on the opposite side of it ; and the node at 
Kintire communicated by Captain Robinson, is about the same distance 
from the meeting of the tide in the Irish Sea as the North Sea node is from 
the meeting of Sie waters off Dnngeness, and is similarly situated with 
respect to the node qf Courtown as the North Sea node is with regard 
to Swanage,^* 



TIDES OF THE EHGUSH CHAHNEL AlTD VOBTH 8EA. 

Captain Beechey's paper, in the Phihsophieal TransaetionSt Part IL, 
ibr 1851, contains his investigations into the currents and tides of the 
English Channel and North Sea similar to those on thq tides of the Irish 
Sea. Instead of these channels having a stream turning progressively 
later as the tide advances up the strait, it was found that the tide turns 
off the Start on one side of Dover, and the Lynn Deeps on the other side ; 
between these points the tide sets steadily towards Dover, while the 
water is rising there ; and away from Dover in each direction when the 
tide is falling there. This ** true channel stream " is about 180 miles in 
length each way, frx>m the point of union, towards Lynn in one direction, 
and towards the Start in the other. The point of union of the tides off 
the straits of Dover oscillates between Beachy Head and the North 
Foreland, a distance of sixty miles. When the water at Dover begins to 
fall, the separation takes place off Beachy Head, gradually creeping to 
the eastward as tiie fall of tide at Dover continues — at two hours after 
high water it g^ts to Hastings, at three hours it arrives at Rye ; and when 
it is low water at Dover the line of separation is between Dunkirk and 
the North Foreland. 

It appears, frt>m the elaborate charts which accompany Captain 
Beechey's paper, "that, for a period of six hours after high water at Dover 



219 



and for five hours before that time, the great stream of the English 
Channel and North Sea maintains a steady direction from and towards 
Dover." Between Cromer and the North Foreland, Captain Beechey 
states that there is not half an hoards retardation in the time of slack 
water from the time of high water at Dover, while in the establishment 
there is a difference of five hours ; on the other side, the stream, half way 
between Start Pointand Alderaey, turns with high water at Dover, although 
the difierence of establishment is also five hours. Off Portland the tide 
turns nine minutes before high water at Dover ; off St. Albans, three 
minutes before ; between the Isle of Wight and Cape Barfleur, fifteen 
minutes after ; and so on. Reasoning on these facts, we find that when 
it is high water at Dover (which is five hours afler high water at Start 
point) the tide has fallen about thirteen feet off the Start — or there is 
about fifteen feet actual difference of level in the water surface at the 
two places, when the current turns at spring tides : taking this difference, 
we have a fall of one inch per mile of the surface; this is ample for 
the gravitating power to produce the tidal stream, which appears to yaiy 
firom 120 to 400 feetper minute. 

Plates rV.A and Iv.b contain a general view of these facts, with the 
set of currents and their tenninations at one, three, and five hours before 
and after low water at Dover : the currents of the rising tide are shewn 
in plate IV. A., and of the falling tide in plate IV.B. 

Diagrams of the curves of the Channel tide-wave for every hour of 
rise and fall are given on the plates ; the range is from the mean of the 
tides on the para&el of the principal stations where the tide was observed. 
The diagrams give the general inclination of the surfaces of the com- 
bined wave on TOth sides, with the direction of the streams passing along 
the channel at the moment, marked by arrows on each hour-line : this 
exhibits the mechanical action of the water, and the intimate connection 
existing between the wave and the simultaneous turn of the stream. 

On examining the surfaces of these waves, we shaU see that the di- 
rections in which the streams run do not always correspond with the 
existing slopes of the surfaces, but that during die last half of the tide 
they are to be traced to the effect of a previous and contrary depression : 
this is a question of time, which is an essential part of the law of gravi- 
tation. The maximum rate of the stream is at half-tide when the 
surface has its least depression, and the stream ceases at the moment of 
the greatest elevation and depression. The amount and continuance of 
the inclination governs the rate of the streams, which continues its pro- 
gress for a length of time, although the surface slope of the wave that 
produced it may have been reversed. Consequently, from the time of 
tiie passage of the wave until the stream finally ceases to fiow, the water * 
will be seen to run up an inclined plane, and vrill continue to do so for 
nearly as long an interval before it be brought to rest as it did to 
acquire its momentum ; the relative inclinations at the beginning and 
ending being about the same. The simultaneous reversal of the 
stream throughout the Strait is therefore the effect of gravitation due 
to the general slope of the surface, and the law of motion is precisely 
that of a pendulum. 

The maximum velocities of the Channel stream, in reference to the 
time of high water at Dover, are given on plate IV.a ; the period of 
greatest velocity is always about half tide at Dover. {See Captain 
Beeehey*$ Paper — Phil. Trans,) 

IIHES 07 COTEDAL WAVES. 

We have given in some detail the principal features of these accurate 
surveys of the English and Irish Channels, because they afford strict ex- 



220 



amples of what we find practically, and may expect from theory, in the 
development of the simple tidal wave, with its numerous offshoots or minor 
vibrations, and the secondary effects produced by Mr. Airy^s "forced 
tidal wave." These great undulations follow the deepest and smoothest 
channels with their maximum velocity, and are retarded by laws which 
there is no doubt could be strictly defined, if we had the nature of 
bottom, and other disturbing forces, as elements in the calculation. It 
is evident that the primary, or great tidal wave, passes in at each end of 
the channels with the deepest line of sounding : this produces the alter- 
nate overBow and recession of the central volume towards the coasts, 
while the offing tide, which is described as apparently passing across the 
entrance of the channels, is nothing more than the same effect of a 
great succession of waves, following the disturbing or cn^ative cause 
roiind the globe, and turning over towards the gradually shoaling bottom 
on approaching the British Isles, where again the line of least resistance 
is taken up the channels by the diverging waves. Thus the highest 
equinoctial tides take place, on the west coast of Ireland and on the 
south coast of England, three transits after the new and full moon, 
unless diverted by gales of wind or other extraordinary causes. Along 
the east coast of England, they take place four transits after the new and 
full moon. In the river Thames they occur five transits after the same 
epoch. These difference» arise from the cause, that the same tide-wave 
which produces high water on the west coast of Ireland takes half a day 
in its progress from thence to the east coast of England, and a whole day 
before it arrives in the river Thames. 

On reference to our remarks on the various rivers and estuaries, of which 
we have given the phenomena from accurate experiments, we see precisely 
the same effects produced, although frequently developed to a greater degree 
by rapid diminution of width and depth, or vice vcrsd ; and in tracing the 
results of both the hydrodynamic and undulatory action of water, we 
must always recollect that it is a non-elastic fluid ; so that wherever at a 
point, in a given channel, there is want of area, we have increased head 
' or oscillation, and as a secondary effect, increased velocity ; while oU 
the other hand, where there is cessation of velocity, we have increase of 
area. So, where the bed and banks are capable of being acted upon (and 
what are not P) we find invariably that, unless perfection of regularity 
exists, there is perfect irregularity ; that is to say, for every indenta- 
tion there is projection — for every depth too great, there is depth too 
little ; for every variation above the mean or true velocity, we have a 
similar falling below the mean ; a perpetual recurring equilibrium which 
is attained by velocity or depth, by time or space. 

Thus it is the great law of equilibrium which indicates what should 
be the proportion of artificial hydraulic construction ; the more nature is 
aided ilk creating such equilibrium, the more rapidly are her powers 
developed ; by deepening, and straightening, and reducing into train 
any chamiel or tidal river, we get nature to aid in producing the effect ; 
calling in assistance of a tenfold effort, because it is one developing upon 
itself, and generating new powers from the combination. 

We subjoin remarks from Airy*s Treatise in reference to the cotidal 
lines of the globe, as they have especial relation to the question of depth 
and its effects. 

" In all places where the circumstances of depth, &c., taiy much in a 
small extent of sea, we may consider the alteration in the tides through 
that extent as following simply the laws of waves on which no force is 
acting (because the length of the column of water on which the sun or 
moon acts is too small to allow their attraction sensibly to modify their 
pressures). Suppose now that in the neighbourhood of any particular 



221 



eoast, the bottom shelves gradaally from deep sea to one comparatiyelj 
shallow. This would be attended, theoretically, with two consequences. 
The first is, that the ware wot^ld travel more slowly, and therefore the 
separation of the cotidal lines corresponding to tnccessive boors would 
be less, or the cotidal lines would appear to be crowded together on the 
map. The second is, that the magnitude of the tides would be mudx 
increased. And these circumstances might be found in places where 
the chai^ in the depth was not known from observation ; for the usual 
limit of sounding is 200 fftthoms, which is probably a small quantity 
compared with the depth of the ocean. We may then expect that, where 
the cotidal lines approach closely, the magnitude of tne tides will be 
increased. Now this does occur. A well-marked instance is the Bay 
of St. Geoige, in South America, in which a dose approximation of 
cotidal lines is accompanied with large tides. It is possible here that the 
tides may be still further increased by the converging form of the waves. 

" Another curious efiect of the same cause is the distortion of the lines 
produced by islands, surrounded by shoals, In the ocean. The shoals 
prevent the tide-wave from advancing rapidly, and the cotidal line is 
therefore thrown back ; but conceiving the ridee of the wave to be thus 
bent, it is easy to imagine that after passing me island the two lateral 
parts of the wave will bend .round it till they unite, and will then form 
a straight front nearly as before coming to the island. The successive 
cotidal lines will have forms corresponding to the forms of the ridge of 
this wave at succeissive times. Of this there are several instances ap- 
parently beyond doubt. Thus the 1 o'clock line is thrown l)ack by the 
Azores; the 11 o'clock line is bent by the Bermudas, and its lateral 
branches nearly meet; the 10 o'clock line, after having been interrupted, 
just meets behind New Zealand. A similar effect of the same cause is, 
the universal dragging of the wave along the. shore. 

" The velocity of the tide 'Wave ought, with the assistance of the table, 
page 206, to give information as to the depth of the sea. Thus in the 
North Sea, the tide-wave in 9 hours appears to describe somewhat less 
than 6 degrees of latitude, or on the average about 45 miles per hour : 
by the table, this would correspond to a depth of 140 feet. We believe 
that the average depth along the line of deep channel is greater than 
this, and that at the sides less; and it is probable that the actual 
velocity is effected by both these. If the tide-wave of the Atlantic were 
purely derivative, it might be considered as describing 90 degrees of lati- 
tude, from the southern 1 o'clock line to the northern 1 o'clock line, in 12 
hours, or to move about 520 miles per hour ; which would imply a depth 
of about 18,000 feet or ^ miles. The reader will have no difficulty in 
extending similar remarks to other seas ; in this, plates I. to V. will assist 
his inquiries. Curves for spring and neap tides, compiled ftom the most 
accurate authorities, are given in plates AVI. and XVII. 



OK THE BIUBKAL DTEQITALITT. 

Dr. Whewell's paper, read to the Boyal Society in December, 1847. 
relates chiefly to the tides of the Pacific and the diurnal inequality. He 
remarks that the cotidal lines in the observations of 1834 and 1885 
shewed one feature, viz., their meeting the shore at a very acute ansle, and 
following its flexures with an almost parallel course at a little distance, 
and that consequently the tide-wave which runs up the middle of a 
channel is very much in advance of its place at the sides ; this is quite in 
harmony with the laws of fluids, and with the effect of friction and 
decrease of depth along shore. 

Dr. Whewell observes that the diurnal inequality was noticed by 



18 



222 



Newton at Tljmoath and Bristol, and has been commonly caBed the 
difference between the day and mghi tide, which is in fact only a tern- 
poraiy distinction. 

*' It depends upon the moon's declination, and changes to alternate 
tides when the moon's declination changes from north to south, and vice 
versd. Its role is expressed in the following form — 
For moon's N. ( Add to the tide following moon's Sonth transit, 

decUnation. X Subtract from the tide following moon's N. transit. 
For moon's S. \ Subtract from the tide following moon's S. transit, 

declination ( Add to the tide following moon's N. transit, 
the quantity added or sabtracted being greater as the declination is greater ; 
and the declination being taken for one, two, or three days prenons to 
tiie tide. According to this law, the inequality is introduced into the 
Admiralty Tide Tables, and it may be computed for any period by applying 
Table 39b to the moon's declination. 

'* This rule of the diurnal tide may, for somemonihSt produce the efiect 
of making the afternoon tides greater than the morning tides, or vice 
versd. Suppose the place to be one where the tide happens (in general 
tenns) soon after the moon's {south or superior) transit ; then, beginning 
from new moon, the afternoon tide for a fortnight follows tiie sonth 
transit of the moon. Supposing that during this fortnight the moon has 
north declination ; then the diurnal inequality is additive by the rule, 
and therefore the afternoon tide is, during this fortnight, the highest. 
Now at the end of a fortnight of north declination, the declination changes 
to south. But at the end of a fortnight, the afternoon tide begins to be 
that which follows the north or ir^erior transit of the moon ; and there- 
fore again, by the second part of the rule, the inequality is still additive, 
and the afternoon tide is still the greater. And tnis will continue to be 
the case till the points of no lunar declination are shifted away from the 
STzygies by the motion of the moon's nodes relative to the sun. But if 
the declination pass from north to south, or the reverse, at a diflferent 
period from that which transfers the afternoon tides from one transit to 
the opposite one, we shall no longer have this apparent constancy in the 
relation of morning and afternoon tides. If, for instance, the tide hour 
beiuff such as has already been supposed, the change of declination, 
north and sonth, takes place when the tide is at four, five, six, or seven 
o'clock ; the afternoon tide will then (or rather one or two davs later) 
chanse from being the greater to being the less, or vice versd. Or if the 
tide-hour be six o'clock, the tide being (in general terms) six hours after 
the moon's transit, the afternoon tide will follow a south transit of the 
moon from the time when the moon is six hours west of the sun to the 
time when she is six hours east of him, and then change and follow a 
north transit ; and so on alternately. Hence, if in this case the moon's 
ascending node be at six hours west Arom the sun, the declination will be 
north while the afternoon tide follows a south transit, and therefore the 
afternoon tide will be the ^eater for the whole lunation. But if, in this 
case, the node be in conjunction with the sun, the afternoon tide wiU 
change from smaller to larger, or tiie reverse, at syzygy, that is, when 
the tide is at six o'clock ; or rather a day or two later. 

" This last-mentioned circumstance, that the change in the features of 
the tides takes place a day or two, or perhaps longer, after the astrono- 
mical configuration by which it is determined, is common to all the 
empirical laws of the tides. It has recentiy been shewn by Mr. Aiiy 
that this is a result which follows from supposing the tidal motions of the 
sea to be affected by friction. The amount of this retardation of the 
phenomena for each place, or, as we may term it, the ' age of the tide * 
relative to the diurnal inequality, is different for different places ; and 



223 



most, for each place, be learnt ftom obserration ;" as is shewn in oar 
"Tides, British Forts/' Tables 39 and 39a. (See Admiralty Tide 
Tables, 1860.) 

"The inequality of he^hts appeals in the zigzag farm of the line 
drawn through the sanimits of ordinates projected from the heights of 
sdocessiTe tides. This sigzag stractare is sometimes of a moderate 
degree of abmptness, as in the tides of the coast of North America, and 
of Portngal, and those of Plymouth, and sometimes extremely abrupt, 
as the heights of low water at Singapore. In this latter case, the diurnal 
inequality sometimes makes a difference of no less than six feet between 
the height of the morning and afternoon tide ; the whole rise of the mean 
tide being only seven feet at springs, and the difference of mean spring 
and neap tides not more than two feet. 

«* WhUe in some places it affects the heights, and at other places ptm" 
cipally affects the times, for instance, the diunukl inequality which alten 
the low-water four feet at Port Essington, and six feet at Singapore, 
afiects the high water to a still greater extent in the Gulf of Cambay, 
and disturbs the times at the entrance of the Persian Ghilf . 

" It was lemaiiLed on the occasion of the observations of 1835, that 
liie dinnal inequality on the coast of North America followed the 
changes of the moon's declination almost instantaneously ; while on the 
coasts of Portugal, Spain, and France, the changes of lunar declination 
were represent^ in the diurnal inequality two or three days later ; and 
at the Cape of Good Hope, about the same time. Dr. Whewell considers 
that this feature Arows great difficulty in the conception of that motion 
of the waves by which the tides are produced, and suggests the necessity 
of some new mode of conceiving that motion. But we think the discrep- 
ancies are rather indicative of geographical and local variations in the 
form qfthe ocean bed^ than any interference with the laws of fluid motion, 
which, however complicated ill their details, are simple in their original 
forms. It is very certain that some of the most remarkable tides in the 
British coasts — as, for instance, the 18-inch spring- tide rise on one side of 
Fairhead, and the four-feet rise at a like distance on the other side of 
the same point, accompanied by terrible races and currents — similar 
phenomena also occurring at the Bill of Portland — are. each and all 
mainly caused by bluff underwater cliffs, which directly reflect the tidal 
wave out of its course, and affect the superinduced flow of the water. 

Plate y . is a chart of the globe with cotidal lines, compiled from Airy's 
treatise, and corrected from Whewell's papers. The coast lines 
give a vast amount of information touching the tide hours and times 
of high water approaching various shores and islands ; in one point, 
however, we would suggest that there is room for much ereater 
inquiry and speculation. As the tidal wave first proceeds from the sun 
and moon direct, much as if the ocean were pulled up over an enormous 
area, and then suddenly or as rapidly dropped aeain, it is dear that the 
wave must traverse, almost unchecked, in the depus of ocean adjacent to 
the equator; from this region it is natural to suppose, on the same 
principles of which we have positive proof in our channels and estuaries, 
that the waves diverge in a circular form, with velocities varying as in* 
flnenced by depth and friction. Unfortunately, deep sea tides are beyond 
reach of experiment ; but we imaeine that it would meet the requirements 
of theory if the cotidiil lines in tne southern hemisphere were adjusted 
as encircling or radiatine from the equator, as those in the northern 
side are shewn to do; this would affect not the honis along shore of 
South America, New Holland, and the Polynesian Island^, but the 
supposed direction in which the tide-wave works up the coasts ; and 
if we take tiiis view of the theory, it may account for many anomalies 



224 



in the tides of the complicated region raond Singapore. Mr. WbeweQ's 
remariL that the cotidal lines always mn almost parallel to die shore, 
indicate how immediately the tide is retarded in yelocity when coming 
out of deep water, and how huge must be the ndins of eadi progressive 
wave ; his own remarks indicate the aboye hypothesis. 

With reg^uid to the semi-dinmal tide, we find it practically peiceptible 
in the Thames, and it is also visible in the tides of the Hvmber. In a 
tidal canal branching from the Thames, which is nnder onr management, 
it is found tliat at neap tides the inequality is highly useful by Stabling 
advantage to be taken of the highest tide for keeping up the water to a 
better working level, there being occasionally nearly two feet difference ; 
we have also experienced a simiuir advantage by the lower ebbing out in 
erecting tidal works at Plymouth. 

It has become the practice of late to refer all levels to the Ordnance 
datum, which was the mean or half-tide level at Liverpool. Since this 
standard was adopted, numerous daily observations of the tide have been 
made all round the coast of England, in order to find the corrected mean 
level of the sea ; these are given in Sir Henry James*s volumes of the 
Ordnance leveUing, and the mean of half-tide of all the places of obser- 
va^on appears to be .625 of a foot above the datum level or half tide at 
Liverpool, omitting the tides at Deptford, London Bridge and Battersea. 
The experimental inquiries are interesting, especially m examining our 
tables of tidal phenomena of the various rivers and estuaries. The facts 
indicate the efrect of shoal bottom and fonn of channels on the tide- 
waves ; probably the strongest effects are produced by the forced tide 
wave as formed in rivers and in cases where sand banks in the open sea 
have similar results. But it is manifest that in some cases the Ordnance 
observations did not extend over sufficient periods, and the tides were all 
taken during the day — 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. — so that the mean tide level at 
many of the places would have to be corrected for the diurnal inequality. 
This is a point requiring careful notice, for the diurnal inequality has 
frequently a practical operation, unless duly considered ; for instance, in 
the question of boundary of Crown lands on flat shores, where the 
difference of a few inches in determining mean high water would make 
important territorial alterations. Some of the tide curves given in plates 
XVI. and XVII. shew the diurnal inequality veiy strongly. 

TIDE8 OP BIVEB8 AHD ESTUABIES. 

With a view to a more general knowledge and comparison of the tidal 
phenomena of English rivers, we have formed a collection* of the prin-- 
cipal chacteristics of their tidal flow and ebb ; of the velocity of the 
tidal wave, and other accompanying circumstances, such as the depth, 
width, and sectional area ; and also the actual relative level of the water 
or tidal wave, at various points in the course of the respective rivers. 
We have placed the matter referring to each river and estuaiy at the 
end of eacn article, amounting to twenty-five tables, viz. : — 
Tidal phenomena of the 

Thames.. .2 pages. Clyde 3 pages. 

Waveney 8 „ Mersey ...8 

Nene."....I „ Dee 1 

Humber...! „ Severn ...3 



T^ne 4 

Tay 1 



If 
tf 
ti 

ft 



Avon 1 

Seine 1 



It 
I* 



* The collection haa of oonne been gathered from yarioos soaitMS, ss ecknow- 
lodged in each caae. UnloM very greafc liberality had been shewn to me by 
professional friends, I oonld not hare attempted the laboor. One endeavoor has 
been to adopt none but what could be reliea on aa strictly engineering surreys, 
and of imdoabted accuracy. 



22& 



And we have dosed them with schedules of the size of the principal Docks 
in the United Kingdom, depth of sills, and other information, useftd to 
shew the capability of the different ports, and accommodation in relation to 
their nataral flow of tide, additional information on which is also given 
in the tables of the Tides of British Ports, Diyision I. 

The following preliminair remarks upon each example will gire an 
outline of the chief points of interest in each case ; they should be read 
in conjunction with the tables of the tidal phenomena rdating thereto. 



THE SIVEE THAHEB.-Plates Z. aJid Z7I. 

Hie River Thames has now a free tide-way up to Teddington Lock, 
near Richmond, but previously to the removal of old London Bridge it 
was, for all practical purposes, held up as by a weir at that point. Much 
discussion arose on the probable effect of its removal, and Messrs. Rennie 
conducted surveys for the City, at various periods, by Mr. Giles and 
others, to ascertain the probable effects; to save the reader labour 
of going through all the observations so ably put together by Mr. Rennie 
in his papers on Hydraulics, in the Reports of the British Association, 
we have laid together the following remarks and tables from this and 
other sources, endeavouring to trace down the various improvements and 
alterations in this great river ; a careful perusal of the following state- 
ments will shew to &e student or others seeking for examples the enor* 
mons advantage produced by removing obstacles to the full tidal flow. 

Mr. Rennie quotes from the Phihsophieal Transactions, fcft 1720, 
observations, taken in Lambeth Reach, of the Thames* by Mr. Saumarez, 
8th and 19th June, 1719 ; we place them here in juxta-position with the 
most recent experiments on the present state of the river of which we 
have any reocntl. The changes that have been produced in the 
navigation, and the health of the metropolis, by the maintenance of a 
more perfect tidal flow and ebb, would be shewn more stron^y if we 
could give precisely simOar observations at the same place up to a later 
date ; for tne dredging since has been very great, and there has been much 
natural lowering of the bed of the Thames by the increased scour at 
low water. 

LAMBETH BEACH, JUBE ath and 19tli. 

1720 and 1849; 

H IC K M. 

Time of flood Spring Tide s' 50 s' 15 

Ditto Flood Neap Tide 4 50 6 

Ditto Ebb Spring Tide 8 40 7 .5 

Ditto Ebb Neap Tide 7 35 6 20 

JUHE 19ih, 1780 and 1884. 

Miles run by Flood Spring Tide ... 5.25 11.20 
Ditto Flood Neap do. ... 4.75 

Mean 5.00 
Ditto Ebb Spring do. ... 10.50 18.60 

Ditto Ebb Neap do. ... 7.45 

Mean 9.12 

Li the River Thames the tidal wave is now affected much less from 
friction and obstacles than mi^ht be expected. From reference to Mr. 
Lloyd's observations on the nse of the tides at Sheemess, with the 
mean of Mr. Lnbbock*s at the London Docks, it appears tliat in 1828 — 



226 



Feet. 
The tpiing tide high water at the London Docks, above iba 

same at BheemesB, was 2.096 

0.807 

The mean high water ditto ditto 8.318 

0.106 

The neap tide ditto ditto 8.368 

0.690 

The spxing tide low water ditto ditto 1.668 

0.968 

The mean levBl of the tides ditto ditto 8.036 

Or. taJdng more oorreciiy the half difltoenoe b^ween spring 
high and low water at Sheemess, the mean spring leVel is 1. 786 

It seems, from the aboye summaiy, that, as the water decreases in 
height, so the height of the water's sarface at London Docks ahove the 
same at Sheemess also decreases, with the exception of spring tides at 
the London Docks and at neap tides. The aboye are means, not of the 
highest tides, bnt of the tides at a particalar time of the moon's soothing. 
Trinity high-water mark at London Bridge was found bj B£r. Lloyd to 
be 1.904 aboye mean spring tide high-water mark at Sheerness. 

With respect to the influence of the winds on these tides. Dorinff strong 
north-westerly gales the tide marks high water earlier than otherwise, 
and does not give so much water, whilst the ebb rons ont later and 
marks lower *, but upon the gales abating and the weather moderating, 
the tides put in, and rise much higher, while they also run along after 
high water is marked, and with more velocity of current ; nor do tiiey 
run out so long or so low : a sonth-westeiiy gale has a contrary eSocA 
generally, and an easterly one gives some water ; bnt the tides in all 
these cases always improve the moment the weather moderates. 

Comparing observations taken at spring tides, for three days in 
March, 1833, before Old London Bridge foundations were removed, we 
find that high water at London Bridge was one hour 37 minutes after 
Sheemess ; whereas now, in 1851, it is only 1 hour 20 minntas at spring 
tid^ later than at {Sheemess. 

Ft. Ins. 

In March, 1833, the rise of tide at Sheemess was 18 7 

Ditto ditto at Fresh Wharf 20 5 

Ditto ditto at New London Bridge 18 3 

Comparing the ris^ of thes^ tides with those of June, 1849, in the sequel, 
;t will be seen that the space between Dcptford and London Bridge 
(although the faU of 2ft. 2in8. through the old bridge no longer obtains) 
is still the culminating point of the tidal wave of the Thames, owine to 
the narrowness of the river at this point, and quantity of ships at andior 
in the pool. Thus- 
Time. 
Ft. Ins. H. V. 

Springtide, June 20th, 1849, at Deptford* 20 8 ... 115 

Ditto ditto at London Bridge 20 11^ ... 1 30 
Ditto computed for Sheerness 18 7 ... 11 55 

But the most striking instance of the change in the tidal head of the 
Thames is shewn by the comparisons and data given in the following 
tables, which have been compiled from Mr. Rennie*s tireatise, and fi^m 
Mr. Page's surveys, and from our own observations. We have embodied 
them with the experiments made for the Metropolitan Board of Works, 
in order to give a picture of what has occurred by the changes of this 
importent river, thus offering data for future comparisons. The Thames 
is an instructive example, owing to the steady changes even now daily 

** It is fl^neraUj considered that the tide rises four inches higher at 
London Dookb and makes ten zninntes sooner. It is doabtftil whether it does so 
with such a high spring tide as this ; there is also not snoh a difEbrenoe at neaps. 



1 






227 



oocnrring by baUasting, which creates increased area and lowering of the 
bed upwards, originating from the removal of Old London Bridge. Its 
present state is brought up to 1849, in the tables devoted to tidal pheno- 
mena at the end of this article, and in Plate X., the materials for compiling 
which have been kindly furnished to the author by Mr. Leach, C.E., the 
ensineer to the Thames Conservancy Board* 

Plate X. gives a longitudinal section of the bed of the river in 1833 
and 1861, with high and low water lines at spring and neap tides, from 
Teddington to Shcemess. The surface lines of the bed are jotted from 
the surveys of Mr. Giles (between Battersea and London bridge) and 
Captain Bullock below London Bridge, made between 1823 and 1831, 
ana from those made under direction of Captain Burstal, B.K., and 
Mr. Leach, between 1856 and 1861. 

Plate XVI. contains simultaneous curves of spring and neap tides at 
sevend points, taken in 1857 by the Commission on Drainage of the 
Metropolis. — — 

TDEE AVD HEIGHTS OF HIGH AVD LOW WATEB, in 1893*1845 

Datum 90 ftet heikiw Trinitiy High Water, in this and all other TaXtlnof 

the River Thames. 



r 




SPBIHG 


TIDE. 










April 89th, 1888. 

• 


April 80th, 1846. 


Stattonik 


Hies Wi.nB. 


Low Water. 


HiaK Watxs. 


Low Watxb. 




Time. 


Height 


Time. 


Height 


Time. 


Height 


Time. 


Height 


Tiondoii Docks........ 


a.m. 

H. K. 

415 
5 I 

5 >1 

5 40 
618 


Pt.TnR. 
19 

18 9 

19 
19 7 
XI 9 


a.m. 

H. X. 

II iS 

p.m. 
045 

I 5 

% xc 

4 59 


Ptlns. 
1 6 

8 6 

9 « 

ij 5 
to II 


pan. 

a. X. 

4 U 

4 50 

5 

5 «5 

6 


PLTub 
»o 3 

u> 1 

xo 

XO X 
XO 11) 


p.m. 

H. X. 

" 45 

40 

« «5 

X XO 

a.m. 
10 


Pt^Tiis. 
9 

5 7 

6 4 
10 8 


Battersea Bridge 

Putney Bridge 

Kaw Bridflw 


Teddington Lock 


17 ^ 



KSAP TIBS. 



Stations. 



London Docks 

Bat ter s e a Bridge.... 
Putney Bridge........ 

Eew Bridge... 

Teddington Lock.... 



Hay 6th, 1823. 



HlOH WJlTMR. 



Time. 



p.m. 

H. X. 

9 7 
10 8 

10 31 
1049 

11 50 



Height Time. 



Ft. Ins. 
15 ) 

14 II 

15 X 
15 10 

>9 4 



Low Waxem, 



a.m. 

H. X. 
J XI 

5J8 

635 

815 

10 40 



Height 



FtlnB 
> 9 

6 X 

8 1 
II 8 
19 o 



Hay 1st, 1846. 



HlOM Wahb. 



Time. 



a.m. 

K. X. 

9 45 
10 X5 

10 ss 

o o 
p.m. 

O XO 



Heighl 



Ft Ins. 
17 o 

16 10 

16 II 

19 o 



Low WAxmrn, 



Time. 



Bon. 
x. X. 

4 35 

p.m- 

6 10 
a.m. 

7 10 

9 »5 



Ci ©• 
18 4| ^p.m. 



Height 



Ft. Ins. 
I o 

5 4 

6 II 

II o 
17 io| 

17 lot 



* This is evidently not the time of the commencement of the flood, bnt the time 
of low water; the down stream continning for some hoars aftenrards. 



' 



228 



OOXPAXAIIYB VECaOM BETWEBV WEHTJIillflTZE Aim 

LOHSOK BRIDGES. 

Ttiken in 18S3 and 1831 \jy Heesn. Rennie, and in 1845 by Mr. Page. 



Looftlitj. 



830 yards north of Weatmin 
ater Bridge 



Near WtaitahaU Stairs .. 
Near Hnngerford Stafra 
Waterloo Bridge 



below Low 
Wator, 



Boaverie Street 

Between Blackfriars ft South 
wark Bridges 



Sup. Ft. 

3»939 
4.757 
J.89> 
J. 75* 
4>33A 
3»976 



London Bridge 



1881. 



Sq.Pt 

J.4«7 
6,570 

3,910 

J»947 
J»9«» 



1846. 



Ana below 
HigH Water. 



182S. 



Sq.Ft. 


Sq.Ft. 


5.64a 


19.148 


6.«45 


11,168 


6.45« 


»9.974 


4,176 


10.570 


6,151 


18,191 


4.J«> 


16,958 


• ■■ 


7.360 



1881. 



Sq.Ft. 

10,046 

13,660 

11,811 

10,905 

18,110 

17,103 
1832. 
17,650 



1845. 



Sq.FL 
*o,951 
H.744 
H.768 
11,705 
11,005 

1,6460 
1834. 
17,600 



TABLE OF YELOOITIES OF FLOOD AND EBB UBS. 

Giving the effbct of removing old London Bridge. 





Tint 
of Flood. 


Last 
of Flood. 


Fint 
of Ebb. 


Last 
of Ebb. 




1881. 


1888. 


1881. 


1888. 


1881. 


1888. 


1881. 


1888. 


Between 

Weatminater & Wa- 
terloo Bridges 

Waterloo ft Black- 
friars Bridges 

Blaokfriars ft Sontb- 
wark Bridges 

Southwark ft Lon- 
don Bridges 


Ft. per 
Kin. 

139.3 

>49-4 
158.1 

170.6 


Ft. per 
Kin. 

150.4 

171.9 

174.1 

156.6 


Ft. per 
Min. 

«55.9 
184.8 

159.6 
»93.4 


Ft. pel 
Min. 

170.0 

109.7 

168.1 

»54.4 


Ft. per 
Min. 

163.8 

186.0 

161.3 

363.0 


Ft. per 
Min. 

170.4 

118.6 

177.7 
317.6 


Ft. per 
Min. 

169.4 

196.3 

151.0 

337-5 


Ft per 
M£a. 

191.3 

138.9 

195.6 

187.1 





AVERAGE LEVELS OF HIGH AND LOW WATEB, IE 188S, 

1888, AND 1884. 



1831 
1833 
1834 



No. of 
Tides 

in 
each 
Year. 



88 

«4 
99 



Putnej Brid^ 



MsAvLvmov 



High 
Water. 



Pt. Ins. 
18 1 

18 6 

18 % 



Low 

Water. 



Ftlna 
« 4 

8 8 
7 8 



Xew Bridge. 



MxAvLavBLOV 



High 
Water. 



Ft. Ins. 

18 8 

19 1 
18 6 



Low 
Water. 



Ft. Ins 
11 11 

11 6 

10 11 



BiohmondBr. 



MxAvLzvxLor 



High 
Water. 



Ft. Ins. 
>9 3 

19 9 
18 10 



Low 
Water. 



Ft. Ins 
>5 9 

16 4 
U 7 



IMUUngtonLk. 



MSAVLlVBLOV 



High 
Water. 



Ft. Ins. 
19 7 

19 1 

19 8 



Low 
Water. 



Ft. Ins. 
»9 4 

20 o 
18 3 



229 



TELOCITIES OF FLOOD AHD EBB TIDE, 19th JUHE, 1984. 
(Wind VT.S.W. Fresh brroze and clear). From experimentB )jj Messrs. Remii€. 



fltationi. 



Ixmdon Bridge , 

Soatbwark Bridge... 
BlackfHars Bridge . 

Waterloo Bridge 

Hnngwrford Market 
Westminster Bridge 

Horsefeny 

Vanzhall BricU« 

Chelsea Coll. Stairs 

Chelsea Bridge 

i-mile above ditto .. 

1 mile ditto 

Udo. (Wandsworib) 

Pntney Bridge 

Similes 

Smiles 

Similes 

4 mOes 

Hammersmith Brdg. 

Similes 

6 miles 

6i miles 



High Water at Lon< 
don Bridge ■ 



Low Water 



Distance 

firom 
London 
Bridge. 



Mfles. 

O.O0 
0.2S 

0.75 



Flood Tid9. 

("Bead downwardtj 



Time. 



h. 
8 



m 
6 



8 30 

9 5i 



I.J4 


9 «4 


1.50 


9»| 


A. 00 


9 36 


a.4» 


9 50 


2.95 


10 J 


4. XI 


10 34 


5.04 


10 55 


5.54 
6.04 


II 9 


II so 


6.5A 
7.48 


11 31 


II 50 


8.04 ■ 


" *l 


IX 6 


8.54 


IX xo 


9.04 


IX 30 


9.10 


i» 35 


10.54 


I >5 


11.04 


I 15 


11.19 


I 45 



p.m. 

IX xo 

a.m. 

7 35 



Height 

at 
London 
Bridge. 



Ft. Ins. 
X 9 
I 

o 

7 

X 

9 

X 

I 

X 

10 

10 

6 

o 

8 9 

8 10 

9 3 



4 
4 

X 

I 

5 7 
4 " 



19 4 



Velocity 

per 
minate 



Feet. 
0.00 
61.60 

190.08 

147- 84 
94.16 
XOX.40 
160. 16 
105.04 
X18 X4 
X07.68 
188. 3X 
X40.X4 
X40.X4 
X90.10 
90.64 
XII. xo 
188. 3X 
x6a.oo 
170.00 
176.00 
13X.00 
13X.00 



SbbTUt. 

(Stiid upwardtj 



Time. 



h. 

7 
7 
7 
7 



m. 
34 

»9 

xo 

7 



6 50 
6 40 
6 x6 



5 

5 
5 
5 



5S 

4 47 

4 16 
J 58 

*5 
19 
35 
II 



X o 



p.m. 
IX 30 

7 45 



Heifl^t 

at 
London 
Bridge. 



Ft. Ins. 

10 

1 o 

I X 

I 6 

• •• 

I II 

X X 

U 

4 4 

4 10 

5 4 

5 " 

7 o 

8 o 

8 10 

9 5 

9 7 
II II 

13 3 
13 II 



'9 4 
o 9 



Velocity 

per 
mmnte. 



Feet. 
X96.56 

*75-44 
140.04 

198.88 

»H-40 
198.00 
X14.7X 
181. x8 
176.00 
195.36 
176.00 

•ilij 

146.96 
176.00 
146.06 
185.68 
110.00 
119.68 
10.56 



t» 



tt 



OOXPABIBOir OF TIDES. 

In 1823, Mr. GUes made the average velocity of flood tide between 

London Bridge and Pntney Bridge 220 feet per minate. 

Ditto Southwark and Westminster 176 

The velocity of ebb tide he found to be 

Between Westminster and Waterloo Bridges ... 176 

„ Waterloo and Blackfriars Bridges 198 

„ Blackfriars and London Bridges 2^2 

Finally, Kr. Rennie states that the sectional area at Old London 
Bridge, below Trinity High Water level — 

Before removal in 1832 was 8,700 sap. feet. 

After do. 1884 17,600 do. 



tt 


tt 


It 


It 


tt 


<f 



l> 



At Old London Bridge the fall throogh was, in 1832 
Ditto ditto in 1834 

Range of Spring Tides in 1832 

Ditto ditto in 1834 

Low Water Springs below Trinity datum... in 1832 
Ditto ditto ...in 1834 



Greatest 


Least 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


a 6 


1 10 


6 


8 


16 9 




19 9 




15 5 




20 3 





230 



TIDES O F THE THAMES. 

TABLB OF THE BliB AVD FAlX OF A SFBOTO AVD HXAP TIDS 

At the nndennentioned points, taken eimnlteneonsly from the Ordnenoe MetropoUaa 

Snnrey obseirittlaDe, in 1819. 

NctAr-Zno le 10 feet below the Ordneaee detom or mean half-tide lerel at Llrevpool, 
which is 12JS below Trinity high water standard. 



SPBIVO TIDS, June Mfh, 1849, 



H. 

7 30ajn. 

8 

8 30 

9 
9 30 

(0 O 

10 30 

11 
H 30 

12 



i> 




I 
I 

2 
2 
3 



30p.m, 
. 



30 


30 


3 30 

4 
30 


30 



Dcptfliovd. 



4 
6 
6 



If 



8 15 ,, 
I 1 6pjn. 



Feet 

I3.6XLW 
U.66 

ao.8< 
aj.56 

»5-77 
27. 68 

19.18 

11.68 

3».8j 

3»-7l 

»9-64 

«7-« 

»5.4« 

»J.73 
ai.ix 

ao.56 
2Sd± 






13.601.W 

• • •• 

33.141CW 



¥ 

ij.oo 

Its 

17.60 
X0.80 

2J.05 

25.-40 

30.10 
31.60 
3],. 80 
33.45HW 

J».75 
3a 95 
29.00 
27.00 
25.30 
23.80 
22.25 
20.85 



Battww 



14.15LW 



Feet 

16.05 

T5.6aLw 

17-75 
19.80 

22.15 

M*35 
26.30 

17.85 

*9'ii 
30.80 

31.85 

32.15HW 

31.20 

29.20 

27.50 

26.10 

24.70 

23.40 

22. 10 



HEAP TIDS, JUM SOfh, 1848. 



DoptfDvd. 



7 30ajn 

m 

30p.m. 


30 


30 


30 


30 


30 



• 

9 

9 

10 

10 

II 

II 

12 



1 

1 

2 

2 

3 

3 

4 

4 

6 

6 



u 



tt 



rS 6ajn. 

10 20 H 

10 40 „ 

4 lOpjn 

440 » 

« 20 .. 



Feet 
24. C7 
25.78 
27.32 
28.71 
29.62 
30*10 
29.70 
28.22 
26.J7 
24.67 
23. 10 
21.65 
ao.33 
19.00 

17.90 
16.21 

16.08 

15.49 
15.80 

17.13 
18.62 



yjp dOil 



30. 15HW 

.• • . 

.. •• 

15. 39X.W 

. 

• . .. I 



Feet 
23.70 
25.40 
27.00 

W-45 
29.60 
30.20 
30.30 

»9-|o 
27.00 
25.90 
M-40 
23.00 
21.60 
2a 30 
10.20 
18.10 

«7.«5 
16.30 

16.80 
'«»45 



30.30SW 
•• •. 

.a • • 
I5.8OX.W 



Feet 
20.90 
22.55 
24.10 

*l-75 

27.15 
28.50 

3:g 

27.50 
26.10 
24.70 

•3-45 
22.25 

21. TO 

2a 15 
10.15 
18.35 
17.65 
17.00 
10.40 
16.40 




7SL0GITISB OF THE HEAD AED FOOT OF ATIDAL WA^ 

From the abore obaerratioDt. 

8PBIEQ TIDE, Jnaa 80th, 1849. 



STATIOES 


Dii- 

tWiffffff 

Aptrt. 


Tidal 
Buge. 


Interyalof 

PaiMge 

or 


Bate per 
Kinnte. 


Foot of 
Ware. 


Head of 
Ware. 


Foot 


Head. 


Between 

Deptford snd London Bridge 

London Bridge and Battersea...... 


Feet 

20,600 
25,700 


Feet 

i9$4D 
19. 30 1 

16.S5B 


Mlns. 
20 
45 


Mine. 
30 


Feet 
1,030 

57" 
718.8 


Feet 


Dentford and Battersea 


46,800 


66 


46 


10M.8 





HEAP TIDE, Jnne 20tlL. 1849. 



STATIOHS. 



Between 
Deptford and London Bridge 
London Bridge and Battersea 

Deptford and Battersea 



Di8- 
taaoas 
Apart 



Feet 
20,600 

25,700 



46,800 



Tidal 






Feet 



Interval of 
Paaaage 



ov 



Foot of 
Ware. 



Mlns. 




Head of 
Ware. 



Mlns. 

15 

20 



86 



Bate per 
Kinnte. 



Foot 



Feet 
686.6 

64».5 
661.4 



Hwd. 



Feet 

I.373-* 
1,285.0 

1,888 



231 



TIDES OF THE THAMES. 

TSLOdllEB 07 THE HEAD AKD TOOT 07 A TIDAL WAVE, 

At a Spring and Neap Tide. fW>in St Katharine's Docks to Teddington Lock, ftom 

A£r. Page's observations in 1845. 



SPBIHO TIDE, April 85fh, 1845. 



EamM of Statioiif. 


• 

Dis- 
apart 


Tidal 
Baage 


Interval of 
Paaaage 

OF 


Bate per 
Kinute- 


Foot 

of 

WaTB 


Head 

of 
Wave 


Foot. 


Head. 


Between 
St Katharine's Docks and Battersca Br. 
Battersea Bridge and Putney Bridge .... 

Pntoej Bridge and Kew Bridge 

Kev Bddge and Teddington Look 


Feet 
29,160 
15,840 
20,700 
26,400 


Ft In. 

19-75? 

9-49K 
8.86 T 


Mlns. 
70 


Mins. 

J7 
10 

»5 
45 


Feet 

452.6 
457 


Feet 
788 

>»584 

1*980 

587 


8t Katharine's Docks and Tedding. Lock; 


101,100 


• • 


107 


046 



EEAP TIDE, Kay Lit, 1846. 



EamM of MatioBf. 



Between 
St Katharine's Docks and Battersea Br. 
Battersea Bridge and Pntnev Bridge . . . . 

Pntaey Bridge and Kew Bridge 

Kew Bridge and Teddington Look 



8t Katharine's Docks and Tedding. Lock 101,100 



Dis- 



apart. 



Tidal 
Bange 



Feet 
29,160 
15,840 
2*700 
26,400 



Foot 

of 

Wave 



Ft In. 
15. 50K 
11.5PB 

10. oP 

6.16X 
0.60 T 



Interval of 



Mins. 

85 



Head 

of 
Wave 



Mins. 
40 

JO 

20 
65 



166 



Bate per 
Kinute. 



Foot 



Feet 
J4I 



Head. 



■ ■ 



Feet 

IS 

662.6 



BB8ULT8 07 THE TIDAL OBSEBVATIOES, 

TAXaH VOR THB ORDKAKCB BUBVBT OT THS MBTBOFOLU, 
BETWEEN 19th JUNE and 19th JULY, 1849, 
Taken in 10 MimU&f obtervations. 



The zero of the heights is 20 feet below Ordnance 
datum or mean half-4ide at Liverpool. 



Highest High Water observed during the month 

Lowest Low Water „ „ 

Mean High Water for the month 

„ LowWater „ 

Mean Half-tide ^ 

Mean Half-tide at London, above approximate Half-tide 
at Liverpool 



Deptfird. 



Feet 

31 M 
10.81 
10.^ 
13.06 
22.02 

2.02 



London 
Biid^. 



Feet 

33-45 
11.75 

JI.2J 

"3.65 
22.44 

*-44 



Batter- 



Feet 
32.15 

14-45 
29.95 

15.04 

22.50 



2.50 



HEIGHT 07 TBIKITT HIGH WATEB 1IABX8 ABOVE ZEBO. 

Mark at Lomer^s Qnav, Billingsgate 32.36 Feet 

„ Hermitage Entrance. London Docks 32. 50 

„ Shadwell Entrance, London Docks.... 32.59 „ 

„ Limehonse Entrance, West India Dock Basin 32. 75 „ 

„ „ SouthDock 31.71 

„ BUekwaU Entxanee, South Dock 31. 71 ,, 

„ „ West India Dock jx.77 „ 



232 



THE BIVEBS WAVEHET ASH TABS. 

The natare of the tidal flow of these rivers is given in the throe follow- 
ing tahles, from obsenrations taken in 1 850 with great aocnrac^ , under our 
own direction. 

Uniting with the Tare between 8t. Olave^s and Bnrgh Flats, the joint 
riTers aro emptied by a long narrow channel leadine to Tannonth pier, 
abont 1) miles below the town ; this channel and the shoal expanse of 
BuTgh Flats offer great obstmction to the passage of tide and flood waters. 
The tabulated observations pass from the sea at Tarmooth and npwutb 
nntil where the river spreads into a lai^ lake called Burgh Flats ; they 
are continued by St. Olave's Bridge, where the Yare has (Uvided off from 
the Waveney proper, and pass on to Becdes. We give also the simul- 
taneous height of the water at the Mutford Lock (Waveney side), and 
of the sea at Lowestoft pier. This river is well known to be extremely 
sluggish in its tidal flow ; the form of its mouth and wide expanse <n 
Burgh Flats, with the want of a straight and deep channel, give all the 
conditions for bad propagation of the wave, consequently small oscillation 
of tide, and deficient drainage. Mutford lock is lemariiable as a point 
where local jealousy of interference with back water, now flowing out by 
the Yarmouth river, compelled the construction of a lock and gates so 
arranged as to prevent any tidal flow passing to or from die Lowestoft 
entrance ; thus destroying all chance of stimulating the tidal wave. If 
the passage were free, these two points, viz., the north side of Mulford 
lock, and Lowestoft pier, being only four miles distant, would have but 
little difference in their tidal flow, while a greatly increased fall at low 
tide would be carried on towards St. 01ave*s Bridge. This would 
benefit all interests, and prejudice none, if proper arrangements were 
made simultaneously with relation to the Yarmouth river. An immense 
district of marshes exists here, with inefficient embankments and outfall ; 
both of which might be improved bv the simple operation of dredging. 
In flood-time, the rivers between larmouth and Norwich on the east, 
and Mutford on the south, in length 26 miles apd upwards, overflow 
and submerge, unnecessarily, a great breadth of marsh lands. This 
area is very similar on a small scale to the lagoons of the American coast, 
and dates its origin probably from sinking of the interior or upheaval of 
the belt of high land which forms the sea coast between Lowestoft and 
Yarmouth. The surface strata generally partakes of the chwacter of fen 
land ; the depths of water in the channel are generally small, but there 
are exceptions where deep portions prevail either from depressions or 
tiie presence of strong bottom springs; much of the bottom soil of this 
district is light sUt for a veiy great depth, as if there were partial depres- 
sions filled up with floating lacustrine deposits. 



233 







XIDBS OP THE WATENET. 




1 


1:AXLB of tHE BIBB ABB FALL OF IHE TIDE 


▲t TBiloas pointfli taken limultaiieoasly flroiii the moath of the river et Temioath l| 




to Beoclesi and at Lowestoft. 






Datum line 6 feet below Old Zero at Mutford Bridge. 




HEAP TIDE, Xareh Slat, 1800. 


liOM. 


Tar. 

mouth 
Pier. 


Tar- 

Bunith 
Bridge. 


Burigli 
FUta. 


St 
OUTa'a. 


Burgh 

8t 
Petec'a. 


Becolaa 


Mat- 
ford 
Look, 

N. Side. 


Lowe»> 
toft 
Pier. 


H. 


M. 


Ft Tmi. 


Ft Ine. 


Ft. Ins. 


Ft Ins. 


Ft Ins. 


Ft Ins. 


Ft Ins 


Ft Ins. 




OajD 


s Si 


4 oi 


4 61 


5 I* 


$ 31 


S 5 


5 5* 


3 6 




30 . 


» «i 


3 9i 


4 41 


5 oi 


5 4* 


S 5* 


5 S* 


3 o 




n 


* 5i 


3 5* 


4 ft* 


4 II* 


5 3* 


5 5* 


5 4* 


X 6 




30 , 


» li 


3 3i 


4 I* 


4 91 


5 ft* 


5 4* 


5 3* 


ft 




„ 


I II* 


3 li 


4 o* 


4 81 


5 ft* 


S 3* 


5 ft* 


1 9 




30 n 


I 9* 


a IX* 


3 II* 


4 7* 


5 o| 


5 ft* 


5 I* 


t 6 




. 


I II* 


a lo* 


3 9f 


4 61 


4 11* 


5 M 


5 o* 


I 7 




30 „ 


> 4l 


ft II* 


3 8t 


4 Si 


4 10* 


5 o4 


4 11* 


I 10 


10 


, 


* 9* 


3 I* 


3 81 


4 41 


4 9* 


4 II* 


4 10* 


ft 5 


10 


30 , 


3 Si 


3 5* 


3 7* 


4 3f 


4 8* 


4 lo* 


4 9* 


ft II 


II 


„ 


4 0* 


3 9* 


3 9l 


4 ft| 


4 7* 


4 9* 


4 8i 


3 7 


M 


30 „ 


4 4* 


3 II* 


^ «4 


4 ft* 


4 6* 


4 8 


4 7* 


4 o 


12 


• 


4 6* 


4 I* 


4 ft* 


4 3i 


4 6* 


4 7* 


4 6* 


4 3 





30 p.m. 


4 81 


4 4* 


4 3* 


4 Si 


4 51 


4 6i 


4 Si 


4 6 


1 


„ 


4 loi 


4 6* 


4 5* 


4 6* 


4 6| 


4 6 


4 6 


4 9 


1 


30 „ 


4 "i 


4 7J 


4 61 


4 7* 


4 7i 


4 6 


4 7 


S o 


2 


„ 


5 0* 


4 8i 


4 7f 


4 •* 


4 8* 


4 61 


4 8 


6 3 


2 


30 . 


5 oi 


4 32 


4 8* 


4 9l 


4 9* 


4 71 


4 9 


5 5 


3 


„ 


4 "i 


4 3* 


4 8| 


4 10* 


4 10* 


4 9 


4 10 


5 6 




30 „ 


4 Si 


4 7i 


4 9i 


4 "1 


4 iiJ 


4 10* 


4 II 


5 4 




„ 


4 3* 


4 5* 


4 8| 


4 III 


5 0* 


4 lo* 


5 o 


4 II 




30 „ 


3 9* 


4 3* 


4 6* 


5 oi 


5 of 


5 o 


J of 


4 5 




. 


3 3i 


3 iii 


4 ft* 


4 III 


5 ti 


5 1 


S I* 


4 o 




30 , 


1 loi 


3 81 


4 ft! 


4 lof 


5 I* 


5 I* 


5 i| 


3 7 




n 


% 5* 


3 4* 


4 li 


4 9* 


5 o* 


5 I* 


5 o* 


3 o 




1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 





231 



At varlou i 


TIDB8 


OF THB WAVSRT. 






UU or THB BUE An> FAU. Of ZSV ZOQi 

wlntiy taken ■tttultamoosly from the month of the limr at Taanovth 
to Becdet and at LowMtofL 






Datom line 6 feet below Old Zero at MntAid Bridge. 


flPBIirO TIDE, KndL 89ih, 1860. 1 


lime. 


mouth 
Pier. 


Yar- 

month 
Bridge. 


Burgh 
FUti. 


8t 
OU^e'i. 


Bm^h 

ft. 
PetflK"!. 


Beeelee 


Mat- 

ftird 

Loek, 

N.SIde. 


Lowee- 
toft 
Pier. 


n. 


IC 


Ft InB. 


Ft Ins. 


Ft Ins. 


Ft Ins. 


Ft Ina. 


Ft Ins. 


Ft Ina 


Ft IlM. 


6 


OA.in 


a 6J 


» ll 


3 If 


3 "1 


4 $i 


4 64 


4 $1 






30 „ 


3 lij 


3 6i 


3 1* 


3 "i 


4 4i 


4 54 


4 44 






„ 


4 7i 


4 oi 


3 4i 


8 loj 


4 3i 


4 44 


4 34 


3 10 




30 „ 


5 oi 


4 41 


3 9i 


4 of 


4 >i 


4 34 


4 «i 






„ 


5 3i 


4 7i 


4 oi 


4 «i 


4 »i 


4 a4 


4 i4 






30 , 


5 5i 


4 9l 


4 %l 


4 3f 


4 si 


4 14 


4 i4 






„ 


$ 9i 


4 10* 


4 Si 


4 Si 


4 34 


4 1 


4 >i 






30 „ 


6 lOi 


6 Oi 


4 6i 


4 6| 


4 4i 


♦ l| 


4 4 




10 


n 


5 loi 


5 li 


4 8i 


4 St 


4 5i 


4 34 


4 Si 




10 


30 „ 


5 91 


S li 


4 9l 


4 tof 


4 7i 


4 54 


4 7 




II 


„ 


5 7J 


J li 


4 "1 


4 "1 


4 8i 


4 74 


4 84 




II 


30 n 


5 oi 


J oi 


5 of 


5 U 


4 loi 


4 94 


4 9i 




12 


„ 


4 ll 


4 sa 


S of 


5 «i 


5 oi 


4 io| 


4 Hi 







30p.in. 


3 i^i 


4 a} 


J oi 


5 3i 


5 14 


4 "1 


5 I 




1 


n 


1 61 


3 9k 


4 ll 


5 li 


S ij 


5 oi 


5 * 


3 11 


1 


30 ., 


» U 


3 6i 


4 5i 


4 "i 


5 If 


5 If 


S ^4 




2 


„ 


I 7i 


3 34 


4 2} 


4 9i 


J 14 


5 *f 


5 » 


I 11 


2 


30 ,.. 


1 I* 


1 Hi 


4 o| 


4 8i 


J o| 


5 «4 


5 1 




3 


„ 


8i 


» 7i 


3 lof 


4 61 


4 "4 


5 >4 


4 "f 


o lO 


3 

4 


30 „ 

n 


o 4i 
o *t 


» 4i 
» »i 


3 9i 

3 7f 


4 5l 
4 41 


4 loi 
4 81 


5 oi 

4 "4 


4 10 
4 94 


balowMra 


4 


30 „ 


1* 


1 oi 


3 6f 


4 31 


4 7f 


4 loi 


4 84 




6 


n 


o n 


I "i 


3 5i 


4 If 


4 6J 


4 9 


4 7 




6 

6 


30 , 
„ 


o xi 
o 3* 


« "i 
* li 


3 41 
3 31 


4 of 
3 "1 


4 5i 

4 44 


4 8 

4 6| 


4 6 
4 4f 


abow' 



235 



TIDES OP THE WATENET. 



XAXUS OF TBX00IIIE8 OF THE HEAD AVD FOOT OF TIDAL WAVE, 

FxQin TarmoaCh Pier to Beocles Bridge, Mid to Lowestoft, ftt ft Spring and Neap Tide. 



HEAP TIDE, Ibroh 21st, 1850. 



Eamas of Stations. 


Dis. 
•port 


Tidal 
Baiig« 


IntoiTalof 
Passago 

OF 


Batepor 
Ximito. 


Foot Head 

of of 

Wftre'Wave 

1 


Foot 


Head. 


Between 
7ftniimith Pter and Yftnnoath Bridge ... 
TamMmth Bridge and Borgh Flats 


Feet 
i3f86o 
xo,988 
a6^07o 
19.436 
34»9to 


Ft In. 

3 3 
I 10 
t ft 
10 
7* 
Blli 

4 


H. v. 

30 

1 30 

30 

1 30 
30 


H. IC. 
30 

30 

1 

30 

I 30 


Feet 
46* 
433 
869 

317 
116.6 

464.2 

•• 


Feet 
46ft 

700 . 

434-5 
981. ft 
388.7 


BaiKb Flats and 8t OlftTe's 

St OUre's ftod Burgh St Peter's 

Boigh St Peter's ftnd Beocles 




Tftnnoath ^er ftnd Beodles 


125,884 

38.148 


480 


4 

30 


ilfifi B 


Taimooth Pier and Loveatoft 


i£7i. 6 


t 





SPBIEO TIDE, Haieh 29th, 1850. 



HiniiM of Stations. 



Dis. 

tanooo 
apart 



Tidal 



Interval of 



Eatepor 
Kinnto. 



Baoge Foot 

Wave 



Head 

of 
Wave 



Fdot 



Head. 



Between 

. Yarmonth Pier and Yaimonth Bridge 

I 

I Yamoath Bridge and Boigh Flats 

Borgh Flats and St Olave's , 

St Olave^s and Bnrgh St Peter's 

Borgh St Petei's and Beodes 

Yarmonth Pier and Beodes 



Feet 

13,860 

20,988 

ft6,070 

a9»436 

34.980 



Yarmonth Pier and Lowestoft 



125,884 



38,148 



Ft In. 

5 9 

J ft 

I II 

I 4i 

I oi 

1 12 

7 o 



K. M. 

6 30 
I 30 
t o 
I o 
I o 



H. V. 
I O 
X o 
I o 

30 

1 o 



5 



4 80 



I o 



Feet 

46* 
46ft 

434-5 
491.6 

583 

417.8 



Feet 

ft3i 

349-8 

434-5 
981. ft 

583 
404.2 

635,8 



3m 



236 



THE BIVEB HEHE-Plate DL 

In the early part of thu century, Fen lands to an extent of at least 
S00,000 acres, drained by this river, were entirely waterlogged in mode- 
latdy wet seasons. In the past forty years, embankments have been 
improved and extended ; great drains have been cut through the em- 
banked lands, with direct outfalls on the Ouse, Nene, and Welland ; 
more recently steam has been applied to Whittlesea Mere and other low 
parts, and consequently at present there are no low counties more fireo 
from hurtful presence of water than the great delta forming the outfalls 
of the Nene, Ouse, and Welland Rivers. The great original source of 
all these improvements has been in the new deep water courses through 
the old wandering channels and shallow sea banks forming the debateable 
ground where flood waters and the tide fought for possession. 

In the year 1813 the Commissioners of uie North Level (drained by 
the river Nene) applied to Mr. Rennie for advice, which he gave in ti^e 
foUuwinjiC year ; from his observations it then appeared that the fall at 
low water Arom Sutton Wash to Crab Hole (b«low the sands of ti^e 
Wash) was 12 feet in about 4 miles ; from the surface of the water at 
Gunthorpe Sluice to Crab Hole, a distance of 5| miles, the fall was 

13 feet ; from Guy him to Crab Hole, a distance of 17 miles, the fall was 

14 feet 6 inches ; and from Peterborough bridge to the same point, a 
distance of 30^ miles, the fall was only 18 feet 6 inches. 

It appeared, therefore, evident that the great bar to the discharge of the 
waters of the Nene, and of course to the general drainage of the fens, was 
the high and shifting sands between Gunthorpe sluice and Crab Hole, 
independently of the narrow and confined state of the river above ; Mr. 
Rennie, therefore, recommended the river to be carried by a new cut, of 
a suitable capacity, across the marshes to Crab Hole, .5^ miles in length. 

The Nene outfall cut was executed under the direction of Messrs. 
Telford and Rennie, and completed in 1834 ; the original dimensions are 
given below, but the section has deepened and generally improved since 
completion ; its efi'ect! exceeded the most sanguine expectations, having 
reduced the fall between Crab Hole and Gunthorpe to about three inches 
per mile, where it was formerly more than two feet per mile ; low water 
below Sutton Bridge being now five feet below that at £ang's Lynn, on 
the Ouse. The scouring efiect was so great, that the Sutton Wash 
Bridge, erected during the progress of the work, was in great dan&er of 
being undermined, requiring stone to be thrown in, much to the detnment 
of greater improvement of the river. This was amended in 1850 
by the construction of a new bridge, after which the old one was removed. 
The siU of the North Level sluice, laid 5 feet deeper during construction 
of the Nene ontfaU, has also been lowered since this date more than two 
feet. These facts are given by Mr. Uttine, late Surveyor to the Commis- 
sioners. He states that the Nene outfall lowered the water at the North 
Level sluice ten feet ; in the town of Wisbech, spring tides rose four feet 
only, and now rise thirteen feet ; and neap tides, which in 1769 did not 
reach the town, now rise nine feet 

Li the Nene, between the North Level sluice and Sutton Bridge, the 
fall in the ordinary state of the river docs not exceed 1^ or 2 inches per 
mile ; and at the height of the flood of March, 1848, it did not exceed 4 
inches per mile ; and at the same time, the fall from the Horseshoe to the 
North Level sluice (4A miles), was only 6 inches more than ordinary. 
Below Sutton Bridge, the fall is ordinarily about 1 inch per mile, though 
the surface of low water is frequently level. 

From March 13th to 26th, 1848, low water at Sutton Bridge, was, on 
the average, 4 feet, 8.6 inches lower than at Free Bridge, on the Ouse. 



237 



The paper on arterial drainage, recently laid before the Institute of 
Civil Engineers, by Mr. R. B. Grantham, C.E., contains a vast amount 
of information on arterial drainage and outfalls. This authority nves 
the original dimensions of the lower end of the new outfall, at Cnibhole, 
width at top, 270 feet, at bottom, 165 feet ; at the upper end of Ein- 
derley's cut, width at top, 200 feet ; at bottom, 135 feet; the depth in 
both cases was 24 feet, giving 8 feet depth at low water. The cost of 
the Nene outfall cut was £200,716 for tne length of 5^ miles. 

Since its construction, more especially within the first few years after 
1830, the date of its opening, the cut scoured itself out inunensely, so 
that the present dimensions tor the upper end of the Nene outfall cut are 
about 410 feet wide at top, or at the level of high water spring tides ; 
250 feet wide at bottom, and 20 to 26 feet deep ; giving an area of 
about 7,000 to 8,000 square feet. 

The main drain of the New North Level Drainage works, which fol- 
lowed the construction of the Nene outfall, was for the first 8^ miles 
from the sluice laid eight feet deeper in level than the old shire drain, 
and with six times its sectional area; but this drain has since been 
considerably deepened. The North Level sluice had 36 feet of width 
given in lieu of 1 7 feet, and the sill was laid five feet deeper ; this has 
been, since 1851, again lowered 2 feet, owing to the advantage gained by 
rebuilding Sutton Bridge. 

The North Level Commissioners spent £150,000 on the drainage of 
200,000 acres, in addition to a contribution of £140,000 towards the cost 
of the outfall above mentioned. 

Notwithstanding the enormous advantage of this outfall to the lands 
around and below Wisbech, yet the narrowness between the banks in 
that town and its old bridge had the effect of keeping up tiie waters 
of the upper Nene, so that there was from two to four feet of fall 
through Wisbech at low water. Tables of tidal observations, shewing 
the rise, surface fall, and sectional areas of the Nene, are given at page 
238, from our own observations, taken before the execution of the 
new bridge and other improvements in Wisbech. 

The attempts which have been made to improve the river through 
and above Wisbech, have never yet been properly completed ; this is as 
much from pecuniary difiSculties as from defective engineering, for an 
enormous area of land which should have been more naturally drained 
by the Nene, with an advantage of five feet fall, is now carried by the 
Middle Level drainage into Sie Ouse. This has greatly limited the 
taxable area ; there is, however, ample inducement for an improvement 
of the Nene, both in respect of drainage and of navi^tion ; for the 
bai^s and narrows above Wisbech, esp^iaUy at Guyhim, render the 
river little better than a shallow pond; although properly improved, 
it would have a very free and oonsidenble tidal ebb and fiow, even 
at neaps. The banks in this case will require great alteration above 
Guyhim, for decidedly higher springs will be admitted up to Morton^s 
I^earn and Peterborough, if improvements are carried out in the manner 
prescribed by Parliament. 

In reference to the continued deepening so notably required for drains 
and outfalls in these fen countries, it is well known that the removal of 
water has the effect of lowering the land itself, so that steam draining 
engines require to be altered from time to time as they efiect the drainage 
of the surrounding lands ; the same cause has always necessitated the 
deepening from time to time of drains in fen lands onginally constructed 
in the most effective manner. The early history of all new sea endosores 
and drainages is that of progressive improvement. 



19 



238 



TIDBS OF THE HEHE. 

IDDES JJTO HSeHIB 07 HieH AITB £0W WAXKE, AT SPBOTe 

AlTD BBAP TODSB, 

WI£h SeetloDfll Area, Width and Depth at eiflh plam. 

From olMerratlons taken imder the diiectton of J. IL Bendel, Eaq., F JL8. 
Datwm (Xa«fth» Forth Lmi SMm. 



Btetioni 

Md Seotlona of 

BlTerat 

High Water. 

Apxil 171^,1861. 



Bpring lide, April 17, 18ffl 



IMfl. 



High Water. 



Time. 



Height 



Lev Water. 



Time. 



Height 



Heap Tide, April 84, IBSL 



High Water. 



Time. 



Height Time. 



Ijov Water. 



Helgbt 



??• 



BqJI. It. 

Horaeahoe 

Phl1Iipa*BrBverf 
i$63 iioxio 

WaUemaBlniQe 
1464 11XX13 

Qnyhini.......M... 

Mia 140x14 

CroaaQanfl .... 



4»« 57X»» 
Dog and Doublet 

7)6 Six 8 
Peterborough . 

500 fox 9 



Feet. 



■ 6^600 

I^50G 

17,160 



>a|,a8a| if 5 

p.m. 
17,7101 I 5 



I05»6(H> 



H. X. 

a.m. 
« II 
8 ao 

8 50 

9 10 
10 o 



Ft IsJ 

ao o 

19 6 

19 I 

18 9 

16 9 

16 6 

16 5 



I 30 

5 10 

6 o 

7 15 

8 o 

9 5 

II o 



Ft XaJ 

5 3 
8 6 

II I 
i| 6 
14 10 
16 5 
16 7 



pjn. 

SS 

1 5 

a 10 

I 5J 
I IJ 
4 10 
6 10 



Ft IB^ 

ij o 

ti 9 

IJ o 

14 » 

n 9 

«i I 

16 o 



K. X. 



9 o 
9 45 

10 |o 
pjn. 

10 

1 so 
a ao 

4 10 



Ft In. 

5 « 

7 7 

9 " 
n 9 

»5 » 

16 o 






DTOuarAnov of bheb nxnEiPACs at tiicsb of high ahd low 

WATER AT WI8BSAGE. 



Btattmif 

and Beetlona of 

Riyerat 

Low Water, 

AprU 17th, 1861. 



Aim. Wdth. Dpch. 
Bq.Ft Ft. Ft. 

HOTMlhoe 

Wiaheaoh Bridge 

FhlUip^B 

460 Sox S 
Waldenea Slnioe 

709. 7«x«l 
Qmrhlm.......... 

67S i}ox 9 
CruMQana .... 

J17 45x10 
Dog and Doablet 

7J0 Six S 
FeterfMnongh . 

500 60X 9 



IMl. 



Feet |Ft In. 
10 o 



4,610 

i 1,980 
I*. 540 
i6,soc 
17,160 
ai.oSo 
17,710 

106.600 



Spring Tide, April 17, 1861 



Height on 
Qange. 



At 

H.W. 



19 10 

»9 I 
18 6 

17 o 



16 

16 
16 7 



I* 
3 



At 
L.W. 



Ft. la 

5 3 

7 * 

« 5 

II a 

«4 3 

15 o 

16 J 
16 7 



Inclination 
^ Mile. 



At 

H.W. 
FalL 



Feet 

*. 

.185 
1. 120 

.IS7 

•480 

.17c 

Biae. 

.015 

.a6j 



At 

L.W. 
Riae. 



Feet 

■• 
a. 091 

3.147 
1. 157 

.985 

.1)0 

.16) 
.06) 

.666 



Heap Tide, April 84, IML 



Heighten 
Qange. 



At 
H.W. 



Feet 

I) o 

11 10 
11 7 
la o| 
II II 
>3 » 
'5 » 
«5 6 



At 
L.W. 



Feet 

5 6 

6 7 

7 « 
10 o 

U II 

13 * 

15 I 

IS 6 



laoliiiation 
^HUe. 



At 

H.W. 
Fall. 



Feet 

.. 

.185 

.666 

.117 

Riae. 

.181 

.077 

.400 

.080 

J86 



At 

L.W. 
Riae. 



Feet 

•• 

i.»)4 

1.880 

.9B1 

*934 
.077 
.400 
.060 

loo 



239 



THE BIVER OXTSE, 

Another of the riven emptying into the Wash, has a marked hore, which, 
like that of the Serem, is created bj the shoals at the mouth below 
Ljnn, causing a mater fall at the outlet than further up the river. 
We believe this wiU be found to be universally the case where the bore 
prevails. The ocean tidal wave comes up from deep water, and meeting 
with the sudden rise and resistance of the bed, the wave assumes a head 
which, too great for its depth, topples over in the characteristic fonn of 
the bore. 

The Eau Brink cut, originally projected by Mf. Kathaniel Kinderley, 
in tiie year 1720, was completed bv Mr. Rennie in 1825, according to 
the award of Messrs. Huddkrt and Mylne ; its object was to conduct the 
waters of the river Ouse by a direict cut across the marshes from Eau 
Brink to Lynn, a distance of two miles and a half, instead of 
allowing them to flow by the old circuitous channel, upwards of five 
miles in length. 

The area of Eau Brink cut, just below Freebridge, at low water 
spring tides, or 2 ft. 3 ins. on Freebridge gauge, is 2,620 square feet, the 
depth then being 11 ft. d ins. and width at water line 312 feet. 

The area at high water springs, risine to 16 ft. 9 ins. on the same gauge, 
is 7,879 square feet, the depth then being 26 ft. 3 ins., and width at 
water Une 412 feet. 

Li December, 182V, the tide rose on the average eleven feet ten inches 
on the siU of Old Denver Sluice ; while at low water the average depth 
on the sin was 9.6 inches. 

Since the completion of the Eau Brink Cut, the results have been* — 

That the low-water marie has fallen six feet lower than it formerly 
stood at Denver Sluice, and from eight to nine feet at Eau Brink: 

That the spring tides now rise at Denver Sluice thirteen feet, an4 
neap tides eight feet : 

That the river has deepened between Danver Sluiee and Eau Brink 
ten feet upon the average, and its general sectional area has increased 
naturally since the spring from one-fourth to one-third : 

That the low-water nuokin Lynn harbour has fallen four feet, and the 
navigable channel in Lynn harbour has deepened seven feet ; and that 
where they were formerly twelve feet in depth of water in the inter- 
cepted bed of the old Ouse between Eau Brink and Lynn, there is now 
a tnd of 900 acres of land under cultivation, fill of which has been 
effected by the process of warping. 

The tide in the Eau Brink flows three hours, and rises iH that time 
fifteen f^t, at spring tides, thus leaving nine hours of ebb ; the young 
flood then assumes all the characteristics of a bore, rising at the first two 
minutes from one to three feet, and subsiding again, for a short time, to 
half the first height when the wave has passeu on. 

Between February 2l8t and April 2nd, 1848, during the prevalence of 
the heaviest flood that had occurred for several years, the average fall per 
mile on the surface of low water, from Denver Sluice to Free Bridge, was 
under 7} inches per mile, and the maximum inclination was, on March 
23rd, less than 9 inches per mile. Also, during the six weeks' flood, 
from October 9th to November 19th, 1848, the average fall was less than 
7 ins. per mile, and the maximum under 9 ins. permile. During the fourteen 

*> This sketch of the leralts of the Eaa Brink Cat is chiefly from Mr. Q. Iletuale*8 
Report on Hjdiwilies ; the work was finished in 1821, at a cost of £600,000, 
distribated over an area of 260,000 acres. About 160,000 aores of this level have 
since borne the coet of the lliddle Leve 1 Drainage works, amoonting to more 
than £410,000, as executed betweenl 847 and 1862. The general eflbet of the Middle 
Level Drainage worka has been to lower the waters six feet throughout the level. 



240 



weeks, from November 15th, 1847, to Febroaiy 20th, 1848, the arerage 
fall was 6| ins. per mile ; and from Norember 15th, 1847, to April 
16th, 1848, the average fall was less than 7 ins. per mile. 

On the 16th Jul/, 1849, the total fall from Denver Sluioe to Free 
Bridge, was only 2 ft. 9 ins., or 2.6 ins. per mile, for 12 miles 5 furlongs. 

Notwithstanding the enormous improvement bj the £au Brink Cut, 
low water spring tides at King*s Lynn were about five feet higher than 
in the roads at the entrance of the river, owing to the circuitous course 
of the channel, and the prevalence of banks of sand and mud. To 
remedy these defects and to form the great Bstuaiy of the Wash 
enclosure. Sir John Bennie designed a new outfall from opposite 
King's Lynn to the Roads, a length of four miles, which luis the 
practical effect of bringing dead low water up to Lynn, or, in other 
words, lowers the water at the end of Eau Brink Cut from 5 to 6 feet. 

This new cut is 250 feet wide at bottom, and 500 feet wide at top, and 
82 feet deep; it is 14 ft. 3 ins. deep at low water spring tides, or 
2 ft. 3 ins. on Freebridge gauge, with an area at low water line of 
3,960 square feet, and width of 355 feet. 

The depth of the cut at high water spring tides, or 1 6 ft. 9 ins. on 
Freebridge gauge, was designed to be 28 ft. 9 ins. with an area at low water 
line of 9,990 square feet, and width of 474 feet. 

The cut passes inland for two miles, and the remaining two miles 
crosses the channel and sand banks of the estuaiy into L}iin deeps ; the 
first portion, containing about four millions of cubic yards, was executed 
very rapidly (say two years) in 1851-52, by the vigorous i^jpU- 
ances of Messrs. Peto and Betts, forming a work at the present 
moment highly interesting to an engineer. 

Fen land ranges from 8 to 1 4 ft. above dead low water at sea; it is there- 
fore evident that fall is of the utmost importance, seeing that some of 
the lowest parts are 23 to 30 miles from the final outfall at sea. 

The present Nene and Ouse are essentially artificial rivers, and the 
tidal fiow is maintained by embankments of expensive character, 
some portions of which date from the Roman era, but the more important 
and B>''stematical banks have been made since a.d. 1639, which is the 
date of the Great Bedford Level Embankments. Modem work has been 
properly applied rather to deepening than embanking, except in those 
cases where the latter necessarily formed part of the worii ; Yermuden, 
and Kinderlcy and others, between 1721 and 1770, were Uie first who 
struck out the essentials of good drainage, viz., the efficient outfall cuts ; 
it is fair, however, to remark that good banks must always precede good 
drains in newly embanked countries. 



THE BIYEE HUMBEE. 

We have not access to any complete engineering survey of the tides of 
the Humber ; and can therefore only give the entire particulars of spring 
and neap tide at Grimsby ; diurnal inequality appears to be strongly 
marked here. Humber tides are strong, and, like the Ouse, Severn, and 
Mersey, carry much silt, depositing it capriciously wherever an oppor- 
tunity offers, and readily cutting out deep cliannels in the bed when 
tidal stream is diverted on any spot, from general or accidental causes. 
The great tidal flow of this river and its deep channels intersecting 
the delta of the Trent and other rivers of which the Humber is the 
Tidal Estuaiy, ofier much facility for the effective drainage of the vast 
area of marsh lands bordering upon its ramifications ; the silt deposited at 
ebb tide is also of great benefit m warping and fertihzation. 



tun a mwi MB ths bisx An tall oi a ersnrs t heap nsi, 

Tl«sUi6r with Ik* ndml Bun uul B«ml-dliirul IndinialltT ftn thna nsM^i 



87RIK8 TIDBfl. 



m. rtliu 
30 ;m 



tH 















HBA? XIDEB. 



IM 



^1" 

'Pis 



.i-jw 






242 



THE RIVER TAT. 

This riTBT is subject to gre»t floods, fvom the numntainoas character 
of its source; below Perth it becomes a tidal estuary, in which vast 
quantities of material from the Grampians have been deposited. 

Previously to 1 836 the river between Perth and Newburgh was obstructed 
by sand banks and boulders. Great improvements were eflbcted on this 
upper tidal portion, under direction of Messrs. Stevenson, of Edinburgh, 
who dredged out in this division 815,000 tons, between 1835 and 1841, 
at an expense of about £53,000. 

In a report, made in 1845, by these gentlemen, to the conservators of 
the river, they describe the Tay as draining 3,283 square miles, and having 
a mean dischaige at Perth of 218,158 cubic feet per minute*'; about seven 
miles below that city, the Earn adds its volume, giving, by the Aune 
authority, a mean discharge of 54,959 cubic feet per minute. 

The head of navigation at Perth is 23 miles from Dundee, and 32 
from the German Ocean, but the tide extends to 2^ mUes above Perth. 

The extreme tides from neaps to springs : — 

At Dundee, range from 7 to 18 feet. 
At Newburgh, „ „ 6.5 to 15 „ 
At Perth, ,* „ 6 to 13 „ 

The depth of water in the Frith ranges from 36 to 54 feet at high 
water, the bar having about 34 feet at spring tides. From Frisk point to 
Newbuigh the river gradually shoals from 30 feet to 18 feet ; and from 
Newburp^h to Perth, from 18 to 15 feet at high water spring tides; the 
navigable breadth being scarcely ever less than 100 yards. 

Previous to the commencement of Messrs. Stevenson's improvements, 
the river was impeded by fords and salmon weirs, or fishings, so that 
vessels drawing from 10 to 11 feet frequentlv missed even spring tides. 
The river was also obstructed by large boulders. The works executed 
were, in the words of the report : — 

** First. — The fords, and many intennediate shallows, were deepened 
by steam dre(\ging ; and the system of harrowing, which was so suc- 
cessfully practised on the Mersey, was employed on some of the softer 
banks on the lower part of the river. 

" Second. — ^The lai^ge detached boulders and fishing-cairns, which ob- 
structed the passage of vessels, were removed by means of lighten, 
mounted with cranes, and by pontoons. 

" Third. — ^Three subsidiaiy channels at Sleepless, Dany, and Balhep- 
bum islands, were shut up by means of embankments formed of Uie 
produce of the dredging, so as to confine the whole of the water to the 
navigable channel. 

<• Fourth. — In some places the banks on each side of the river beyond 
low water mark, where much contracted, were excavated and removed, 
in order to equalize the currents, by allowing sufficient space for the free 
passage of the water. 

*' ^fth. — A great part of the dredged material was deposited along 
the banks of the river in a careful manner, so as to fonn new Fishing 
Beaches, to compensate for the removal of others/' 

The commercial effect of these improvements shew that in 1833, 12 
^— ^-^— ^— ■ ■ — ^^— ■' » »— —I— .^i^— ^^—^ 

• Ajooording to this, the amoont ran off the snrftMW would represent about 21.5 
inches in the year. The ordinary sanuner nm (July) of the Tay at Perth, amounts 
to 00,000 cubio feet per minute, or 26 cubic feet per minute per square mile, but 
in a dry autonm there is not above two-thirds of this quantity. Hini floods in the 
Tay have discharged, for more than twenty-four hours consecutively, as much as 
e00,000 cubic fleet per minute, or 286 cubic feet per square mile, or nearly three- 
sixteenths of an inch in depth over the sorfbce run off. 



I 



24f3 



YesfldB of 100 to 144 tons and upwards, freqnented the port ; while in 
1844 there were 87 reflselB, from 100 to 400 tons, and the oaatoms rose 
from £2,969 to £16,837. 

We hare given in a table at page 244 (from Messrs. Stevenson's report) 
the chief phenomena of the velocity of the tidal wave and iidlof the river 
surface, which have a relation to each other in the inverse ratio of the 
square root of the rate of fall. For instance, between Newbuigh and 
Perth the low water surface fall. 

In 1833 was .467 feet per mile. Velocity of wave 301 feet per minute. 

In 1844 „ .233 „ Velocity of wave 452 „ 

From this it results that Uie tide begins to flow now fif^ minutes sooner 
at Perth than before the improvements. 

The result of observations in 1833 and 1844, at KewbuTgh, shew tiiat 
the duration of flood and ebb tides at that place are unc^nged^ The 
times are as follows : — 



20 
20 
30 
45 



Spring tides flow 4 

,) vOD ••■ ... «•• 4 

Keap tides flow ... 4 

„ ebb 6 

At Perth, in 1833,— 

Spring tides flowed 2 20 

„ ebbed 7 

Keap tides flowed 3 15 

„ ebbed 7 

At Perth, in 1844,— 

Spring ddes flowed 8 10 

„ ebbed 7 10 

Neap tides flowed 3 10 

„ ebbed 7 0. 

Increase of duration flood at Perth 50 
In 1833 the river ran at its natural level at spring 

wue ... ... ... ... ... .*• ... ... ... • 4w 

In 1844 it runs at its natural level at spKng tide 1 
Giving a decrease in the time of standmg at low 
water, or in the absence of tidal influence at 

Perth, at spring tides, of 45 

We have abstracted these facts at some length, because the Tay is a 
most striking instance of the advantages of expediting the tidal wave 
and flow, by the formation of a uniform passage, without any violent 

changes in the form of the channel itBelf, and at a comparatively mode- 
rate expense. 



2M 



TIDES OF THE TAT. 

BX8VLT8 OF TIBAL OBSSBYATIOVff, 

Made at Tarlons times between 1683 and 1844» bj Meun. Steyonion of Edinbnrglk^ 
■hewing the reeolti of the Improyementa in the river, by dredging, &c. 





UftUM. 


1888*1884. 


1848,1848, 
•ndl844. 






Diir. 

of 
H.W. 


Vel. of 

Tidal 

Wave 

perMln. 


IMff. 

of 

H.W. 


Vel. of 

Tidal 

Waye 

per Min 


Time. 


Velocity 
M^ute, 


Between 
I>andee and Babnerino ...... 

Balmerlno'andFllBk Point 
Fliak Point and Balmbreioh 
Balmbrelch and Newbnxgfa 
Mewborgh (a) and Perth (6) 


Feet 

ad, 400 

«5.47o 
10,771 

18,058 
45.197 


Mina 
16 

51 
ISO 


Feet 

1.650 

533-4 
4I4>3 

140.7 

JOI.J 


Mins. Feet JMlns. Feet 

.same as in the yean 1889 
r and 18S4 

too 45s 1 50 1 >50.7 


Dundee and Perth ^.......... 

HewboTgh (a) and ClHrpoii... 
Canxni and Kinfi^nn* 


116,896 

7»o»» 
»5.9»5 
ix,x5o 


874 488.9 

C not 7 
■< observed >- 


884 

»5 
55 

10 


817.4 

a8i. 

6fa.5 


80 


94.6 


KinlknnB and Perth (6) ..».. 


I In 1884 j 


1 
1 



IXYBL8 OF EIOH WIIEB BVBF ACS. 

The tefelB of the sorfree of high water» at dlffarent stations, hare been found to bo 
unchanged, and the following results refer to the yean 1888 and 1844. 





IMfl. 
trninot 


Spiinf Tide, 
1883i 1844. 


Heap Tide, 
1888 k 1844. 


Jtatiau. 


Rise. 


FaU. 


Batepei 
Mile. 


SIse. 


FalL 


Rate per 
Mile. 


Between 
Fliak Peint and Balmbreieh 
Balmbivich and Nqwbnigh 


Feet ' 

10,771 
18,058 

45.197 


Feet 

• • 

.6a 
1.00 


Feet 

.4« 

•• 
•• 


Feet 
.ao6 
.181 
.117 


Feet 

*• 
.50 

T.OO 


Feet 

IT 

• • 

• • 


Feet 
.109 
.T45 
.T17 





LXVEI8 OF LOW WATSB SUBFAGE. 






IMfl. 

taneei. 


Spring Tide, 


Spring Tide. 
1844. 


8tatioii^ 


Klie. 


Kate per 
MUe. 


Biae. 


Bate per 

Mile. 


Between 
Fliak Point and Balmbreldi ... 

Newbnrgh and Perth....^......... 


Feet 
io»77T 
18,058 

45.197 


Feet 

•IS 

xM 

4.00 


Feet 

.161 

i.)04 

.467 


Feet 

•13 
a.66 

a. 00 


Feet 

.161 

1.904 



H Ks . The result of the otaerratlons in 1844, giTes a depraseton on the level ef 
wmtermark of 8 feet^ at Perth Ifderi Jk r ftoir , the point to which Perth obeerva- 



245 



iMB-M»baHMiMHI 



THE BIVEB TTHE.— Plate JX. 

This riyer presented a great field for improyement, which is now being 
applied to it on an immense scale. The Conmiissioners of the T^ne are 
forming veiy extensive piers, with a view of concentrating tidal Gow 
over the bar, and eventually forming a harboor of refnge ; this work is 
tinder the advice of Mf^srs, Walker, Burges and Cooper. 

Concnnentlj with these piers, the Commissioners are abont io deal 
boldly with Uie river itself; this work is now commenced by Mr. lire, 
their engineer, who has constmcted an enormous dredging engine, 
adapted to nm oat into the seaway in order to execute effective dredging of 
the bar itself, as we^ as the other parts of the nver ; this i» the lund of 
operation most adapted to the power of modem appliances, and it may 
be predicted that the results of thorough dredging at the bar will be not 
less beneiiciai than surprising. 

Hitherto the River Tyne has suffered grievously ftom its bar, and also 
from being subject to great floods at th^ point where ^e tide meets, 
which in the course of ages have brought down heavy gravel deposits. 
These floods, from want of proper train and regularity of conservation, 
do great harm when they might be productive of good. The bar of the 
Tyne has a very serious effect on the general ntili^ of the river ; for it is 
literally a weir preventing the proper flow and ebbof the tidal waters, which 
arc again further checked by tne large expanse of Jarrow Slake within the 
river mouth (like the Burgh flats on the Wftveney); these causes unite 
greatly in checking the concentration of tidal flow up stream. Immense 
docks have recenti^ been completed at Hayhole and Jarrow, which will 
assist both by affording a better channel, ahd by the revenue created by 
them. The section of this river as it stood in 1850 exhibits manifest capa- 
bility of improvement, especially if combined with cutting off some of the 
-worst bends (a very costly work), which is proposed by the present 
engineer. This is shewn in plate IX., which also exhibits the surface 
slopes formed by high and low waters at different periods for a spring tide 
of May 2nd, and neap tide of April 2nd, 1850, as more particularly 
described in the tidal observations at pages 246-7. The facts arising 
out of these are given in pages 248-9, viz., velocity of tidal wave, slope 
of surface, and sectional area of the river. In a few years time, if the 
present style of works are persevered in, a careful set of similar experi- 
ments will shew most remarkable alterations for the better, as in the 
Thames and the Clyde. 

In dealing with rivers or creeks of the character of the Tyne, it 
cannot be too strongly kept in view that the original form is caused 
mainly by geological dislocations, not materially by any action of the 
water. The natural action of flood waters in such small creeks, merely 
tends to fill up, and make shoals or sand banks, but not efiectually to 
remove matenid ; nor is this the work of a day, but of very long periods 
of time. It may be doubted whether any changes of riverbeds are great 
on the broad scale in any limited period of time, except in those rivers 
running in their own alluvium, and in this case, as with rivers having 
wide sands for their bed, the sreat apparent changes are generally only 
local. See plate XVI. as to uie Ganges, where figs 2 and 3 exhibit a 
specimen of the sand -banks and wandering courses of that variable 
river^ 



246 



TIDES OF THE TTHE. 



TABLE OF THE BI8E AHB FALL OF XHB THXE, 

At TMioufl pointi^ takoi Blmnltaiieoiulx firom the moath of the riyer to NewlmrDi 
under the dizeoUon of J. M. BendeU Eaq^ F JUS. 

Zero Is the mark at Prioi's Stonei heing Ixrtr Water of May diet, 1818. 



8PBIHG TIDIS, Xa? 8th, 1850. 



Time. 



B. M. 

10 SOajn. 

11 , 

11 30 ^ 

12 „ 

30 pjo. 
« „ 

1 30 „ 

2 „ 

2 30 » 

3 , 

3 30 » 
♦ „ 

4 30 ,. 

» , 

8 30 , 
8 , 

6 30 , 

7 „ 

7 30 , 

8 „ 

8 30 ^ 

9 , 
9 30 „ 

10 „ 

10 30 „ 
«i „ 

11 30 , 

12 » 

30ajii. 
« , 

1 30 „ 
I 60 „ 



4 
5 



Fzioi'8 
Stone. 



Ballast 
Oflioe. 



Ft. Ins. Ft Ins 
I0«5a.m 



16 
16 



6 46 



If 



lOLW 

1 % 
% I 
I * 

4 6 
6 % 

5 o 
9 lo 

II a 

II 1 

It 9 

13 2 

II * 
It t 

II 10 
lO II 

9 8 
8 o 

6 4 
4 «o 
1 7 
* 7 
I 8 
I I 

O IILV 



I 
I 

t 
i 

4 
6 

7 
9 



3LW 

5 

o 

i 

6 • 



9 
6 



lO ID 
IZ O 

la 8 
13 Z 
ij o 
la lo 
i» 3 



II 

lo 

9 
7 
6 

4 
3 
a 
I 
I 
I 



3 

a 
o 
6 
o 
8 

7 
7 
9 
5 

ai.w 



How- 
don. 



Ft Ids. 
11 19 

I lOLW 

I II 

a II 

4 » 



Bill 
Point 



Ft Ida. 



6 

i| 

9 

3 

6 



I] JRW 



5 

7 
8 

lo 

II 

I* 5 
13 

13 4HW 

II o 

la a| 

II I 

10 zi 

9 6 
8 3 
7 o 
J 10 

4 9 
1 10 

3 o 

» 5 

III 
I 91.W 



IS iSpA. 

} aLW 



Old 

Quay. 



Ft Ina. 



3 

4 

S 

7 

9 
10 

II 



5 

4 
6 

3 

o 

7 
9 



12 8 
'3 li 



13 
la 

la 
II 
10 

9 
8 

7 
6 
6 

5 

4 
4 
3 
3 
3 



311W 

9 

a 

5 

6 

6 

5 

6 

Si 

o 

3 

9 
3 
9 
5 

aLW 



1146 

3 4^w 

■3 " 

4 11 
6 41 

8 l| 

9 7l 
10 II 

12 

la 9 

I 
a 

9 
o 

a 
3 
4 
6 
8 
o 
3 

71 
o 

6 

o 
7 

5LW 



Els- 
wiek. 



Ft Ina. 



>3 
13 
la 

la 

^1 

10 

9 
8 

7 

7 
6 

5 
5 

4 
4 
3 
3 



5 41.W 

5 « 

6 10 

8 o» 

10 10 
la o 
la io| 

13 41 

a 

6 

9 

o 



Stella. 



Ft Ins. 



Vew- 
Inini* 



Ft Ins. 



8 19 
8 0|LW 

8 a 

9 



'3 
la 
II 
II 

10 



0* 
10 II 

ti 5 

13 6 

13 7* 

IX 10 

Ma I 
" 5 






IJ 4HW 



3 

9 6 
8 II 

8 3 



9 
5 

o 

7 
3 
5 " 

5 7i 

5 5i 

5 44Lvr 



10 

10 

9 
9 



9 

a 

9 
3 



8 II 
8 8 



8 

8 
8 

8 



6 

4 
3 

a 



8 i| 
8 I 

8 o|lw 



IS 9»* 



II 
la 

>3 
13 
13 
la 
II 
II 
II 
II 



ILW 

3 

6 

9 

o 

3 
9 
3 
I 



1} lOBW 



r 



24T 



XISBS OV THE TTHE. 



TABU OF TSB SI8B AlTD FAIL OF TBI TIBS, 

At Tsrlou poiata, taken sbaultoneouBlx fixnn the month of the river to Newhnm, 
under the dlieetion of J. M. Bendel, Eaq^ FJt.8. 

Zero ie the mark at Priox'a Btone^ being Loir Water of May Slat, 18^8. 



HEAP TIBE, April 2Ad, 1849. 



nme. 



45 ajD. 

^ n 

30 , 

« 

„ 

30 , 

-i 



4 
t 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
8 

8 30 , 

9 „ 
9 30 , 

10 » 

10 30 „ 

11 ^ 

11 30 . 

12 , 

30 pjm, 

1 
I 30 


30 


30 


30 

n 
30 , 

. 
30 . 



Stono. 



Priai'f BaOast 



Offioo* 



2 
2 
3 
8 
4 
4 
6 
6 
6 
6 
7 
7 
8 
8 



u 

» 

n 

u 
» 
» 



30 , 

. 
30 . 



12 ISpjn. 
♦ 48 „ 

7 15 . 



Ft. Ina. 

i 9 

3 >o 

4 » 
6 

o 



4 
5 
5 
6 

7 
8 



9 
8 

7 
6 



II 2HW 



• • 
4 " 
4 ft 
3 6 
% II 
a 8lw 



Ft. Ina. 
4 o 

3 iiLw 

J"* 

4 » 

4 7 

5 4 

6 o 

7 o 

7 10 

8 lo 

9 « 

ID 4 

10 10 
II 
II 
II 

lO 
lO 

9 
8 

7 
6 

5 



How- 

ttOlLt 



Ft Ina. 
4 5 

4 3 
4 o|lw 



a 

o 

7 
o 

a 

3 

4 

6 

6 
4 10 
3 lo 
3 5 
3 o 
a IILW 



4 
4 
5 

5 

6 

7 



I 
81 

7» 
6 

> 5i 

9 3 

to X 

10 8| 

11 fi 

tl 5HW 

II a| 

10 10 

10 4 

9 6 
8 8 

7 lo 
6 Hi 
6 I 

4 
8 
I 

7i 
3i 



BiU 
Pdnt 



Ft. Ina 



4 
4 
5 

5 

6 

7 
8 



5 

4 
4 
3 
3 
3 



9 

I 

6 

a 
I 
o 

9 o 

9 lo 

10 7 

11 a 
II 6k 

II 8|HW 

II 7 
II o 

lo 4 

9 7 
8 lo 

8 a 

7 6 
6 lo 
6 3 
5 9 
I 3 
4 » 
4 4 
4 » 



Old 
Quay. 



Ft. Ina 



5 >»i.w 

5 3 

6 o 
6 II 

7" 8* 

8 7 

9 * 

10 3 

lO II 

" 5 



II 

II 
II 

lo 

lO 

9 



7 
8 

a 

7 
o 

3l 



widL 



Ft Ina. 



7 

7 

7 
8 



4 ILW 



8 7* 
8 o 

7 5 
6 II 

6 4 



5 

I 
5 

4 
4 
4 



9 
5 

o 

7* 

4 

aLW 



II 8|HW 



9 

9 II 

10 8 

11 4 

II 10 



aLW 

3 
8 

Si 

a 



Stdla. 



Ft Jna. 



Hew- 
hunu 



Ft Iw. 



t 49 
9 9«'W 

9 lo 

10 4 



II o 
II 7 
la o 



II lOHWll I 



II 
II 

lO 
lO 

9 

9 
8 

8 



7 
I 

7 

1 

7 

I 

8 

3l 

7 " 

7 7 

7 3i 

7 « 
6 II 

6 9 
6 7 
6 6lw 



II io| 
II 7 

" 3 

10 II 

lo 7 
K) 3| 

lO o 
9 >ol 

9 n 



9 
9 
9 
9 



7* 
5f 

SLW 



la i|inr 



11 i» 
la 7 

»* 7f 
la lo 

la iiBV 
la lo 
la 9 
la 8 
la 6} 
lA 5| 
la 4 
I* 3 



la aLW 



248 



mmm 



TIDES OF tHE TTSTL 



YELOCmSS 07 IHE HEAD AITB FOOT 07 A TODAL WATS, 

At ft SpilUg ftoA Ktep Tide, ftom the moatli of the rlrer to Newbam. 
From olMBiTftttoiui taken under the dlrecOoa of J. K. B«adel| Eaq^ FJLS. 



8PBIV0 TIDE, Xky 8th, 1850, ona day after 7iiU Xoan. 



Vamai of Stetimi* 



Dia- 
tanaaa. 



Tidal 
Baaga. 



Interval of 
Paaaage 



OP 



Foot 

of 

WaVe 



Head 

of 
Wave 



Bate par 
Kinuta. 



Foot 



Head. 



Between 
Tynemontli Haven and Prioi's Stone. 

Prioz'B Stooe and Ballaet Offloe 

Ballast Oflloe and Howdon...............* 

Howdon and Bill Point \ 

Bill Point and Old Qoay. ..^.. 

Old Qoay and Elnrick 

Elawlek and Stella 

Stella and Mewtmm 

Tyndmouth and Newbum 



Feet 

!J,«)0 

10,064 

IX, 804 

18,94a 

7.5*4 



Ft. In. 



84,644 



•% 
a 
'a 
I 
o 

8 
5 

9 



4P8 

oBO 

6E 

iBP 

oOQ 

<4E 

8A8t 

9H 



Mine. 

• ■ 

10 

60 

60 
9d 

75 



Mine. 

'5 
»5 

ts 

»5 
fo 

X5 

• • 

15 



360 



120 



Ft 

. ■ 
X59.6 
440.0 

334*4 
519.1 

113.4 
aio.5 
100.3 

868.9 



Ft 

176.0 
1J9.6 
88ao 
8oi.6 
77«.8 
853.6 

• m 

501.6 

788.7 



HEAP TIDE, A^rU 2nd, 1849. 



Bamai of Stttioni. 



Between 
Tynemoath Haven and Prioi's Stone. 

Piiora Stone and Ballast Of&oe 

Ballast Offloe and Howdon.......... 

Howdon and Bill Point 

Bil^oint and Old Qoaj 

Old Qoay and Elswiok 

Elswick and Stella 

Stella and Newbon 

Tynemoalh and Mewbom ....... ........ 



IMa* 



^eet 

1,640 

3.894 
13,100 
10,064 

«5.576 

ii»8o4 

18,941 

7.5M 



Tidal 
Baaga. 



Intenralof 
Paaiaga 



OF 



Foot 

of 

Wave 



Ft In. 

7 
7 
7 

7 

7 
6 

4 

1 



94,6441 



6P 
3BO 
4iB 
oBF 

70 a 

8B 

4 8t| 



Kins. 

>5 
15 

10 
40 
10 
80 

90 
90 



890 



Head 

of 
Wave 



Mine. 

15 
X5 

30 

15 



15 



180 



Bate per 
Xinnta. 



Foot 



Ft 

176.0 
159.6 
440.0 

501.5 
519.1 
i6a5 
110.5 
83.6 

848.7 



Head. 



Ft 

176.0 
*5«^6 
440.0 
668.8 
1038.4 



501.6 
788.7 






249 



TIDES OF THE TTHE. 



tVdllVATIOV 07 VATSB itirBFAOS 

▲t flM timM of Hl^lk ftod Imw Water, at TTnamoath Haren and at Kewlmrni trltli 

Fall of River Bed» Seotional Area, Ac 

Zero Is the Mark at Prior's Stone, lielng Loir Water of Maj 81st, Idld. 
8PBIV0 TIDE, Xky 8fh, 1850. 



Wlm High 

and Low Water 

at Tynemotifh 

Hayaau 



Tynamoath HaTen., 

Priox'B Stone 

Ballast Office 



taaoes. 



«eet* 

•■ 
1,640 

3*894 

Howdon \ 1 J, aoo 

ao,o64 

1.J86 
11,418 
18,941 

7»5M 



BUI Point 

OldQoay ........ 

Mansion House 

Elswidk 

Stella 

Mewlmm 

Arerage.. 



Haigliton 
Oavge. 



At 
H.W. 



Ft In. 



13 

"3 
13 
13 
la 

IS 



4 

1 

X 

o 
8 

o 



II II 

10 10 

9 o* 

11 I 



At 
L.W. 



Ft. In. 
o 8 

O II 

> 5 
* 5 

4 9 

5 74 
5 " 

7 5 

8 8 

II c4 



Ayaraga 

IneUnatini 

par Vila. 



AtH.W. 
FalL 



»4,B44 

Average fiUl to Stella 



Feet. 

•333 

• ■ 

^064 
.087 

.ISO 

.|t6 

• 500 

.500 

Btta. 

1.436 

• • 

.159 



At L.W, 
Blse. 



Feet 

.Jog 
.686 
.400 
.613 

'»9S 

1. 115 

•696 

•349 

1.670 

.879 



Aiaa,8». 
at High Watar. 



Area. 



Great- 
est 
Wdth. 



Sq.Ft. 



10,770 

6.935 

7,000 
6.170 
1,800 

1,300 



Great- 
est 
Dpth. 



Feet. 



«.55o 
7JO 

563 
560 
660 

300 

jio 



Feet. 



»J 
11 

■3 
13 
13 

5 



Whan Sgh 

and Low Water 

at HewboiiL 



IMi. 



Neirbom 

Stella < 

Elswick 

Mansion House .... 

Old Quay 

Bill Point 

HowdoD ................ 

Ballast Office ....... 

Prior's Stone.......... 

Tjnemonth Haven. 



.•.••••.a 



Feet. 

• ■ 

7»5M 
18,941 
11,418 

i,3«6 

IJ»576 
10^064 

I3.*«» 

3.894 
1,640 



Heighten 
Gauge. 



ATerage 
per Mile. 



Azeaf 8n>. 
at Low Watar. 



At 

H.W. 



04,844 



Ft In. 

«3 9 

>3 7* 

«3 » 

II II 

11 9 

II 1 

II I 

II 3 

10 II 

10 6 



At 
L.W. 



lAtH.W. 
FalL 



Ft In. 

II o| 

9 9 
8 It 

7 II 
7 « 



6 

4 
3 

1 
1 



Si 

9 

7 
7 



Feet 



.084 
.118 

.115 
.615 
.196 
.184 

BiM. 

.064 

FaU. 
.4J» 

.83s 

181 



AtL.W. 
Blse. 



Great- 
est 
Wdth. 



Feet 

• • 

.905 

.131 

^463 
.961 

.3«6 
.516 

.464 
1.356 
1.166 

.004 



Sq.Ft 

too 
360 

600 
1.000 
1,770 

».«74 
J»SOo 



Great- 
est 
Dpth. 



Feet 

100 
150 

300 

550 

363 
400 

I|IOO 



Feet 

1.15 

7-33 
5.0 

3.15 

II. o 

15.0 
13-50 



250 



THE BIVER CLYDE.— Plate ZI. 

This river has had large snms of money spent in deepening its hed and 
regulating its banks above Dumbarton. These works have been similar 
to those described on the Tay, and have been only greater and more 
effective, inasmuch as the outlay has been on a prodigious scale and 
commensurate with the great commerce of Glasgow and the surrounding 
mining districts. 

Hign water at springs is now alleged to rise neariy two feet higher 
than before the improvements, and the draft of water is increased ^m 
four feet to more than twenty feet, while the time of high water at Glas- 
gow is accelerated twenty minutes, and the time of young flood far more. 
At pages 251-2-3, are the chief phenomena of the river, placed in a 
similar manner to those of the Tay. 

In comparing it with th^ Tay, we must regard the Clyde above 
Bowling as now resembling a great tidal canal ; the Tay from a mile 
below Perth being rather an estuary, opening out gradually with wide and 
flat sandy shores at low water. The Tay is also subject to far more rapid 
and greater volume of floods, by which much larger quantities of sand ^ 
are transported, and deposited over the estuary immediately at its junc- 
tion with the tide. 

Plate XI. is a section of this river, shewing its state from a.d. 1758 to 
1861. The tabulated tidal .observations are for 1840, since which the 
dredging has been continuous. The material removed has been greatly 
used to regulate thb chanhd and fill up large useless shoals. Training 
walls of stone at a slope of about 2 to 1 have also been adopted on this 
river ; they contribute much to the efficiency of scour and convenience 
of navigation. 

At page 210 we have given Mr. Scott Rusbeirs experiments on the 
level of the tide and velocity of the wave which were made in 1836 ; the 
position of the stations named can be ascertained on the section of the 
Kiver Clyde at or about the period of the experiments. 

The editor of the Builder remarks that — " Of the Clyde it is impossible 
to speak in other language than that of admiration. It is but the fourth 
river in Scotland in volume of fresh water, and the third in length ; in- 
ferior to the Forth or Tay in Highland scenery ; and to the Tweed in 
pastoral beauty ; but it is superior to all of them in utility, in artificial 
improvement, in manufactures, in commerce, and in the triumphs of 
mechanical getiius. The improvements on this river have, we must say, 
been conducted on a scale of unusual magnificence. About a ccnturv ago 
its depths at the point where the Kelvin discharges into its channel was 
only 18 inches at low water, and 44 inches at high water. Its course, far 
below Dumbarton, abounded in shallow lagoons, interspersed with low 
islets and marshy ground. By judicious engineering operations, spread 
over a series of years, accompanied with an enormous expenditure of 
capital, it is now as navigable as the Thames. In fact, by dint of 
dredging, cutting, excavating, and embanking, to the tune oV about a 
million and a-half sterling, the navigable depth of the river has been in- 
creased, within the last 50 or 60 years, from 3 ieet to 20 feet, and the 
revenue from £3,000 to £90,000 per annum. The Bromielaw harbour is 
at this moment practically nothing less than half-a-mile of excellent 
docks — we need not say how crowded ; and the contrast is indeed great 
between the small fishing sloops and Yii^nia traders which once un- 
loaded their treasures on the same spot, and the gigantic iron steamer and 
the merchantman of 2,000 tons, which now constitute the honour and 
glory of the Clyde." 



251 



TIDES OF THE GLTDE. 

TABLE OF TIDAL OBSEBYATIOH 8, 

Taken atmnltaneoxuly between Port Glasgoir and Glasgoir, in 1840; sheiring also 

the aooeleration in the time of high water. 

Datum, 20 feet below coping of South Quay Wail, near Glasgow Bridge. 



SPBIHa TIDE, 20th llaroh, 1840. 



Time. 



Port 
Glsgow 



c. 

8 

9 

10 

11 

12 

1 

2 
8 10 
4 10 

6 10 
• 10 

7 10 

8 10 

9 10 



7 10 

8 38 

9 30 

pjf. 

1 26 

2 5 

2 60 



Ft. In. 
8 

9 

o 

9ft 



I 
} 
5 
6 



8 8i 

to 3ft 

lo I 

7 " 

5 4 

3 4 

1 4 

o a| 



o ajLw 



10 siHW 



Bowl- 
ing. 



Ft. In. 

% lo 

4 3 

5 4 

6 II 

9 4 

lO lO 

9 5 
8 I 
6 lo 

5 7* 
4 » 
a II 



a 4LW 



lO XOBW 



Clyde 
Bunk. 



Glagow 



Ft. In. 



3 3 

4 9 

6 ift 

7 lo 

10 oi 

lo 7 



9 
8 

6 

5 

4 
3 



4 
o 

Si 

7 

5ft 

4 



Ft. In. 



3 OLWI 

4 8 
6 o| 



7 9 

9 w* 
IX i|hw 

9 84 

8 3 
7 o 
5 «©♦ 

4 9 
3 9 



3 ILW 



TO XOBW 



NEAP TIDE, 27th Ifaroh, 1840. 



8tation8. 



Pt Glasgow 
Bowling.... 
Clyde Bank 
Glasgow..... 



High 



Ft. In. 
7 5 
7 9 
7 " 
7 " 



Low 
W. 



Ft. In. 
a 4 
a. 6 
a 8 

a 7 



Ft. In. 
5 1 
5 3 
5 3 
5 4 



Bomarki 



H. W. at 

OlMgOW 

6"lkUlier 
thanPbrt 
Olaifow. 

L. W. at 
Olucow 
S" U^ 
(han Port 
GlMgow._ 



High Wator of Spring Tide, 

9iih Deomber, 1888^ 
With Fresh Wind, West 



Ft In. I Ft. IB. 

Port Glasgow... 14 5 1 Clyde Bank 15 6 

BowUng 15 ol Glasgow 16 a 

iroC«.— High Water at Glasgow i. 9" higher 
than at Port Glaigow. 

^b**.— In 1824, H. W. at Glasgow) J-"; 

later than at Port Glasgow J » 05 

In 1840^ ditto ......^ I 45 

Aooeleration in 16 yeaxB o 10 



VekNdtieB of Flood and Ebb 8treami. 



STATIONS. 



iFld. Xbb. 



Between 

Glasgow and Newshot Isle 

Newshot I. and Dumbarton Castle 



RateyM. 



FMt 
38.5 

8a I 



Pe«t. 
78.8 

'39-3 



TELOGHIEB OF THE HEAD AHD FOOT OF A TIDAL WAVE, 

Between Port Glasgow and Glasgow. 

BPBIHG TIDE, 20th, KaxYOi, 1840. 



STATIOHB. 



Between 
Port Glasgow and Boiding 

Bowling and Clyde Bank 

Clyde Bank and Glasgow 

Port Glasgow A Glasgow 



tanoee 
Apart. 



Feet. 
43»*3o 

«6,a90 
i8,8ao 



88,840 



Tidal 
Bange 



Ft. In. 
10 aipta 

8 6B 

7 9CB 

8 IftC^ 



Interval of 
Passage 



OT 



Foot of 
Wave. 



Mlns. 
88 

S» 

30 



170 



Head of 
Wave. 



Mins. 
40 

45 

xo 



105 



Bate per 
Xinnte. 



Foot. 



Feet. 
491- » 

505.6 

960.6 

978.6 



Head. 



Feet 
1080.7 

584.1 

i»44» 
988.8 



Width 

of 
Btver 



Feet. 
550 B 

afoGB 

4«>0 



252 



TIDES 07 TEE CLYDE. 



IHCLIHAtlOV or WATiE 8irB7ACS, 

It t]ie tlmei of High and Low Water at Port Glasgow and Qlaagow, at the Spring 

Tide of Mazeh 90th, 1640. 

Dahtm 90 >M bdow Coping 4^ SotUh Quay WaiU 



u rmnr HIGH WATER AT POBT GLASGOW - - L26 p.]iu 
AlTD lOWWATKE „ >» * - ^.O) „ 



BTATIOirS. 



Port Olaagow 

Bowling 

Clyde Bank .. 
Glasgow 

Average 



DU- 



Height on Gauge. 



At 1.0 IMH. 
arZftiiitaiatei 
H.W. 



.i.ki 



Feet 

• • 

16,290 
a8,8ao 

d6»840 



orlOmlaaiM DrSSmmntnorlOBilntitiM 



Ft. In. 
10. Ik 

9. a4 
7.10 

7- 9 



▲tT.lOpim. 



L.W 



Fau. 



Ft. In. 
o a| 

4 » 

5 "0* 



laoUiL per XUa. 



At 1.0 i».m. 



bcAn li W 
BUM. 



Feet 

• • 

a 131 

0.279 
a 014 

0136 



Air.iop! 



Feet 

0.481 
0.285 
0.05 J 



0.304 



WHXV HIGH WATEB AT GLAlKMyW 
AHD LOWWATEft 



i> 



810 pjn. 
10. ajn. 



SIATIOirSf 



Glasgow 

Clyde Bank 

Bowling 

Port Glasgow ... 

Average 



Bis- 

tances. 



Feet 

• a 

a8,82o 
26,290 
ajo 



Height on Gange. 



At High 

Water. 

FaiiL. 



4?»*3Q 
98,840 



Ft In. 
II l| 

10 7 
9 5 
7 " 



At Low 

Water. 

RXBR. 



Ft In. 

3 o 

4 3 

5 o 



Indm. per Idle. 



At High 

Water. 

Fall. 



Feet 

• • 

0.099 

o.in 

a 18} 



0.171 



At Low 

Water. 

Risk. 



Feet. 

m • 

ciaa 
o. 116 
ao9a 



0.107 



SECnOlTAL ABSA8. 



Spring Tide, Karoh 8OU1, 1840. 



Glasgow .... 
Clyde Bank. 



Neap Tide, Mardh 87th, 1840. 

Glasgow ....« 

Clyde Bank............ 



At High Water. 



Area. 



Sq.Feet 

3.148 
4.C05 



Greatest 
Width. 



Feet. 
198 

»73 



Greatest 
Depth 



iFt Ins 
18.3 
17.0 



3.186 



»9J 
aS5 



14.6 



At Low Water. 



Area. 



Sq.Feet 

1.549 
1. 911 



Greatest 
Width 



Feet 
191 
H5 



Greatest! 
Depth. 



Ft. Ins. 
10 o 

9.0 



t.494 
1,840 



191 
MS 



TO.) 

9-3 



253 



■aiMv^M^MMHMMMll^i^i^^^ 



HDBS OJ THE dTBE. 



XEAH XniAL BAVOB AVB SU&AIIOir OF nOOS AHB EBB 8IBXA1I8, 

For tix Spring and six Neap Tldas, firam olwerratloiiB by W. Bald, EaqJ 



•pringXldM. 



OlMgow. 



Tidal Banga......................... 

Dunatioii of Flood ......^ 

« Ebb 

VMpIldMk 

Tidal Sange 

Duation of Flood ....m.......... 

„ Ebb 



Ft. Ins. 
8 4 

H. X. 

5 w 

7 >J 



Cljde 



Bowling. 



Ft. Ins. 
8 o 

K. X. 

5 15 

7 6 



Ft. Ins. 
8 9 

H. X. 

5 M 

6 56 



Port 

GlMgOW. 



Ft Ins, 
5 

X. 

6 
6 I 



10 

H. 

6 



Ft. Ins. 
6 I 

B. X. 

5 14 

,7 «6 



Ft Ins. 

5 10 

B. X. 

5 43 



Ft Ins. 

5 II 

s. X. 

5 5* 

6 37 



Ft IM. 
6 I 

B. K. 

6 s6 
5 59 



XEAH VBL0CITIE8 OF FLOOB A3SD EBB 8TBSA1IB. 



Station on^otto. 



Dnmbartim Gastia ^, 



»•«••*«•••••••««•«••■••••••••■••••••••« 



«••«*••••••••••••••••••• 



Danglass Castia .. 
Donald's Qoa7....M.... 

Bnshalee Plar ............ 

Co&tzB of Newsbot Us 
Avaraga bdov Newsbot Isla ... 
1,000 yaids beloir moutb of the Cart 

900 jaxds below Crairibrd's Quay •>........ 

000 jaids abore the moatb of the Kelyin 
Ayeiage above Newsbot Ida 



•ae«*«e«««e« 



Distanoe 
below Glas- 
gow Bridge. 



Feet. 
70,000 

59»50o 
ja,ooo 
45,000 
39,000 

• a 
31,000 

H»ooo 

15,000 

9,500 



yeloelty 

of Flood 

perMinnte. 



Feet 
5««75 

9*»7J 

"4«4I 

54-53 

70.00 



Yeloelty 

of Ebb 

per Minute. 



78.10 

00.00 
t6,66 

50.00 
17.61 



ZHM 



Feet 
144*53 

145.71 

147- 13 

110.00 

15a 00 



14L48 

100.00 

85.70 

75.00 

54*53 



78.80 



Doling bigb floods, immediately below Glasgow Bridge, Mr. Bald found the Ebb 
Stream run at the rate of SB6.6 feat per minute; and in tha nazroflr parts of the riyer, 
attharataof82Li£MtpermiB«t9. This was at the water's shCms^ im fha middia 
of thaxiTw. 



90 



254 



THE BIVEB MERSEY EETniABT.— Plate YI. 

The sea approach of this river is occupied hj an immense area of half- 
tide sand banks, with channels of a great variety of character, aflR[>rding 
from 6 to 12 feet depth at low water of spring tides. These banks are, 
to a great extent, quicksand, so that they change with every great exciting 
cause, creating a perpetual source of anxiety to those on whom devolves 
the duty of keeping them open for the great commerce of the manufac- 
turing districts. Once within the headlands of Formby Point and New 
Brighton, the channel becomes deep, owing to its confinement between 
the fixed shores of the towns of Liverpool and Birkenhead;, this channel 
is maintained by the great volume of waters ebbing out of, and flowing into, 
the extensive and wide area of the estuaiy, occupying twelve miles in 
length, between Toxteth Park and Frodsham. 

The comparative widths of the Mersey at these points, will be seen by 
the cross sections in plate VI. ; the velocity of the tide way at the narrow 
passage is very great, but directly the river widens out above Liverpool, 
banks are formed with capricious channels, in character very much like 
the sands at the bar. They are, however, much higher, and therefore 
dry at a much earlier period of the tide, and the low water channels are 
merely sufficient to carry the small upland waters of the river Mersey 
(about 3,600 square miles), their course through the sand-banks altering 
probably in proportion to the varying con(Otion of the elements and 
climate. The sands of the Mersey owe their origin to two causes ; viz., 
the mill-stone grits of the mountain at the sources, and the disintegra- 
tion of the local rocks which girt the shores of the estuaiy, and are 
formed of friable sandstone ; to the latter rocks probably the great bulk 
of the sands are due. The vast bodv of tidal water passing over the 
sea banks and bar, offers a powerful check on the counter effect of winds 
and waves of this stormy sea. 

We have given, in plate VI., the form of tidal wave, iVx>m observations 
taken with extreme accuracy, in the parliamentaiy contest for the Birk- 
enhead Docks. In the diagram, the growing up of the tidal wave, at 
the narrow part opposite Liverpool, the faltering again at the wide ex- 
panse between Eiutham and Ellesmere Port, and the heading up again 
when narrowing at Runcorn, is shewn very strikingly. The great rise 
and volume of tide, and straight even sides not too far within the mouth, 
are the safeguards to maintenance of the port of Liverpool ; the ample 
dock space, and cheapness of construction from the rock foundation, and 
tidal ebbing off, give the great pre-eminence of Liverpool as a port. 



THE BIVER DEE ESTUABT, 

In form, is strikingly the reverse of Liverpool ; an injudidotis mode of 
enclosure, unaccompanied by proper dredgings, has rendered useless 
what might have been a great improvement of its upper course ; while 
the want of a proper application of capital lower down has permitted 
evils to gather strength. 

The sand -banks of the estuaiy are most enormous, and they stand 
very high and dry at low water ; there is also the want of a great 
natural channel inside, to give direction and effect to the currents ; we 
are, however, of opinion that a sum of money, boldly spent, wonid effect a 
vast revolution in the navigation of the Dee, and with great benefit ; for 
Chester is well placed for commercial intercourse with the mining districts 
and potteries. The sources of the Dee are far more extensive, and the 
floods greater than those of the Mersey ; the result is evident in tlie 
greater deposit of sands, and difficulty of maintaining a sea passage. 



255 



TIDES OF THE MEBSET. 



TABUS 07 THE BUB AHD 7AIX OF IHE HDS 
At TuioiiB points, taken Blmultaneonbly from the month of the liver at Foimbj Point to 
the head of the tide at Warrington; from Mr. BendeVe experiments in the snmmer 
of 1844. Datum line 6 feet below Old Dock Gill, or 10.75 feet beloir the Ordnance 
halfotlde datum. 

BFBIira- TIDBB, JviiA Srd, IBM. 



TXMB. 


xomoy 
Point 


Bew 


DlttUIM. 




42,240 ft. 


B.. M. 


Ft In. 


Ft In. 


7 Oajn. 


— } IO 




7 30 ^ 


-» 9 


-4 a 


8 ^ 


— O 10 


— J * 


8 30 „ 


I to 


— o « 


9 ^ 


5 6 


I 6 


9 30 . 


9 9 


8 % 


10 „ 


14 o 


IX 7 


iO 30 « 


rj 6 


i6 5 


II „ 


so 4 


19 X 


i 1 30 ., 


tx t 


XI 5 


12 „ 


n I 


XX 3 


30pjn. 


23 4 


23 


« , 


tt 6 


XX 3 


1 30 ^ 


XI a 


»« 4 


2 0. 


»9 4 


19 6 


2 30 „ 


i6 II 


16 8 


3 ^ 


14 o 


n 9 


3 30 . 


IO II 


II 


4 0,. 


3 % 


3 4 


4 30 „ 


5 4 


5 w 


6 0, 


* 9 


1 3 


6 30 „ 


p 9 


1 7 


• ^ 


— O IP 


P 


•30 „ 


— 1 P 


— I 5 


7 „ 


-* 7 


-X 4 


7 30 ,, 


•• *• 


-, 6 



Priao^B 

Dock, 

LhnpooL 

10,360 ft. 



Port 

47,620 ft 



Ft In. 



4 
I 



5 
5 



o 10 
X 10 



7 
II 

15 
18 

xo 

XX 

23 

XX 

xo 

17 
14 



6 

9 
H 

o 
6 

X 

4 

7 
7 
7 
7 
7 



II 10 

9 4 

6 10 

4 4 

X o 

o 4 

— « S 

— X 8 

-I 6 



BUM- 



Ft In. 



Dnke'i 
Dock, 



36,200 ft, 



6 4 
10 7 
15 o 
18 I 

XI X 

23 6 

M 7 

M * 

XX 9 

xo II 

13 I 

«J 9 

U 4 

10 7 

8 6 

7 » 
6 7LW 



Ft In. 



10 7 
16 9 
ao 
23 

M I 
as 

ax 

xo 
18 
16 

14 
13 

IX 

11 o 
10 II 
10 7 
10 4 



Piddlna' 



War- 
lin^toiL 
Biidgo. 

28,l«0ftJ27«400ft. 



Ft In. 



17 

XX 

M 
»5 
M 
ax 
ai 
xo 



6 

9 

a 

o 
6 
8 

8 



19 10 

«9 4 

18 10 

18 7 

18 a 

17 10 

17 6 



Ft In. 



18 I 

18 } 
a| o 

»5 9 

a| 10 

aa 8 

XI 10 

XI I 

xo 8 

xo X 

19 9 
19 6 

»9 J 

19 c 



256 



TIDES OF THE IIESBEY. 



TOLE OF THE RISE AITB FAZX OF TEE TIDE 

At Tftriona points, taken simoltaneously from the moath of the river at Foimbj Point to 
the head of the tide at Warrington; tram Mr. Bendel^a eacperimenta In the rammer 
of 1844. Datum line 6 feet beloir Old Doek Gill, oria75feet below the Ordnanoe 
half-tide datum. 








HEAP 


TIDES 


, Jmit 10th, 1844. 






FofjuUy 


1 

Hew 


Pziao^'i 


EU06. 


Dnke^i 


Fiddkn' 


War- 


XQES. 


?«i&t 


Sri^Kton 


Dock, 


mBTB 


Dock, 


Fmj.. 


riafftoQ 






4* w 


livipod. 


Fort* 


BviLoom. 




Bridge. 


IHftBmee. 




42,240 ft. 


10,660 ft. 


47,620 ft 


35,200 ft. 


28,160 ft. 


27,400 ft. 


H. M. 


Ft, In. 


Ft In. 


Ft. In. 


Ft In. 


Ft In. 


Ft In. 


Ft In. 


1 30p.m. 


3 } 


t 6 


a 9 


I II 








2 „ 


4 o 


3 I 


3 1 


a 3 








2 30 „ 


5 5 


4 


4 I 


3 








3 „ 


6 8 


S 5 


5 f 


4 » 








3 30 ^ 


3 4 


7 3 


7 3 


•S 9 








4 „ 


zo a 


9 4 


9 3 


7 » 






• 


4 30 „ 


"* J 


II 6 


" 4 


9 7 


8 8 






» „ 


14 1 


13 3 


»3 4 


II 10 


8 9 






6 30 ^ 


15 6 


X5 * 


15 


13 8 


10 10 






6 ^ 


i6 zo 


i<S 3 


16 I 

• 


XJ 5 


IJ 6 






6.30 „ 


17 7 


17 7. 


»7 4 


16 7 


15 w 






7 „ 


17 9 


17 7 


IS 


17 7 


17 4 


16 1 




7 30 , 


17 7 


17 7 


18 


18 4 

18 7 H.W. 


18 5 


16 a 




3 „ 


i6 II 


16 10 


17 6 


18 3 


19 


16 10 




3 30 „ 


»5 9 


15 II 


16 4 


17 5 


18 6 


18 3 


18 I 


3 , 


»4 9 


X4 4 


«5 1 


16 a 


»7 J 


18 10 


18 I 


3 30 „ 


11 » 


la 9 


U 6 


14 4 


16 4 


18 a 


18 5 


10 „ 


IX J 


II 


II 6 


la 8 


15 a 


17 9 


18 9 


10 30 ^ 


9 9 


9 5 


10 


10 9 


13 10 


17 4 


18 8 


M ^ 


s S 


7 II 


3 5 


9 » 


la 9 


17 I 


18 6 


II 30 „ 


6 J 


6 4 


6 II 


7 9 


la 


16 10 


18 5 


12 , 


i 4 


5 


5 6 


6 8 


" 3 


16 8 


18 4 


30ajn. 


4 4 


3 » 


4 3 


•4 6 


10 9 


16 7 


18 a 


1 „ 


$ 7 


a 10 


3 4 


1 


10 3 


16 41 


18 Ik 


1 30 „ 


3 ILW 


a dLw 


a 9LW 


a 


9 4 


16 3 


18 i| 



^Balovtheae points the Eneamere tide ia taken at Pool Hall Deep^ abont a mile below 

where there la a ftill range at Neap Tides. 



267 



TIDES OF tHB HESSET. 

• 






lABLB 07 TELOdTEEB 07 THE HEAD AHD TOOT 07 TIDAL WAVE, 


From the mooXh to the head of the Tide at Warrington, at a Siirlng and Neap Tide. 


SeetiOH qfMwerfrm Firmans Dock to Seacombe. 


Arab WhUh. Dmofh, 
Bq. Ft Ft. Ft. 

L.W.8.T ....114^646 ... 8,214 X SO 

L.WJr.T. ......188^415 ... fVWe X 67 


Anft. Width. Depth. 
8q. Ft. Ft. fit. 

H.W.N.T 182,771 ... 8,044 X 70 

H.W.aT .908,079 ... 8^644 x 77 


BFEIHG TIDE, June 8rd, 1944. 1 


EamM of Statloiif . 


Di^ 

tgnoo 


Tidal 
Eage 


Intonralof 
Pasraffe 

OF 


Sate per Miaate 
of Tidal Wave. 


Foot 

of 

Wave 


Head 

of 
Wave 


Foot 

of 

Wave. 


Head 

of 
Wave. 


Flood 
Stream 


Between 


Feet 


Feet 


Min. 


Min. 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 




4a,Mo 


17.5 


50 


xo 


845 


1,111 






10, s^ 


«7.» 


6 


10 


1,7^ 


i,os6 


401.4 


Frineei Dodk and BOeameie ........ 


4^5M 


18.0 


140 


10 


$40 


1*376 


J36.6 


Wlliiwmere and Bnneoni m.....*...m... 


35, MO 


18., 


50 


14 


704 


i>5V4 




Boneon and Flddlei'i Ferry ....... 


tf;i6o 


14.9 


85 


16 


331 


1,084 




Formby Point and Wenington .... 


»7»400 


7.8 
7.8 


66 


40 


415 
481 


685 
1,470 




191,080 


397 


ISO 


EEAP TIDE, Time 10th, 1844. 1 


EamM of Btati0]i«. 


XMs- 
twnoo 


ndii] 


Xntermlof 
PaiMgo 

OF 


Bate per ICniite 
of Tidal Wave. 


Eoge 


Foot 

of 

Wave 


Head 

of 
Wave 


Foot 

of 

Wave. 


Head 

of 
Wave. 


Flood 

Stream 


Between 


Feet 


Feet 


Mln. 


Mln. 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


Formhj Point and New Brighton... 


41,140 


14.J 


• . 


10 


.. 


1,11a 






io,5fiD 


15.1 


15 


flO 


4*1 


5«« 




Prinoea Dock and BUeamere ......... 


4ft PO 


XJ.3 


a. 


35 


.. 


1,358 






iS.*oo 


16.8 


190 


«5 


185 


1,147 




Baneom and Fiddler'a Feirv......... 


X8, 160 


10.4 


"JO 

9$ 


54 
46 


188 


515 

595 
1,006 




FUdlei'B Ferry and Wairington ... 


»7,4» 


1.8 

0.8 


188 
415 




191,080 


160 


190 





























^ 


TAKTjt nr pHKiininnrA hktvhkii fiTimtNKiKi.D Ain> (mum, 




The no of helgtiti li L.W.S.T. oppoalta Qrunneld. or H.TS boln »n oC CbHUt 
•tudtrd, iHlDit ibnii 13JS troi belo. tmti b*lf-il4c Icvfi u Llitnwo). 


70K0SI) SPEIK& TISS, 


1 


wiaw«t«rirGU». 


8TTMMEK £0T WATIS. j 


FEBRUARY Mh. IStt. 


1 


IbM. 


niit. 


Oon- 
nalL-i 


Sudj 

Craft. 


ahMtv 


■tetioiu. 


logo, 


Nl 

Mil*. 


B. B. 


Ft In. 


Fl. Id 


Ft In. 


Ft In 


D.tnen 


¥fH- 


FHt. 


i;,^ 










PentTB Eoekund C™ Qii»t 


)o.09J 
M.I7i 


'M 












Con. <ta%j ud tendf Crof 


.7. .to 














aindj Cnn ud BiIiimj.. 




■71 




^ 


.4 ^« 






SHUHT ■»> ClwUt 


7.°40 




10 IS. 

10 30. 
IO*B„ 


i6 4 


M 10 


■6 olh 

M 7 
>« 1 


17 9LW 


1 


i1 


1 


isSki 


1 


ihm i 


..30. 


>9 J 




"9 


^ 


li 


il 


3-=— 


3 


.3 0. 

.Bpjn. 


19 D 


gr 


)i )>* 




6 . 


r 


ll 


1' 


9B,SS 


3 










30. 








^ j-i^ff ^ . 


1*1° 


■6 4 


*7 J 


•9 4 
>* 4 


|5£«&S|S : 








17 6 


,_^ 


. 30. 


u 4 


M 4 




1 .5. 
1 30, 






i{ 




1«» 


•7 » 


u 6 


11 9 


S'^Wjra 1 


3 On 


16 7 


'9 « 


» 9 




>U, 


■4 7 


B II 

r7 6 


19 9 




Q 




I 




Oaa- 


ftanitl 








Ud. 


ruat 


lock. 


*U7. 


Croft, 






HWi-WUw,Orf,Bp.Wo 


?i' 


7 7 


^f 


5? 


n. iK 
«> 4 


Ft 1.. 

»9 7 


^s^ 


LowWMW , , . 


o a 


9 I 


i 


14 » 


IJ I 


17 9 


It f 


TUiIBu 


. 


-4.1 


rr e 


X 6 17 S 


M 6 1 IS U 


jn^ 


u 7 



259 



THE BIVES SEVEBH AHD ITS ESTVABT— Plate TH 

The river Severn was snrveved in 1849 by the late Captain Beechey, 
F R.Sm under orders from the Admiralty. A short statement accompanies 
his elaborate maps, and from these documents we have compiled the in- 
formation tabnlated in the sequel. Captain Beechey*s labours are here 
condensed into a form that will be best understood by a careful examina- 
tion of the tables. The phenomena of the bore are shown to fluctuate 
in the inverse ratio of the velocity of the tidal wave, and in connexion 
with this, it will be observed that the ft,ll of the Severn increases as it 
approaches the sea. With this fact the cause of tiie bore is closely con- 
nected. As we have before hinted in the case of the Ouse at King's Lynn^ 
the surface fall generally decreases in approaching to the tide way, in the 
best form of river estuaries. 

Low water at spring tides below Lidney is (as ordinarily) lower than 
at neaps ; but above Lidney the reverse takes place ;* this Captain 
Beechey thinks is occasioned by the waves throwing more water into the 
river than can escape at spring tides. The form of high and low water 
springs and neaps is given in the tables ; it will be seen that the maxi- 
mum height of springs is between Framilode and Rosemary, dropping 
downwaids to Haw Bridge, after which it ascends, until lost in the 
ordinary slope of the river. The diagram, plate VII., shews the most 
characteristic surface lines. 

Among the tables will be found the progress of the crest of the tide- 
wave, and velocity of the bore, with the rate of the stream answering to 
the various ranges of the tide at Sharpness, indnding times when the 
river was under me influence of strong freshes. Between Sharpness and 
Hock Crib the wave passes at an unusually rapid rate. Captain Beechey 
considers it posssible that the perpendicular surface of the cliff at Hock 
Crib, and its situation at right angles to the progress of the wave, may 
occasion a premature high- water at that particular spot. In the following 
table, therefore. Hock (Sib is omitted, and the interval between Shaipness 
and Newnham is taken. 



TABLE OS* VZIOCITY OS* 1EE TIDAL WATS AlO) BOBS OS THS 

BSYSBV AT BFBma TIDES. 

Dpfxrara TIDAL WAVE. BOBS. FLOOD 8TBBA1LKBB8TBBAM 

jxrwvva rtperMla. PLperMla. FtperMin. TtparXba. 

Beachley and Sharpness 1,600 .. 

Sharpness and Newnham ... 1,944 .. 

Newnham and Frsmilode ... 1,900 .. 

Ftamilode & Rosemary Point 992 .. 

Rosemaiy and Stonebench ... 870 .. 

Stonebench and Haw Bridge 1,053 .. 

Haw Bridge & Hvthe Bri<%e 729 .. 

Hythe Bridge & Upton Bridge 1,053 .. 

The above velocities are all appertaining to a Fpring tide of about 27 
feet at Sharpness ; the velocity at low water rammer level was 52 feet 
per minute at Stonebench. During the bighcFt flood at this place the river 
ebbed to about 8 feet above summer low water level, with a velocity of 
330 feet per minute. 
^^_^______^_^^_^_^_^__^_^_^_^^^_^^,^^^__^^_^_^_^_^__^,^„^_^^^___^_^_^__^^^__^__^_^__^^_^^_^__^ 

* IMs is not mifrequently the case in riven having many shoals and oooosider- 
able fUl in their bed. 



374 










587 










475 










820 


..• 


260 


... 


194 


526 


• *• 


350 


... 


230 


138 


.*• 


240 


..• 


185 


123 










820 











260 



'* After passing Frunilode, the rate of the tide wave safkn a material 
diminution between that place and Bosemaiy Point. The river, after 
mnch encombrance fix>m sand-banks, assumes its average contracted 
dimensions, from which it afterwards scarcely deviates to any amount. 
There are besides some vexy sharp turns in the river at and above Rose- 
mary, all of which assist in retarding the progress of the wave, so that 
its rate is reduced to about 10 miles an hour, or half the rate at which 
it travels at Sharpness ; and at this reduced rate neaily it continues its , 
progress up the river as far as the obaervations can be made with 
accuracy. 

" The Bore^ or the foot of the wave, travels at a very irregular rate ; 
its advance at all times depends upon the magnitude of the tide ; but, in 
addition to the irregnlaritv arising from this cause, its speed is aflPected by 
particular winds, by the shallowness of the river, and especiatly by low, 
dry sand-banks. The inclination of the surface of the water it has to 
surmount also appears to produce a sensible eifect upon its rate of tra- 
velling. Thus, between Beachley and Shaipness, where the ascent of 
the low-water surface is 1.75 feet per mile, the bore advances at the rate 
of 870 feet per minute ; and between this place and Rosemary Point, 
where the ascent is 1.12 feet per mile, the rate of the bore is still onlpr 
500 feet per minute ; but ttom Rosemaiy upwards, where the ascent is 
only 0.12 foot per mile, the rate increases to upwards of 1,300 per 
minute, and this easy ascent continuing, the wave continues to roll up 
the river at a speed nearly double that of its original rate. It must, 
however, be borne in mind that in all that part of 3ie river where the 
rate is so small, the river is encumbered with sand-banks, which are the 
causes also of the rapid descent of the river-surface, the space being 
occupied by numerous small rapids. 

" On a comparison of the rates of the tidal wave and the bore, it ap- 
pears that, in the early stage of the tide, the crest of the tide-wave is 
rapidly overtaking the bore, and, consequently, momentarily increasing 
the height of it ; and there can be no doubt that this retardation of the 
foot of the wave, occasioned by friction of shallows and sand-banks, is 
the primary cause of the bore. Above Rosemary, the bore, unobstructed 
by sand-banks, rolls on at a rate which more than equals that of the crest 
of the wave ; and the phenomenon is shortly found to diminish, to lose 
its wave character as it "pipceeds, and to become scarcely perceptible 
above the Partings (Gloucester). 

" When the reaches of the river axe straight, tiie bore travels evenly 
up the river ; but at the turnings it is Uirown off towards the further 
side, where it rises higher than in th$ straight reaches ; thence it recoils 
and impinges upon the opposite shore, and so, like a disturbed pendulum, 
it oscillates from side to side, and only regains its steady course when the 
reaches lengthen. . 

** The lughest tide of the year rolled up the Severn on the 1st of De- 
cember. There were about 2 feet of water above the ordinary summer 
level in the river, and the morning was calm and favourable to the phe- 
nomenon. The stream at low water ran down at the rate of 250 feet 
per minute, until the bore came rolling up the river with a breast from 
5 to 6 feet high at the sides, and 3 feet 6 inches in the centre. The wave 
was glassy smooth, and as it advanced towards a spectator stationed at 
Stonebench, a singular effect was produced b^ the distorted surface of 
the wave reflecting the rising sun, and brilliantly illuminating the 
stems and branches of the wood skirting the river as the bore passed 
along ; an effect which greatly enhanced the interest of the phraomenon. 
The stream tamed at 3ie instant after the bore passed, and ran at the 



261 



rate of 3,800 feet per miirate, iHiich was aboat half the aTeiage rate of 
the bore, which varied from 12 to 7 miles per hour." 

In the table the effect of the fresh, or a certain depth of water in the 
riyer, upon the advance of the bore, is remarkable. At dry periods the 

Si^at obstmction to the progress of the bore lies between Sharpness and 
nllo Pill ; and, at snch times, the many dry sand-banks prevent the 
bore attaining a rate greater than about 4 miles an hour, as shewn in the 
table ; bnt when the river is under the influence of freshes, and the water 
is raised, so as to covjer some of the bai^, it appears to roll on at a 
rate of 10 miles an hour in opposition to the stream, which about Hock 
Crib is then running down at the rate of upwards of 4 miles an hour. 

The state of the surface faU of the river Severn in flood, which we have 
tabulated in conjunction with the sectional area, &c.» in the sequel, will 
be found of great value, being a rare example. 

The following is a statement of the discharge of this river in the flood 
of December 4Si, 1849, and its relation to we drainage area on that 
day. 

By Captain Beechey*s Admiralty, survey it appeared that on this day 
the Severn rose 4.60 at Newnham, and 7.3S feet at Diglis; the particu- 
lars of this flood, compared with summer low water, are given in the 
pages devoted to the '* Udes of the Severn." The discharge of the flood 
oelow Gloucester was at the rate of 751,245 cubic feet per minute, or 
193.12 feet per minute per square mile, being nearlv ^ of an inch run off 
the surface in 24 hours from the drainage area of 3,890 square miles. 
The summer run of this river, from Captain Beechey's observations, is 
about 33,111 cubic feet per minute, or 8.49 cubic feet per minute per 
square mile ; this appears to us a low estimate for such mountainous and 
westerly sources, rlate VII. gives the form of spring tide of this river, 
with its summer low water and flood surface. The creation of the bore 
18 shewn vexy distinctly ; the same development may be seen in the 
river Seine, plate X(L 

Captain Beechey remarked that the Seve^i is a river requiring a peculiar 
treatment, in order to secure its navigable advantages. During summer, 
the stream possesses bnt little scouring power ; whilst, during rainy periods, 
freshes rush down the channel with great impetuosity. There is also 
at springs a very strong npw«rd flow of tide, which frequently tends 
to take a diflerent course from the downward stream. 

When the reaches are straight, both streams pursue the same channel, 
and for the most part maintain a sufficient depth of water, but at the 
turnings of the river the streams no longer operate together : the torrent 
cannot be constrained by the natural bunk to flow in the ordinaiy chan- 
nel, bnt forces itself upon the opposite ride of the river, which it wears 
away, leaving a shelf only about low water leveL This is the general 
character of we river at all the turnings. 

The continued effect of these torrents has been from an early period to 
encourage the tortuous form of the river by scouring away the off bank 
wherever the yielding nature of the soil permitted, until its progress has 
been arrested by rocky cUfis, or hard stony ground, as above mentioned ; 
hence we see at almost all the sharp turnings of the river, cliffs and hard 
beds bounding the off ride of the bend, with flat ledges projecting from 
their base. The tortuous form of the river is objectionable from the 
tendency which the rapid stream, either of downward floods or of the 
upward flow of spring tide, has to throw up shoals in the eddies of the 
points wherever the tnmines are sharp ; and thus we find in the Severn that 
the sQt and debris brought down by the freshes is deporited under these 
points ; the space there at such times being in the eddy, the summer 
channel is occupied, and in some places for a long period the navigation 



262 



of the river is obstmcted. It is clear, therefore, that among the Tarions 
methods which might be suggested for the improrement of the river, a 
natural one seems to be, that of confining the summer and winter streams 
to the same channel. 

The unequal scour of the streams is particularly remarkable below 
Hock Crib, where it is the cause of the continual variation of the Nouze 
and Frampton channels. 

The Admiralty survey was especially useful, owing to the borings 
which were made for the purpose of ascertaining the nature of the bed 
and subjacent strata of the shoals of the Severn ; some of the. cross 
sections are given in plate VII. with these borings. 

Sand, the universal component of estuary beds, prevails in the Severn ; 
but the subjacent rocks are generally nearer the surface than uxnal. 
They are of the carboniferous series, and the small depth of sand appears 
to indicate a comparatively recent period for the geological formation of 
the estuary. The general rapid elevation of the Severn bed (compared 
with what usually prevails at the months of rivers where tide and land- 
waters meet) on leaving deep water above Beachley, is decidedly shewn 
by the sections and borings, to be due to geological elevation of the 
carboniferous rocks, not to fluviatile action ; in this respect the evidence 
is decisive. It is highly probable that the estuaiy is comparatively 
recent, taking a cosmological point of view. 



THE BIVEB A70H.— Plate YIH 

This is a tidal creek of the Seven), with comparatively a small amount 
of drainage area to aflfect its tides. Plate YIII. gives a map of the river 
between the Severn at Fortishead and Bristol, with a section ex- 
hibiting spring and neap tides. In the following table will be found 
the heights of these tides for small intervals of time, as taken 
simultaneously at the mouth and at Bristol. The rapid rise of the bed 
of this creek appears to obliterate the further rise of tne tidal wave : but 
the velocity of transmisfion of the wave is very great, as the two places, 
although 7^ miles apart, have practically the same maximum rise, within 
15 minutes ; the mmultaneons rise of the wave surfiice is 1 inch per mile 
upwards fW)m the month. See report by T. Page, Esq., C.E., from 
which these data are derived. 

The formation of the river Avon is decidedly due to geological causes; 
the valley is, in fact, a chasm fonned by dislocations of the carboniferoiiis 
locks of West Somersetshire. 



263 



TIDES OF THE SEVEBV* 



TABLE SHEWINa THE HEXGHTS OF HIOH AHD LOW WATEB. 

At Springs and Neapi, and the timet of Flood and High Water at the principal 
points between PDrtiahead and Diglla Look, (Just below Woroester) tnm Cnpt 
Beecbej'a survey, 1848. 

J«b<«<— The cero of the Tidal Heights Is that called the Ordnance Datmn or half-tide 
level at Liverpool, being 4.76 ftet above the Old Dock GUL 



Stotbnif. 



Portishead.... 
Beachley .... 
Sharpness • • • • 
Hook Crib • • • I 
Newnham • « > . 
Framilode.... 



Stooebeneh .. 
Gloooester.... 
Haw Bridge .. 
Mythe Bridge 
Upton Bridge 

Flxbam 

Diglis 



Distanoe 
apart. 



Springtide. 

Ang. 20, 1848. 



HW. 



Feat. LPula. 



58,000 

60, 9 JO 

S9»8a9 
I9»55a 
14,800 

11,000 
13.650 
18,940 

i7»8oo 

«9.770 
14.060 
16,780 



&3 6 

'5 6( 

15 II 

»5 9 

16 9 

16 II 

»S 7 



ij 

M 



'*5 7 



LW. Range 



Ft In. Ft. In. 



rt.in 



'9__«4* 7 
1 017 6 16 10 

6 9 19 2 16 10 

I 
9 11^15 ic 17 5 

17 7 

17 7 



16 I 10 8 
'7605 



18 ij 7 

••957 



Neap nde. 

Ang. 18, 1848. 



H.W. 



418 



>9 »0| J i 

II } I 10 

11 I I 

1 o 

I 

*5 7 



5*4 



18 4 
no 



L.W. 



Ft. In. 



1 6 
5 6 
8 10 

»5 1 
16 8 



&S 3 



17 II 
tide 



Bang* 



Ft. In 



>9 4| 

II 

» 7 
1 6 

O II 



after | after 

mnlcingat making at 

Beachley i BeachJev 

Pier. I Pier. 



xX 



felt 



n. M. 

148 

3 54 

4 S9 
446 

5 31 

6 00 

614 

7 01 



8 II 



ISdk. SMi ISS. 



U. M. B. M. H. 



1 36] o 39 

4 41] 041 

5 18] I 10 



6 38 

7 10 



I *3 
I 36 
1 8 
1 u 

3 16 
3 58 
416 



04ft 
I 08 

I 34 
1 03 

»44 



TASLE OF AVERAGE KAXE OF THE GKE8T 
Of tlie Tidal Wa^e and of tlie Bore, 
From Beachley to Upton Bridge, where the latter phenomenon 



Rate of Crest 
of Tidal Wave. 




Rate of 
the Bore. 


Feet^Mln. 




Feet^Mln. 


It 599 




31S 


t.944 




5«i 


i.9» 




7»3 


996 




460 


871 




1,106 


1.057 




1.075 


718 
1.058 


} 


7»J 



Beachley and Sharpness •« 

Sharpness and Newnham 

Newnham and FramUode 

Framilode nnd BoHemary .......... 

Rosemary and Stonebench 

Stonebench and Haw Bridge .... 
Haw Bridge and Mythe Bridge . 
Mythe Bridge and Upton Bridge 



U 



264 



TIDES OF THE SEVEBV. 



TABLE OF FALL AHB SECTIOKAL ABSA OF BUMMJKH LOW WATER, 

Betvesn Furtkhead and DlgU% from Captain BMohey*! Admlraltj Sorvey. 



JtfMc— The datum of the heights given la the Ordnance mean half-tide at Liverpool. 



8TATI0E8, 



Portlahead (beknr datmn) 

Beaehler « 

Inward rolnt .. „ 

Lidney « 

Sharpness ^ 

Newnham (ahove datum) 

Framilode 

Stonebenoh 

Glo'ater (say Lover Parting) , 

Haw Bridge 

Mytbe Bridge 

Upton Bridge 

Pizham 

Diglis 



Dif. 



Apart 



of 

Rirer 

Bed 

n^Mile 



Feet 



58*000 
16,750 
16,500 
7.700 
59.581 
M»8oo 
44.650 
18,940 
40.000 
»7,8oo 

»9.770 
14. 060 
16,780 



Feet. 
i.t6 

\t 

.80 
0.36 

• • 

.165 
.301 
.209 

•J9* 



giiBuiier Low Water. 

4" on flharpn e e s Oange, or tSt* on 

Diglis Lock Gauge. 



Uelflfht 

on 
Oaoge. 



Feet. 

SO.|I 

18.90 

1755 
}.§7 

lU 

15.00 
16.9a 
17.15 
18.81 
10. 16 
at. 13 
»J.44 
M*84 



FaU 
l£ue. 



Feet 



.01} 

.4*5 
1.98 

•74 
i.o) 

1. 31 

.aa7 
.064 

.XTQ 
.256 
.189 

.J4a 
•445 



Width. 



Sq.Ft 



50,000 
6,840 
i.ajo 
4.«76 

1,000 

3fO0O 
63a 

781 
784 
570 

• ■ 

805 
455 



Greatest 



Feet 



JJTO 

»7Jo 

690 

1370 

400 

450 
ai7 
ixx 

• • 

115 
100 



Depth. 



Feet 



46. o 

S'i-S 
3. o 

11.15 

la t6 

11.00 

5.50 

9.00 

6.00 

5-75 

■ • 

7.50 
5.00 



THE BIVEE SBTEBir IE IXOOI). 

TABLE of tlie Sato of Fall aa indioatod I17 tha Gaagai 

With the Beotional Areas and Fall per Mile In a High Flood, as oheerred 

Deoemher 4tfa, 1849. 



JITol&r— These ohsemtlons were taken at or hefore low water, when mainflnenoed 

hy the Tide. 



nATIOKB. 



Yarlona F^realiea. 



Hght 
on 



Portlshead .. 
Beachley .... 
Inward Point 



• . •« •* •• *• • . 



Lidney 

Sharpness fhelow datum; 

Mewnham .... (above datum 

Framilode 

Stonebench ..• 

Glo'ater f say Lower Partii^O * • 

Haw Bridge 

Mythe Bridge 

Upton Bridge 

PIxham 

DlgUs ■ 



Gauge Gauge 



Feet 



1.08 

• • 

15.91 

>7-75 
19.00 
10.75 
11.33 

S.58 
.00 

17.4* 



Hght 
on 



Feet 
not 

• ■ 

1.41 

i6'.66 
19.15 
10.8^ 
13.16 
ii.91 
16.15 
18.66 
>0b08 



Hght 
on 



Gauge Gauge 



Feet 
fttt 

1.58 

16! 33 
19.08 
11.16 

»J-75 

*5-75 

»7.7$ 
30.5a 

31. 16 



FLOOD Baeember 4t]i, 1849. 



Hght 
on 



Feet 



T.OO 

13.46 
19.16 
15.00 
19.08 
31.84 
35 -M 

• • 

j8.oo 
40.16 



Fall 

per 

Mile. 



Feet 



1.18 

1.11 

.69 

1.135 
.496 

I .47 
.68 



Area. 



Sq.Ft 



7.596 
4.5" 

1,581 
i>3i8 

4.^4 
3.945 

■ • 

J. 015 
1.148 



Greatest 
WdthiDepth 



Feet 



1,400 
730 
yoo 
175 
170 
310 
150 

■ ■ 



Feet 



13. o 

14-75 
I5-33 
13.15 
19.50 
10.00 
10.50 

■ • 

11.50 

10.50 



265 



TIDES OP THE SEVEBN. 



TABLE OP TSIOaTIES OF THE TIDAL WAVE AED BOBE, 

Betvaen Shwpneu and Upton, at diflbrent ranges of tide, flrom Captain Beeehey*!! 
Admiralty Sarray of the BiT«r, in the Runmer of 1848. 



EamM of Stetiou. 



Between 
BharpoeH and Hoek Crib ...m. 

m f* ' 

» n 

n » 

Hook Crib and Newnham......... 

» »• " 

n n 

Sbarpoeea and Neirnham ......... 

Newnham and FramUode 

m n ......... 

» » 

Fiamllode and Boeemarj 

n » ......... 

Wewnary aadStonebeneh 

n n 

Stonebench and Haw Bridge ... 

SUmAendx and Qloaoeeter 

Haw Bridge and Mythe Bridge 

Mythe Bridge and Upton....M.«. 

Haw Bridge and TJpton..........M 



1, 



Bis- 
tanoes 


Baiig« 
at 


Interval of 

Paasage 

or 


Bate 


per IDnuta. 


apart 


««• 


Wave 


Bore. 


Wave. 


Bore. 


Flood 
Stream 


Feet 


Feet 


Min. 


MIn. 


Feet 


Feet 


Feet 


j9,ioo 


18 


aj 


»34 


i,7«> 


a9a 


•• 


tt 


ao 


141 


165 


1,696 


*37 


•• 


»» 


ai 


zo 


88 


1,910 


444 


•• 


»» 


»7 


6 


66 


6i5"7 


59» 


389.9 


I9»550 


18 


36 


44 


543 


444 


. . 


it 


ao 


29 


43 


674 


455 


«• 


>t 


ai 


37 


43 


5*8 


455 


. . 


f * 


»7 


M 


41 


«I5 


477 


. . 


J9»38l 


*7 


30 


• • 


'*979 


• • 


.• 


24,800 


ao 


*7 


6a 


918 


400 


•. 


99 


ai 


ij 


S« 


1,654 


4»6 


•• 


tt 


VJ 


n 


30 


1*907 


8*7 


ai7 


ii,ooo 


ai 


3» 


SA 


656 


3«9 


• • 


>> 


*7 


ai 


40 


1,000 


5*5 


AtS 


a J, 650 


ai 


• • 


«9 


•■ 


816 


•. 


• » 


»7 


a7 


17 


876 


1.373 


53« 


5«»94o 


ai 


69 


59 


«54 


999 


405 


t» 


»7 


13 


»7 


• • 


. . 


405 


*7f*» 


»7 


38 


e« 


73a 


•• 


•• 


«9»77«> 


»7 


a8 


• • 


i,o6| 


•• 


• . 


n»570 


»7 


• • 


70 


t • 


8ax 


.. 



Bate of Flood Stream, Dee. let, 1849, 

Being Spring Tides, was about 400 feet per 
minute, near Stonebench, aa taken by a 
Float drifting, bnt propeiiy watched. 

BeetioBal Area then about 8,160 iqnare 
Itet 



Bate of Ebb Stream, Deo. 11th, 1849, 

Being Average Tidee, was about S76 feet 
per minute, near Stonebench, as taken 
by a Float drifting^ but pn^ierly watched. 

Sectional Axea then about 1,700 squarv 
feet 



266 



TIPBS OP THB AVOH, 

TABLE SHBWniO BUE AVD 7ALL 07 A SPBUTe AVD HEAP UDE 

At Cumberland BMin, Bristol, tnd at Avon Mcmth. 

Tho distance a|»rt is seren mllee; eectionftl area of River at Rownham Ferry 
when High Water ordinary Spring Tidea 0,MS aqnare feet, same at 6 milea 6£0 
yarda below 16,400 agoare fbet. 

Datum, Zero of Gambertend Baain Gange. 



SPEma TIBE, Xaroh 9th, 1860. 


VSAP TIBE, Xaioh lOth, 1860. 




•g c 


• 




"c 


i 




1 


a 




|. 


• 

g 


Time. 


Is 


^ 


Time. 


ll 


n 


TIma 


3J 


S 


Time. 


Ja 


1:4 




r 


1 




|m 


9 






1 




1 


i 


h.m. 


ft in. 


a. in. 


h. m. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


h. m. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


h. m. 


ft. in. 


ft. in. 


J-45ft.m 


J. * 


-ij.t 


10.15 a.m. 


ij. 


11. 7 


7. 30 p.m. 


&. 


-I. 


ft. oa.m 


14. 10 14. 8 


4- o „ 


I' a 


-10.^ 


10.10 „ 


11. 8 


19. 1 


7-45 ». 
8. „ 

»»5 M 


&. 1 


-0.10 


»«5 » 


14. II 


14.10 


4>5 » 
4-IO » 


3- 3 
1- » 


3:J 


•0.45 I* 
10. „ 


18. 6 
16. 4 


10.10 

'*• i 

u. 


&. ft 
&. 6 


0. ^ 
0. 


*-3o „ 
a. 45 >. 


15. 
15. 


'4- 9 
14. 8 


4-45 » 


J. I 


-4-7 


10.15 „ 


14. 4 


8. JO „ 


1.11 


0. 7 


3- „ 


14.11 


14. 5 


5. o „ 


J- I 


-1.7 


TO. JO „ 


11. 5 


10. 7 


»-4J » 


J. 


«• 4 


3- 15 *> 


14. 6 


14. 


5>5 » 


!• o 


"3 


»o.45 »» 


10. 8 


«. s 


9- „ 


J. 


a. I 


3- 30 „ 


14. <^ 


13. 6 


Sio „ 


J. 


4.C 


Noon 


9. 1 


7. e 


9«5 » 


3- « 


ft. 10 


3*45 » 


IJ. ft 


Ift.lO 


5-45 >* 


A. II 


7-» 


ift. 15 p.m. 


1% 


1:1 


9-30 „ 


3. 9 


3. 7 


4. „ 


'*• ! 


ift. ft 


6. 5 


10.5 


IX.JO „ 


9-45 >. 


4- « 


4- 3 


4.15 » 


II. 8 


II. 4 


$.»5 M 


lo. h 


>3.7 


»-45 *t 


5. 5 


I. s 


10. „ 


4.10 


5. 


4-30 „ 


10.11 


10. J 


6.|o „ 


«5- I 


17. 1 


I. „ 


4- 7 


0. 


10.15 „ 


u 


i? 


4-45 >. 


10. 


6-45 » 


19. 


10.2 


»»5 >• 


J. 10 


-I. ) 


10. JO „ 


5. „ 


tl 


7. o „ 


ai.io 


XI. IC 


l.JO „ 


3- 4 


-3. 4 


io.45 » 


J:? 


2:^ 


5-^5 »> 


11 


7-15 .* 


*4- 7 


15.6 


>-45 » 


3. 


fj 


II. „ 


5.30 „ 


l-? 


7- JO „ 


»7- 5 


17. s 


1. „ 


&.I1 


11.15 .. 


8. II 


8.11 


1-45 .» 
0. „ 


5. 9 


7. 45 „ 


JO. 


19.7 


».»5 >. 


li 


-7. 5 


II. JO „ 


10. 


9- « 


*• 1 


4.10 


JI. 8 


li.c 


*-30 „ 


-«. 7 


lii^t. 


10. 9 


10. 5 


6.15 „ 


4. » 


4. 


«.«J » 


1*. 7 


J1.I 


».45 » 


*. 7 


-9- 7 


II. a 


II. I 


$•30 „ 


J. II 


11 


».JO » 


n. » 


|i.C 


3- „ 


»• 7 


-10.6 


11. 15 a.m. 


II. 7 


II. s 


^45 >• 


3- 4 


••45 », 


33- « 


31.4 


3- 15 » 


::i 


-If. 5 


11. JO „ 


11. 1 


11. 4 


7. „ 


ft. II 


I.IO 


9- o » 


33. a 


3».S 


3 30 », 


-XI. 1 


"•45 »> 


11. 8 


11.11 


7- '5 ». 


'• i 

3. 6 


I- 4 


9.«5 » 


|i.ii 


30.4 


3-45 >. 


». 9 


-11.9 


1. „ 


ij. 6 


M. 5 


7.30 „ 


0.10 


9- JO t. 


19.11 


18.4 


4. „ 


1. 9 


-13.3 


«.»5 » 


14. 1 


I J. 10 


7-45 » 
8. „ 


3. 5 


0. 6 


9 45 M 


xj. 6 


16.7 


4.>5 


1. 9 


-IJ.7 


«.3o „ 


14. 6 


14. ft 


3. « 


0. 3 


to o .. 


14 IT 


14 r 


4.|0 „ 


1 It 


-fT 81 1.45 .. 


14. U. 6» 8 15 ,. 


1 ro-o Q 



LEVELS 07 81JB7ACE 07 WATER 

Taken aimnltaneoaaly at dead low water, at yariona Stationa between Netbam 

Dam, and the month of Biver. 

Datom, Zero of Cnmberland Basin Oange. 



At • a.in., after a HEAP IIBE, 
rising 17 feet 7 inchea on 17tb 
lCBrdi,1880. 



At 8.80 p.m., after a SFEDTO TIBEt rising 
28 feet Oinchea, on March 88rd, IMO. 



Distance 

from 

Bownham. 



Miles. Yards. 
3 i3ao 
3 t. 

X 440 

* I. 

Bownham 
o 1675 



3 

4 

i 



ft 



&o 
1440 



Height 



Feet 
17.89 
17.00 
15.80 
15.16 

9-54 

-o 06 
-1. 15 
-1.17 
-1.40 
-1.56 
-1.75 



Bnzfeoe 
Slope. 



Height 



lin 



jjoo 
io6ft.5 

939- 1 
5078 



Feet 
17.17 
16.35 

«5-49 
14.6ft 

9.56 

3 58 

0.55 

-*.44 

-J. 89 

-5 "5 

-7-47 
-9. II 



valootqr 

iBMldMMMI 

M da* of 



Ft per sec 
ft. 9ft 
a. 09 
ft. 80 
4.01 

3.4S 



3.66 
ft. 61 

4-37 

»-55 

a. 97 



Snrfkce 
Slope. 



1 in 



48x9 
4604 
1517.4 

"043.4 
8ftft.9 

1658.4 

1851. ft 

364*. 3 

4«90-5 



l«*«lle 



•Mik altar 



16.33 

14.6ft 
9.04 
ft. 4ft 

-0.90 

-I 59 
-5. 06 

-5 97 
-8. It 

-9.36 



267 



■% 



THE BIVEB SEINE ESTUABT -Plate XEL 

The Seine aflbrcto a remarkable example of the effect of sand-hanks 
and other obetracdons at the emboachure of a river upon the propagation 
of the tidal wave. In coni^qnence of these obstructions, the foot 
of the wave assumes, at spring tides, the form of a " Bore," he-^ 
qaently of great height ; this and the accompanying phenomena are 
in many respects similar to those in the Severn, and tend strongly to 
confirm the remarks made upon that river. We have therefore extracted 
the various facts given in a valuable memoir on the subject, by Partiot, 
^igineer of the "Fonts et Chauanees'^ see Vol. I, 1861. 

Plate Xn., which is compiled from the same source, shews thefonn 
assumed by the wave surface, in its passage up the river. 

The Seine empties itself into the sea at Havre, where the tidal range 
is at sprines, 22 feet, and at neaps, 18 feet. Its general direction from 
Havre to Tancarville and Qnillebeuf is nearly due east, after which it 
gradually tends to about S.E., in which direction it continues until it 
reaches Paris. Thronghoat its whole length the course is extremely 
tortuous, in many instances the bends forming more than half a circle. 
At Quillebenf, what may strictly be called the Estuary commences ; the 
channel (which higher up is of comparatively small wiitth), suddenly 
expands, and gpradnally increases in width, to the parallel of Honflenr, 
immediately above which it attains to its maximum of 3,700 feet. At 
Honfleur the width contracts to 2,30U feet on a line joining it and the 
opposite '* Pointe du . Hode*' on the northern shore ; from this line the 
estuary again widens oat until it attains a width of 3,0i)0 feet on a line 
joining HAvre and the opposite Point of Villerville, which may be con- 
sidered as the limit of the estuary From La MaiUeraye to Tancarville 
the river is embanked continuously on the northern shore, and on the 
southern , to a sufficient extent to render the channel uniform, as far as 
a point midway between Quillebcnf and the latter point. The general 
jfall of the river bed, as indicated by the low water surface shewn on the 
section, varies (iom .01 to .13 feet per mile above Qnillebeuf, whilst from 
this point to the sea the (all is very much greater, varying from 
.33 to .83 feet per mile, and the whole estuary is choked with sand-banks. 
The channel winds amongst these bank.s, and bifercates a little above 
the Pointe du Hode ; one of the channels keeping along the north shore 
and pasring by H&vre, the other keeping to the south by Honfleur. 

Between the years 1855 and I860, several observations were made 
and experiments tried to determine the rate at which the foot of the 
wave travelled ; the velocity of the bore, the velocity of the streams of 
both. flood and ebb, and other circumstances bearing upon the subject. 
The observations from which the tables and plate are compiled were 
taken every \ hour on the 1 8th August, 1856, two days after full moon. 
The wind was from the N.N.E., and the water at Mantes (above the 
influence of the tide) stood 6 inches higher than the ordinary summer 
level. The watehcs of the oliservcrs were carefully set to Paris time at 
the nearest stations of the Paris and HAvre Railway. 

The table of the Seine, in the sequel, gives the simultaneous observed 
heights of the tide extending for 100 miles from the mouth of the 
river; the velocities of the head and foot of the tidal wave (but not 
of the bore itself), are given in a second table computed therefrom. 
From this table it will be seen that between Havre and Tancarville, 
where the bed of the river rises rapidly and is much encumbered by 
sand -banks, as before stated, the velocity of the foot of the wave was 
only 557 feet per minute, or nearly 6^ miles per honr ; whilst from 
Tancarville upwards, where the channel is more regular, the mean velocity 



266 



was 1,274 ibet per minute, or 14} mfles per hour. The relodtj of 
the flood stream at Yilleqaier, 332 feet per minate, immediatelj after 
the passage of the wave ; and half-an-hoar later it attained its maxi- 
mnm of 362 feet per minnte. The ebb stream did not oommcnoe to 
mn downwards until the tide had fiillen 8.2 feet after high water. 
The lemarkable parallel between these facts and those obMrved by 
Captain Beechey on the Serem, which will be seen on reference to the 
tables of that rirer, give additional weight to his observations on the 
origin of the bore, in which both rivers are similar. 

Critical examination of tiie tidal waves and streams in plates I. to IV .b 
will throw mnch light on the manner in which these estnaries of tidal 
wave-producing character are afiected by the generating tides whence thev 
spring. The estnaries of the Seine, Lynn, St Halo, and Severn have au 
a funily likeness, the ebb and flow at the month bdng sach as to produce 
a duplicate eflect. 



AS TO THE BORE OP THE SEINE. 

On the 6th May, 1866, the second day after new moon, the following 
observations were made at St. Jacques, between Le Hode and Tancar- 
ville, at which point the bore attains its greatest development. The 
depth of water in the channel below Le Hode was only 14 inches. At 
8.20 the ebb stream was still running down ; the bore could then be 
distinguished forming itself in the whole of the southern part of the 
bay. The tidal wave arrived first from the south, the sand-banks on 
that side of the bay being less elevated than on the north ; after having 
covered a portion of these banks, it then hegui to come in from the 
north. It arrived at St. Jacques at 8h. 29m. For ten minutes previous to 
this the water level had not varied sensibly, the stream had continued to 
mn downwards, and no indication of any kind had preceded the wave 
itself. The hdght of the first wave fonning the bore, measured on a 
fixed tide gauge, was 7.15 feet ; it was follows by five or six secondary 
waves, having intervals between their crests of from 5 to 7 feet. Aft^ 
their passage, the surface became tolerably calm, and at 8h. 81m. ISsec., 
or '2m. ISsec., after the arrival of the bore, it stood at 5.6 feet above 
low water. At about 8h. 40m. the northern bore arrived, causing an 
elevation of about 16 inches. 

On the 7th March, 1860, during a flood, when the water stood 14.9 
feet above summer level at Mantes, the bore attained a height of 8.6 
feet at Tancarville, where it arrived at 9h. 5m. 

Above Tancarville and Quillebeuf the bore is aeain developed, where- 
ever the channel becomes shallow, disappearing mere it is deep. 

At Vieux Port, on the 5th May, 1856, the day after new moon, the 
tide fell continuously up to nine o'dock. It wen rose 8 inches in 
4m. 40sec., the stream stul running down ; at this moment the Bore ar- 
rived, producing a sudden rise of 5.45 feet in the water surface. About 
6 minutes afterwards there was a sudden drop of 16 inches, after which 
the water again began to rise regularly, and attained the level which it 
had at first suddenly acquired in 12m. SOsec., tki\er the arrival of the 
bore. By means of obsiervations at a point 5,020 feet higher up the 
river, the velocity of the bore was found to be 1,055 feet per minnte. 

The bore sometimes attains the height of nearly 10 feet below Tan- 
carville, and in a great portion of the length between Quillebeuf and 
Dndair. In this part experiments were made with three floats, viz., one 



L 



fmum 



269 



flwunming on the sarface and two othera loaded so as to swim at 3.3 
feet and 8.2 feet below Ae surface respectively. The deptii of the 
channel was from 16 to 20 feet. The experiments were made on the 
25th SeptembCT, full moon, and three following dajs. The following 
are the results : — 





Wave 






Time oecapled, and Velocities of Floats. 






airiTed 
to MM 


Floata 

started 

at 


Oistanee 

pamd 

orer. 




Height 
of Rfrar 

at 
Mantes. 


Diite^ 


let 


and. 


>rd. 








Time. 


VeL 


Time. 


VeL 


Time. 


VeL 


UK. 


K. M. 


M. U. 


Feet 


Bees. 


Ft per 


Bees. 


•tr 


CMC*. 


Ft per 
MinT 


Feet. 


25 Sep. 


7 »4 


7 J6 

8 17 


1640 


j6x 


»7i 


,60 


»75 


365 


170 


0. 59 


»• If 


7 14 
S lo 


JI80 


365 


540 


'S? 


54* 


360 


55° 


ft »f 


26 ,, 


9 * 


}i8o 


3<^ 


f*' 


362 


651 


360 


112 


0. 39 


27 „ 


8 39 


9 46 


3280 


304 


647 


301 


300 


0. 43 


29 ,, 


9 o 


9 )5 


1640 


JOO 


3a« 


300 


3X8 


300 


318 


0. 46 




Q l8 


10 18 


ti8o 


36< 




.-Ji£. 


-i^ 


-££. 





The velocity, a little after the arrival of the wave, was less than that 
about an hour later, which, however, did not exceed 655 feet per minute. 
The velocity of the Bore was always, even under the most favourable cir- 
cumstances, much less than that at which the wave was propagated. 
This latter being on the average 1,067 feet per minute, the day ^ter 
new moon. Finally, it will he observed that the lowest float had in 
nearly eveiy instance ereater velocity than the other two, which would 
appear to prove that uie current was greater at mid depth than at the 
surface. 

On the 27th August, 1855 (full moon), a surface float was placed 
between La Mailleraye and Candebec at 8.57 a.m. This float moved 
downwards over a space of 1,970 feet, at the rate of 19.7 feet per 
minute, the velocity then lessened, and the float passed over a 

roe of 2,790 feet, at the rate of 121 feet per minute; after 
t the velocity was reduced to 116 feet per minute. At '9.26 
the float encountered the tidal wave, and became motionless for 
40 seconds, after which it recommenced to travel downwards, 
slowly traversing a space of 49 feet in 2m. 35sec. It then commenced 
to travel upwards, moving at first only 7| inches in 8m. 50sec., then 2.5 
feet in 18m. 25sec., and finally it arrived at its point of departure at 
lOh. 7m. ISsec., travelling at the rate of 183 feet per minute. 

On the I3th and the 25th September, 1855, experiments were tried 
with floats at Candebec On Uie 13th, two floats were used, viz. ;— one 
at the surface, and one 10.8 feet below, and on the 25th three were used, 
vis. : — at the surface, at 5 feet below, and at .or near the bottom. In 
both experiments the lower floats began to ascend the river on meeting 
the tidal wave, some seconds before those on the surface. On the 25th, 
the difierence was as much as 2m. 15 sec. 

These facts tend to shew that in the middle of the Seine, where the 
bore assumes the form of an undulation, the ascending current is not 
produced immediately after the passage of the wave, that it is propagated 
Jrom the baTtks towards the eentre^ and that it oommeoces at the bottom 
of the river sooner than at the swrfaee* 



SI 



270 



TIDES OF THE SEDTE. 

TABLE 07 TEB SI8S AVD PALL OF A 8PBIFQ TIDS, 

At TBriooB points, taken simnltaneonsly flrom the month of the river to the end of the 
tidal ranffe at the Pont de I'Arche, extracted from a Paper by Mods. Partiot^ In- 
genienr, m the *' Annalea dee Fonts et Ghaosstes/' 1861. 

Zero i» level with the Offl of the Bhiioe of Yanban's Oanal at Le Hftrrs. Sectional 
area of river at Yienx Port, between QuUlebeof and YiUeqnier, at Low Water 
12,614 square feet, and at High Water 24,100 aqoare feet 



8PBIH0 UDEy Angoit ISfh, 1866, two dayi after F«U Moon. 




VEL0CITIB8 OP 



FOOT AKD HEAD 07 TIDAL WAVE. 



HamM of Stotioiii. 



Between 

Hivre and Le Hode 

Le Hode and Tanoarville 

Tanoarville and QniUebeaf ... 

Qoillebeaf and Yuleqaier 

villeqaier and La Kailleraye 
La Mailleraye and Duclair .... 

DacUdr and La Bonille , 

La Booille and Rouen , 

Rouen and Blbeuf , 

Blbeuf and Pont de TArohe 

Hftvre and Pont do rArobe... 



Dis- 



apart 



I 



feet 
6c,6i8 

7»73o 

i»5i7 

J3.794 
81,678 

59' 184 

77,100 

S8.7H 



544485 



Tidal 



feet 
34.0 

17.4 
9.6 

I'. 6 

4.6 
54 

!.7 

17 



Interval of 



ov 



Foot of 
Wave. 



} 



ICins. 
165 



45 
45 

45 

JO 

45 
75 
30 



510 



Head of 
Wave. 



liins. 

45 

»5 
45 

H 

105 
45 

75 



485 



Bate per 
lOiLiite. 



Foot 



feet 

557 

i*a|8 

i»367 
75" 
I.8J7 
».o45 
i,jio 
i,oft8 
1,190 

L067 



Head. 



feet 
1,041 
a»5i6 

t,i5J 

«»I7» 

584 

i>3io 

i,oi8 
1,190 

1.261 



271 



THE OntOVSE ESTUABT.— Plate Xn. 

The section of the Gironde Estnaiy of the GaroDne is redaced from 
one annexed to M. Fartiot'8 memoir. The surface slopes are shewn at 
the commencement of the bore, with those at high and low water ; the 
form of wave is analogous to that of the Seine ; bnt the character is not 
so violent as in the Sevem or Seine, and the cause is shewn in the 
absence of sand banks with rapid fall at the opening oat of the estoary ; 
the low-water tine is very different from that of the other rirers. 
Sufficient detailed information is not giyen, to allow of the compilation 
of a table of heights and velocities. 

THE TIDES OF THE HOOGLT.— Plate XVI. 

This river has great peculiarities ; like its parent the Granges, it is 
full of shifting sands. Its bore is not imlike that of the Severn, but 
in rise of tide is far inferior, being more tike the Seine in that respect. 
The Baghimtte and Jeltingee branch out of the Ganges, at a verjr consider- 
iU>le distance apart, but join about 60 miles above Calcutta and fonn 
the deltaic branch of the Ganges, which becomes the Hoogly where the 
tides flow. In the dry season of the year, between Novemb^ and March, 
these rivers cany very tittle water, so that the Hoogly tides are then 
certainly not affected by the volume of fresh water. But when the 
flood period of the Ganges Is at its height, in August and September, it 
flUs the Hoogly and spreads over the adjoining pluns ; the entire body of 
the river is raised between 4 and 7 feet at Calcutta, varying with the tides 
and volume of flood water descending from the inundation. 

The flrst idea of a high spring tide meeting. a flooded backwater is 
that the great upward volume of water dams l»ck and forces into in- 
creased height tne downward waters ; but against this efiect we have to 
place the fact, that die increased height of water affords greater sectional 
area on the turn of tide, and thus affords higher power of discharge, 
up to the time of low water ; and again, however great the rising tide, it 
can but receive the downflowing waters into its breast ; there is no dynamic 
force which can throw the waters backwards or higher by reason of the mere 
fact of the waters being increased in volume. It is from these considera- 
tions that it is very much to be doubted whether spring tides are not, 
ccBteris paribuSy instrumental in effecting the discharge of floods, although 
they may occasionally assist in raising the top of high water in extreme 
cases, increase of sectional area must decidedly reduce the height of 
tidal wave, per se, just as per contra shoals are creative of the bore. 

It is not easy to predict the exact effect of flood water upon the tidal 
wave ; greater capacity of channel for the passage, of the wave must ne- 
cessarily predicate an eartier establishment and a flatter undulation ; or, 
in other words, greater velocity of wave ; and accordingly we find by 
the following table, that on comparing the low waters of four spring and 
neap tides in two months of high flood, with the same number of tides in 
two months of drought, there is 3 ft. 11 ins. elevation by flood at low water 
springs, and 5 ft. 6 ins. elevation at neaps ; but the high waters under the 
same conditions are raised by floods 6 feet at springs, and 5 ft. 6 ins.at neaps ; 
the increased sectional area, therefore, gives a greater proportional efiect 
to spring tides in clearing off flood water, or, in other words, the river is 
decidedly not so much goi^ged by floods during spring tides as during 
neaps.* The probable cause is that there appears to be a greater swing 



* It is quite oonsistent that springs should rise higher during floods flrom the 
better access of the tidal flow from the Bay of BengaL For similar oonditians 
we may refer to the tide lines of the Bevem, plate YII, and remarks on the eflbot 
of freshes at page aei. 



272 



of tide at low-water springs than at neaps, which therefore asmsts in 
delivering the downward stream of waters by the increased nte-of fall 
thereby aoqnired. By the last table it will be seen that the mean 
half-spring tide line is elevated by floods 4 feet 11.5 inches, bat in 
neaps it is elevated 5 feet 6 inches. These facts are quite consistent 
with what we have observed in the case of the veiy rare floods which can 
sensibly affect the Thsmes. We will content ourselves by leaving to 
the stadent of these pecnliarities the following taUes ; the sabject is one 
that falls under consideration of the engineer practically, and the case of 
the Hoogly is an exc^lent test of the kind of effect produced on tides 
by alteration of depth and volume. 

The table, page 278, contains the heights of one spring and neap 
tide for each lunation for one year, viz., from the Ist July, 1843, to 
the 24th of June, 1844. From this table is constructed a diagram (fig. 1), 
plate XVI., which shews the gradual swelling of the tides during the flood 
season and the concurrent lines which join the extreme tides of each class. 

The remaining tables contain the results of comparisons of the mean of 
four spring and neap tides in the seasons of flood and drought, with the 
oomparativo efiect on the various levels of high and low water, of the 
mean range of tide, and of the mean half-tide level, above referred to. 



CN)vcLin)iHe umrAHM. 

We have now finished our sketch of the different Tidal rivers with the 
tables in which their various peculiarities are exhibited. The object has 
been to pourtray the actual condition and efiect of tidal phenomena, such 
as the velocities of the tidal waves, sectional area, width, depth, &c., in 
each case ; so that any one wishing to search for a precedent as it were, to 
shew what may be expected, under given circumstances, can here find, 
at all events, an approximation to the investigation. Much more could 
be done if professional men would find time to follow up the subject, and 
we have an earnest hope that this will be done. Ck>nstant calls from our 
daily avocations have broken in upon and frequently destroyed the work 
of long previous considemtion, which has had again to be taken up at a 
great sacrifice of time and labour. In the labour we have, at all events, 
found that there is a mine of unexplored phenomena open to inquiiy ; 
the great aim of our own study has been to trace out the bearings of the 
laws of g^vity, 'with which the Tables conmience, and which detennine 
all hvdrodynamic computation, and to shew how they are affected by 
friction, and other resistances ; all are mere modifications of this first 
cause, and the practical result of their various fbnns and conditions is 
what the Engineer requires for a skilful adaptation of his works. 

Plates Xyn. and AVUi. contain the curve of tides for Spring and 
Neaps for several places in the English and Irish Channels. They con- 
taln the extreme cases of great tidid wave on the Severn, and small wave 
at Yarmouth ; also the tides at Portland and Cardigan, which have a long 
irregular low water, owing to their embayed position ; and Southampton, 
which has a period of rest at an intermediate period between high and 
low water. Attention may be drawn also to the tides of the Seine, 
which has a very unusual period of high water. 

The three remaining Tables in this division contain schedules of the 
size and dimensions of the principal docks in the United Kingdom. 
Those of the Mersey and Port of London are brought up to the present 
■date (March, 1861 ), but some of the places at page 276 are only as up to 
1 853. Very laiige docks have been since constructed at Hull, Sunderiand, 
the Tyne, Dublin, Cardiff, Swansea, &c. We have not included in the 
Tables any of the great naval dodcs, in the dimensions of whidi such 
strides have been made. 



W0m 



273 



SIVER HOOC HY, AT CALCUTTA. 

TABU or Sntnre AHD heap TDBS tn th« Tmv ia43-44. 

Satom lsZ«n of S]dd«rpon Old Dock TId* Oaoft; monililg tU«t only anneordtd. 



DATS. 


8FBING8. 


DATE. 
1843-4. 


HEAPS. 


1848-4. 


H. Water. 


L Water. 


DUEornee. 


H. Water. 


L.Water 


Diibee. 


• 


Ft Ina. 


Ft Ina. 


Ft Ina. 




Ft Ini. 


Ft Ins. 


Ft. Ins. 


Jnly 1 


>7 


3 


5 


o 


IX 


3 


July ...... 7 


14 


10 


7 





7 10 


13 
S9 


17 
to 


lo 

o 


1 


lO 

8 


IX 

n 




4 


21 


\t 


7 



9 
8 


1 


? t 


August ... 12 


lO 


3 


7 


to 


IX 


5 


20 


H 


1 


9 


10 


t I 


27 


XI 


o 


7 


X 


13 


lo 


September 4 


«5 


9 


X 


September 10 


»9 


1 


? 


X 


IX 


o 


18 


14 


6 


1 


9 


i t 


26 


20 


3 


10 


13 


$ 


October ... 2 


■4 





■ 


October ... 10 


i8 


8 


6 


t 


IX 


i 


17 


14 


6 


8 


1 


6 I 


24 


»9 


o 


6 


IX 


80 


'4 


10 




7 4 


November 8 


'4 


10 


5 


8 


9 


X 


November 16 


IX 


4 




4 


7 


23 


15 


8 


3 


8 


IX 


o 


80 


II 


T 




8 


6 7 


December . 8 


I] 


1 


4 


5 


9 


4 


December 16 


II 


X 




10 


7 4 


28 


H 


3 


8 


II 


o 


31 


10 


6 




8 


5 10 




n 


8 


3 


lo 


9 


10 


Jannaxy... 16 


10 


I 




6 


6 7 


21 


13 


8 


3 


o 


10 


8 


80 


9 


i 




I 


i I 


Febnuuy . 6 


«4 


X 


X 


6 


II 


8 


Febraaiy 18 


9 




X 


21 


;i 


I 


3 


o 


IX 


I 


28 


9 


6 




6 


1 J 


ICeroih ••■••• 6 


5 


3 


4 


"3 


I 


Mftrob ... IS 


9 


II 




8 


27 


«5 





3 


3 


II 


9 


29 


9 


8 




4 


5 4 


April 6 


\l 


8 


X 


4 


i< 


4 


Axiril M.M. 11 


10 







1 


1 t 


19 


7 


3 


8 


IX 


II 


27 


II 


6 




May 8 


\l 


II 


3 


7 


«4 


4 


May 10 


IX 


X 




4 


6 10 


16 


o 


4 


7 


II 


s 


26 


IX 


I 


i 


3 


6 10 


June....*.**. 2 


■z 


6 


3 


8 


M 


10 


Jane 8 


IX 


10 





6 10 


17 


i6 


I 


5 


4 


lO 


9 


24 


«4 





6 


5 


7 7 


Hma 


i6 


II 


4 9 


IX 


X 


Mean 


IX 


4 


6 


I 


6 3 


lUOAOf H3gh 


Wa 


ter 


at 8 


pri] 


«■' 


and 


Heaps, in Fl( 


Mdi 


uid 


Di: 


rBt 


M801UI. 



(From mean of four mcniiiig tides in Aag., Sept., Jan. and Feb.) 





Vlooda. 


Drr Deaaon. 


ElerationbT 

Floods. 


Mean of Hiflrh Water SDrinin 


Ft Ina. 
XO X 

15 I 


Ft I&a. 
14 X 

9 7 


Ft Ina. 
6 aww 


,. „ MeMDB 


5 6 vsw 






Diflteenoe of High Water at Springs A Neaps. 


5 I 


4 7 


6 



Low Water at Springe and Veape, in Flood and Dry Seaeone. 



Mean of Low Water. Springs 


7 
9 4 


3 I 
3 »o 


] II SLW 


,, „ Neaps 


5 6 VLW 






Difibrence of Low Water at Springs A Neaps 


» 4 


c 9 


' 7 



Xean Biee of Tide and Half-tide. 



Mean rim of Sminir Tides 


«3 » 
5 9 


II I 
5 9 


X I 


., NeaD , 





»» *'«wwi/ It • 




Diflianence of Sinrlnff and Nean rise 


7 5 


5 4 


X 1 







Half-tide line above sero at Springs is 


13 7-0 

IX X. 5 


III 


4 ll*f 


„ „ Neaps'is 


< 6.0 






Difference of half-tide at Springs and Neaps 


t 4.5 


I II. 


6.S 



Therefore the mean elevation by floods is 6 feet 9 indties ; the maTJmTim 
bedng at hlfl^-water Neaps 6 ftet 6 inohesy and TnlnimnTn being at low-water 
Springs, 3 feet 11 inches. 



h and 'Width of EBtrwaw Loelu, 



n.xATHAsanPB. 



Lorooir. ^ 

TTegtera Dock 

TobBooo Dock and Puiagt .. 



Timber Dock „. 



ndiilBu; 

TIOIOBU 
frx* 



"SmSS"^;.... 

lUinDDik 

Cater Dook 

Upper liock 

TimborFoIld, No. 1 .. 



^S^£S?^^ .. 



ESss: 



J'l 



WtnMmtl p. . Waal nixt 



mwhiios 



^^ 



nHMM-l 



^S3 



rsEiK 



M 






BSRVLTB OF HDIL I 



•B LtHDH lUlUunH. . . . . 



276 



TABLE OF BIMEVSI0H8 07 DOCKS, 

Depttu of Wattr ovw Silli, Area of Water Bpeee, 4e. *e., of eoma of tho 
prinoipal EetaMiehinimti in fhe United Kingdom. 



HAKE OP POBT 
ASBOFBOOK. 



HABTIEPOOL. 

Victoria Dock 

W. Uarbonr Dock ».. 

Ditto Extenaion 

SUVBSELAHp. 

Wearmouth Dock 

Sonderland Dock^ 

LEITH. 

East Dock 

West Dock 

NetrDock 

DVNDEK 

William IV. Dock« 

Earl Qrey Dock 

Victoria Dock 

K0NTB08S. 

Dock 

ABEBDEEV. 

Victoria Dock 

DUBLIK. 

Royal Canal Dock 

Ola Cnatom Hooae Dock 

George's Dock 

Large Dock 

Grand Canal Dock 

OALWAT. 

N ew D ock 

LDIESICX. 

Dock ' 

OOEK . - 

North Dock 



South Dock 

BBISTOL. 

Camb«rland Basin . 
Bathorst BasiQ ..... 



Floating HariMor .... 

PIYKOXJTS. 

Great Western Dock. 

HEWPOBT. 

Doc k 

CABDIFP. 

Bute Docks 

SWAHOEA 



L 



IP8WI< — 

Dock I8J7 

GBEAT OBDCSBT. 
Dock I 1846 

HULL. 

Old Dock 1774 

Humber Dock 1801 

JancUon Dock i8a6 

Bailtray Dock 1845 

Victoria Dock J 1846 

Ditto Half.Tide Basin 

GOOLB. 

Barge Dook i8ao 

Ship Dock k8io 

MarbonrDock i8zo 

Steam Ship Dock 1836 

R ailway Dook \ 1847 

BTOGXTOir. ^ _ ^ 

Middlesboroogh Dock 1839 



Date of 
Com- 



Al«tt 

of 

Water 

Spaee 



183a 
1844 
1850 

i8|7 
1850 

1800 

1848 

1815 

tin 

1839 

1844 

1789 
1770 

Ti 

«79J 
1833 



1804 

1847 
1835 

1838 
1849 



Bimennoni of 
Wet Book. 



*c4 

h 

6 
>9 

5i 
Sk 
5 

si 

144 

3i 

}|4 

li 

If 
4i 

7» 

7f 
6 

IX 

4i 

2 

63i 

ij 

4 

SI 

3S 
so 

10 

I 

III 
3 

li 

4 
10 



Lngth 



TanU 

645 
158 
310 

645 
XJO 

»3J 

*40 
180 
410 

IJO 

950 

151 

'39 

107 

»i7 
1005 

139 

»70 



H5 

140 

1800 

420 

170. 

IIXO 

600 

567 
300 

*«4 

240 

480 
no 

190 
ai34 

87 
120 
200 

400 



Brilh 



At High 
Water 

ftprtaw 
TIdaa 



Tarda Pu In. 



160 
126 

165 
>47 

100 

100 

KOO 

126 
140 
170 

iq6 

»75 
3* 

100 
120 

»9J 
130 

::} 

90 

70 

85 

IfO 

73 

66 

80 

140 

167 

84 
no 
140 

,il 

"5 

I 

130 



BEPTH 

Over am. 



I 



o 
o 



22 

21 

»3 

20 
20 

>7 

■ • 

»9 

15 
18 
21 

»9 
21 

IJ 
18 

18 

18 

18 

x6 
22 o 

18 6 

30 

• 

3ot034 

«4 
»J 



6|o 

2 



»9 
21 

16 

26 

18 
M 

• • 

*J 

9 
«7 
»7 
19 
19 



o 
o 

o 
o 

o 
o 
o 



19 o 



At Low 
Water 

^S2? 



Fkliia 



6 
5 

7 

I 



o 
6 
6 

6 
o 



o o 



8 o 



o 
6 
6 

6 

o 

6 



5 
3 

10 

4 

• 
m 
e 

7 
I 



6 o 



o 
o 



6 

•I 

3 

4 

ft 
5 



7 
9 



o 

o 

o 
6 



6 
6 

9 

»7 
'7 
'9 
'9 



6 
6 

o 
o 
o 
o 

o 



J o 



WhUh 

of 

Bn- 

tranoe. 



Ptlna. 



45 

4& 

50&60 



60 
40 

li 



90 o 

G .. 

c 160 

O 



D0A70 250 



36 

35 

J6 

JO 



4J 



J4&45 
3J 

4J&35 

80 

61 

|6 c 
50&7C 

4J 

70 



If Entered 
l^Look. 



PLlna. 
148 



IJO 

G 210 



O 
O 

230 O 



1x8 o 



180 
ISO 



o 
o 



180 o 



260 
81152 <^ 
186ft 

IJO 



38 

n 

43 

50 G 
60A3X 



22 

29 

33 
$8 

J8 

JO 



■ 



2JO 
22J 

:u 

IJO 

300 

X2X 

ij8 

130 

• a 

ISO 



o 
o 



7* 
119 



6 72*119 22&33 



110 
210 



Brdth. 



Ft lu 
4J O 

70 o 

• •• 

36 o 



40 

II 



60 o 

27 o 



36 

3J 



4J o 
J4&67 

i 3J 
JJ o 

6x o 



4J 

70 

38 



32 o 



120 660&32 



19 

01 29 



J8 
J« 



132 o( 30 o 



MMHAL OF HYDROLOGY. 



DiyiBION IV. 



.<nr 



BAINPALL AND EYAPOBATION; 



WITH 



TABLES OF BAINFALL, 



Awv 



PISTRIBUTION OP RAIN, 



&c., &c. 



22 



N.B. — ^DepthB of rain and amount evaporated ara always oxpro oa o d 
in Engliah inches; generally abbreTiated '' in«" 



DIVISION IV. -RAINFALL AND EVAPORATION. 



TABLE as COHTENTS. 



282— 28S 
284 



286 



286—288 



•Rumfty Vii^ nm^ T ^fyifkill ,— .ArrRngftmimtof thft Tahlflft. Distribution 
of RainfUl on Mountains and on Plains. Kffects of heavy 
Bains in Mean Latitudes and the Tropics. The Ocean. The 
principal aouroe of Bain 281—282 

Ck>nipari80n of BafilfoU on the loe and windward side of Moun- 
tain Banjos. Secondary Banjoes of Hills on the lee side of 
Moimtain Ranges subject to but; little Bain. Be flection on the 
Bain&U in the interior of Continents, and on the influence of 
Oceanic and Atmospheric Currents on the Distribution of Bain 

BainfiBJl at differmit heights abOTB the ground. Tables for computing 

On the Tables of Mountain Rainfall.— Very heavy fuis in 

certain limited belts on Mountain Slopes. General increase of 
Bainfall with the height of the Mountain Bange, which does 
not apply to precipitous isolated peaks. Bainfall in November 
and December, 1862 ... 

Oompazlsbn of the RainfstU at Bombav, Mahabuleshwur, and 
the Deocan. ESbct of elevation on the BainfUl over section 
of country between Manchester and Grimsby, ftom Geneva to 
Naples, through St. Bernard, Turin and Bome 

Tablee of Flow from large districts give a just idea of the ftdl of 
Bain; instances thereof— District of the Bann, Tiber, Sa6ne, 
Bhone, Arve, Cure and Po. Bainfall in the Lake District of 
Cumberland, on the West of Scotland, and on Dartmoor 

IffOimtaln Rainfall of the Indian Peninsula. Comparison with 
the Bainfall on the Sea-Coast and the eflbct of the Gh&ts on the 
vai^ur brought by the South-west Monsoon. Intensity of 

On the Distxibation of Rain,— BemarkB by Eaton 

Australasia —Character of the BainH&n. Mean Monthly BainfUl. 
Frequency of Bainy Days and details of heavv Falls. Annual 
Variation of Bainfall, anddetails of Monthly fiiU 

Intensity of Rainfall in Burope— Details of heavy Storms 

On SYaporation.— Difficult of gauging the amount of Evaporation. 
Negative Evaporation. Evaporation from water and land. 
Vaporisation. Beference to Dalton-Gau^e experiments. Im- 
portance of a knowledge of Evaporation to the Engineer. 
Results of experiments on Evaporation at Plaistow, Dijon, and 
Tottenham. Bi^op Watson's experiments. Other remarks on 
Evaporation in diffbrent climates 206— 2P6o 

Comparative Rainfall and Evaporation. 

Notes on the Tables of Evaporation and BalnflJl at Little Bridy, 
Dorset, Oxford, Bombay,I)emerara, and Copenhagen, Denmark 

Mean Temperature in diflbrent latitudes 2965 

p ^-nTwrok ,— •RalTifWTl— TgTiLpnrftrinn frmn water and grftus 206o-296(l 

Water Supply and I>ndnage Areas, Table of 297 

SynopeiS of "R^i^-nftin in Great Britain in four-monih periods ... 296—299 

Monthly Rainfall and Intensi^ at several plaoea in Great Britain... 600-^801 



290 

291— 29« 
296 



Mbnthly BalnfUl of Great Britain. 

STA.ZXOVB :— OuemBey, Falmouth, TorquAT, Clifton* Lampeter, 
Hawarden, Oxfoid, Binningham, Norwich, York 

Liverpool, BtomrharBt, Southampton, Worthing, HartweU, 
Bedford, Nottingham 

DnmfHes, Ettrick Pen Top, Wan LockheadjDrumlanrig. Bow- 
hill, Stobo Castle, Mihie Graden, Thirlstane, Tester, 
Bast Xiinton. . . ••• ••• ... ... ... ... ... 

Olasgow. Greenock, Thurston, Millfleld, Callton Mor, BaJfour, 
Pittenween, Trinity Gadc, Easdale, Tyndrum 

Forth, Kettins, Barry, Arbroath, Fettercaim, Castle Newe, 
Elgin, Stomoway, Sconrie 

Aberdeen, Banchory, Straohan School House, Braemar, Castle 
Newe, Dunfermline 

Tongue, Sandwich, Breasay, Fassaroe, Douglas, Greenodc, 

f \Jx Mitl- pCIX1~0 ••• ■*« ■•• •*• •■• •••* ••• *•« 

Remarkable Falls of Bain— Distribution at Greenwich ^ 
Oreat Britaizi.~DistribuUon of Bain in 18S2 and 1860 

Montbly Rainfall of Ireland. 

SuiTioirs .— Cork, Ennis, Galway, Cong, Markree, Ferbane » 

Balnalack, Belturbet, Armagh, Toome, Belflut, Caatle 

jjv V I iTi g nai 1 1 ..t #•, ... ... ... ... ... ... 

Dublin, Limerick ••• ... ... ... 

Kountain Raln&Il, Oreat Britain and India. 

Details of Monthly Fall on Pentland Hills 

Stations between Manchester and Grimsby 

Cumberland and Lancashire 

Bolton-le-Moors and Whitehaven— Rainftfcll and Eyaporation ... 

Loch Katrine and Gorbals Districts 

Bombay. The Ghite. The Deooan 

Rainfall of India and the Ctolonlea. 

8iA.non:— Palemcottah, Shenkottah, Cape Comorin, Yaorloor, 
Cochin, Quilon, AUepy, Trevandnim, Poena 

Calcutta, Madras, PiUam, Peninsula Gh&ts, Himalaya 

Moulmem, Penang, Malacca, Singapore, Cape Town, Hobart 
Town, Launoeston, Geelong, Adelaide, Bahamas, Jamaica, 
Barbadoes, Gibraltar, Malta, Corfh, ManritiuB, Colombo, 
Hong Kong, Fremantle, Auckland 

^Ralnflfcll, Evaporation, and Temperature. 

British BainfUl and Evaporation, Little Bridy, Dorset^ Oxford 
Tropical Bainfyi and Evaporation, Demerara, Bombay 

areat Britain.— Details of Montlily Rainfall, divided into 

Ibur-month periods. 

Sxision :— Exeter, Baadhnrstk Cobham 

Greenwich, Chiswick, Epping 

Feilde's Weir, Hitohin, HaUfax 

Index to Annoal Rainlkll of Belgium, Germany, Switaerland, 
Ita^, France, and the French Colonies ^ 
Do. do. Austrian Empire 

Details at Stations. 

j)6igiuin ... ... ... ... ,,, ,,, .,, ... ... 

^^^M^. ■ I IW I jT ... ... ... B9. ... ... ,,, ..« ... 

A^enmarx ... ... ... ... ,,, ,,, ,,, ... ... 

Switserland and Italy 

Rome and Jerusalem 

The Austrian Empire, including Lombardy 

Udine — Rainflull and Temperature in four-month periods 
France and its Colonies— Oviedo, Havannah, Santa F6 

Index to Annual BainfleQl of North America 

Ditto ditto Russian Empire 

Details at Stations. 

Bussian Empire 

North Amniina. 

TTtdoT to Plates .... 



PA-Gl 

301-303 
804 

306 
306 
307 

808 

800 
810-811 

81»~«U 



316 

317 
818 



810 



825 

826-887 

888 



880 
880 



881 



836-4M1 
842-846 
846-847 

848 



860 

861—8^ 

369 

880 

861 
86^-867 
866—867 
368-873 

874—876 

876 



87&--S78 
379—382 

383-384 



281 



DIVISION IV. 



EAINTALL AND EVAPOEATION. 



BEKASK8 OK SAIN7ALI. 

It is not the object of this treatise to discuss the subjects of Bainfall 
and Evaporation as meteorological questions, but rather as engineering 
iacts, on which to found data for estimating the supply of water likely 
to be obtained, the force to be acquired, the volume of flow to be expected, 
the drainage to be carried off, or the fltx)d to be eocountered. 

The matter contained in this part of our treatise will therefore be ap- 
plicable only when used with due regard to the conditions of surface slope, 
geological formation, evaporation of the climate, concentration or distri- 
bution of rain, and other conditions of the wind and temperature. To 
elucidate these effects, the treatise on rivers and flow, in the preceding 
division, is drawn up with an endeavour to throw some li<i;ht on the prac- 
tical results of the meteorological phenomena of rain and evaporation. 

Dealing with apparently the most capricious of all iJie elements, we 
nevertheless And a tolerable certainty of averages, and we may be sure 
that if we were fully acquainted with the law of distribution of moisture 
we should find that it varies with the cUmate and latitude in far greater 
regularity than our knowledge can yet carry us. It being therefore our 
wish to lay before the engineer or student facts rather than theories, we 
have collected the records of rainfall from all parts of the globe, as given 
in the subsequent pages ; for a description of the series it will be more 
suitable to refer to the table of contents of this division. 

Generally, the plan of giving simply each month's rain has been 
adopted, but at many places in Great Britain and its colonies there is also 
added the greatest fall in one day, and occasionally the evaporation. 

The Tables commence with one shewing the rain at many important 
places in this country averaged over a stated number of years, with the 
maximum and minimum quantity for those periods. Each year is formed 
of three periods of four months each — commencing with November, 
December, January, and February, for the winter division; March, 
April, May, and June, for the spring division : July, August, September, 
October, for the summer division ; each year being nuide up of these 
periods, instead of the customary twelve months. 

This plan of division is adopted because, for purposes of comparison, 
it gives the rainy seasons of these seaboard latitudes in better arrange- 
ment than the ordinary division into months; for instance, a wet 
November and December are not unusually followed by a dry January 
and February, and vice versd. To expect, therefore, a small discharge 
in March because the fall of rain may be small in the two preceding 
months only, would be calculated to lead into error. Moreover, the 
amount of deduction for evaporation, and especially absorption, will 
arrange itself more systematically under these divisions. 



23 



282 



The table sacceeding the abore, pages 300- 1, is constructed fipom good 
specimens of the hill and the low country of Great Britain. 

Glencorse is a deep valley in the Fentland Hills, 10 miles from Edin- 
burgh, where observations have been kept by the Water Company since 
1830, at the level of their springs near the lowest point of the basin. The 
hills rise precipitously all round to heights of 1,200 to 1,600 feet above 
the sea, and are about twelve miles from the Firth of FortJi. 

GUmourton is in a valley of flatter character, with the A vondale moors 
rising to 1,600 feet, at two to five miles distance in the south and west 
direction from the gauge — the hills are twentv miles firom Glasgow, and 
the same distance from the west coast of Scotbmd. 

The Boston observations are well known to represent the steady cha- 
racter of weather of the low country of Eastern England. 

In this Table the object has been to shew in juxtaposition, the amount 
of rain falling in quantities so heavy as to begin affecting streams, and 
the total amount given by the rain-gauge during each month. The 
minimum quantity, taken as " heavy rain" falling in each twenty -four 
hours, is .3 inch. The average number of days in the months and years 
in which the rain per diem equalled or exceeded this, is also given in the 
Table. 

It will be at once seen, by those familiar with the subject, that this 
mode of arrangement indicates an amount probably available for streams, 
not at all unlike the result of experiments : whether so small a fall as 
three-tenths of an inch will influence the flow must depend on the 
season and previous state of rains. 

In September or October in a dry year in these latitudes, it takes an inch 
of rain repeated twice in one week materially to affect streams, unless the 
country is precipitous and hilly. Even in such a district as the Arve, 
draining the vast precipices of Mont Blanc, it takes a week of the first 
autumnal rains to produce much effect on the river. 

In tropical and semi-tropical countries, these remarks have no appli- 
cation ; the rain always falls much more heavily, and between the rains 
the earth dries up and cracks open in a manner not appreciable in moist 
climates. The probable consequence of this is that far more water is 
absorbed for vegetation and upward exosmose, for the fissures admit the 
rain to such a depth as to preserve it from the direct action of the sun 
and wind. 

The tables devoted to rainfall of Great Britain, contain the details of 
several important stations in different parts of this country ; from pages 
336 to 347, standard observations, over a long series of years, are given 
in periods of four months. We have also selected the rains of the years 
1852 and 1860, as being remarkably wet in many parts of Great Britain; 
and with the rsiinfall we have eiven the number of days rain, in order 
to shew the mean intensity. The heavy falls of rain between 1837 and 
1858 at Greenwich,* are given from Mr. Glaisher's labours, with the 
object of shewing the intensity of rain in this climate. See pages 310 
to 315. 318, 324, &c. 

In reflecting upon his sources of water, the engineer must regard the 
ocean as the great fountain of supply. At the periods of the year when 
rains are copious they are always carried by winds from the sea with an 
ordinary v;!locity of from 20 to 30 miles per hour, so that the range of 
territory within reach of precipitation from sea breezes is very great. If 
mountain chains intervene, these winds are divested of their vapour to a 
great extent, so that the interior continent has a drier climate in pro- 



* The first five years of the Greenwich rainfiill, 1820 to 1824, at pa^ 342, are 
doubtful tnm. some disturbing cause; the returns do not accoid with those 
ti^en in the neighbourhood : they are too large. 



283 



r 



portion to what it would have if the monntaina had not eidsted. As an 
example, we find that the lake district of England is unusnaUj wet, but 
the high moor country ronnd Newcastle, at some distance to leeward, 
has a dry climate. Owing to the same causes, the Rhone and the Po 
carry a laiger volume of water than the Rhine or the Elbe ; and the plains 
of Germany have a small rainfall, which is generally more evenly distri- 
buted. In short the great precipitation in countries subject to winds 
from the sea, disappears as the same winds are carried so far inland ob 
to have parted with their surplus vapour. There are of course excep- 
tions to this rule, even in the case of mountains ; those for instance of 
New Mexico and the secondary or interior ranges of Palestine, and 
likewise those bordering upon the Caspian, appear not to be productive 
of rain ; manifestly because the winds of the ocean cannot reach them 
until they have lost their moisture on anterior ranges. We know, in 
proof of this, that the Circassian Mountains and the hills of Jerusalem, 
and the Pacific coast, all have prolific rains ; yet if such rains were to 
extend over the basins of the Caspian or Dead Sea, or the Great Salt 
Lake, or the sources of the Arkansas and Missouri, these receptacles 
of surplus waters would be entirely altered in physical character, and 
the rivers would have such immense volumes as to render their floods 
of a stupendous character. There must be in all countries at any 
distance from the coast a certain limited proportion of the rainfall, 
which proceeds from re-evaporation of rain which has watered the 
antecedent territory : analogy would lead us to believe that this is a 
more constant or regular quantity than the capricious and variable supply 
from the ocean itself; but at the same time, it must vair with the 
amount previously deposited, and therefore follow the original rain, 
but in a less desree. If this theory be correct, we may regard the 
minimum years of rain belonging to interior Continental locidities as 
indicative of precipitation due to re-evaporation alone ; years of greater 
rainfall receiving their additional supplies of rain from a prepon&rance 
of winds from the ocean. 

We believe these to be the principles which determine the distribution 
of rain, subject nevertheless to many other conditions, which are baffling 
to those who attempt to discover prime causes : thus the warmth of the 
ocean depends on causes excited at great distances ; for instance, the 
temperature of the gulf stream, which undoubtedly washes the western 
and northern shores of these islands, is due to the warmth of the tropics; 
on the other hand, the climate of the land is influenced to a greater 
extent by radiation, owing to the non-conducting power of the sub- 
stratum* 

We are liable, in the temperate climate of these islands, to the influence 
of a vertical sun, transferred during the fall of the ^ear, by the natural 
currents of the ocean ; this medium for conveying a high temperature is at 
any moment liable to be covered by winds which may convey the cold of 
nOTthem glacier and ice-fields to our climate within a few hours. For 
instance, it is not likdy that tiie gulf stream travels from the Equator to 
our latitudes at creater rate than 24 to SO miles per diem, requiring 
150 to 160 days for travelling the distance : but an ordinary wind can 
ranffe over the same distance in 4 to 6 days, or can reach us firom the 
nomern latitudes in half that time. 

To these exciting causes we may look for the heavy rain storms of May 
and October, the fogs of November, and the copious rains which gene- 
rally accompany some one or more of the winter months in these latitudes ; 
placed as they are so as to form the battle-field of heat and cold, which 
are the contending positive and n^ative elements of the regenerative 
powers of the eartii. 



284 



BAOTFALL AT DIFFEBEKT HEIOHTS ABOVE THE OBOUED. 

For engineering purposes, and indeed for any really philosophical 
inquiiy, it is always most desirable to have a strict knowledge of the 
amonnt of rain which reaches the ground ; if, therefore, the rain gange 
has been observed at any giyen height above the ground, the result will 
have to be increased, in oiSer to obtain the real amount which would have 
fallen upon the ground itself. Mr. Heniy Storks Eaton, M.A., has re- 
cently investigated this subject by averaging a great number of places in 
this countiy, where gauges have been observed simultaneously on the 
ground and at different heights above it. The details will be found in a 
paper by this gentleman in the Proceedings of the British Meteorological 
Society for November, 1861. Mr. Eaton remarks that " in investigating 
the rainfall of any district, two points have to be determined before the 
results are strictly comparable. The indications obtained by observation 
must be reduced to some common standard, both as regards the series of 
years during which observations have been made, and the elevation of 
the gange above the ground. 

** It is a well-established fact, that the amount of rain registered by a 
gauge decreases as the height above the ground increases. No very satis- 
factory explanation has hitherto been advanced for this singular phe- 
nomenon. Some attribute it to the action of the wind pn^ncing an 
eddy in the funnel of the gauge, whereby the rain is either swept out or 
prevented from entering ; others suppose that the cold rain- drops in 
falling condense the circumambient vapour on their surface : but that 
recently proposed by Mr. Baxendell, of Manchester, seems the least 
objectionable ; he imagines that particles of water which have lost the 
caloric of elasticity are capable of existing in the atmosphere in an in- 
viable state, and that the rain-drops collect these in their fall. The fact 
of the decrease, however, is undisputed ; and to obtain an approximation 
to the actual value, the records of the Meteorological Society, and the 
tables furnished by private observers, have been called into requisition ; 
the results are given in the following table, from which it wiU be seen 
that, taking the rainfall at the surface of the earth as equal to 1,000, at 
50 feet above the ground it is .775 of that quantity." 

Table of divisors in column B, to be used for increasing the quantity of 
rain observed at any given height above the ground in column A, so as 
to make the observed quantity of rain equal to that which would have 
fallen on the ground in the same place : — 



A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A. 


B. 


A, 


B. 


ftot. 


aiv. 


feet. 


div. 


feet. 
21 


div. 


feet 


div. 


feet. 


div. 




:^ 


XI 


.917 


.876 


.8j5 


41 


.801 




IZ 


.9x1 


11 


iv 




.831 


4» 


.798 




979 


n 


,916 


aj 


.867 




.817 


41 


.795 




•97* 


'4 


.911 


H 


.863 




.814 


44 


:i^ 




965 


»5 


.906 


as 


.859 




.8x0 


45 


6 


.958 


16 


f 


26 


.855 


36 


.817 


46 


.786 


i 


.951 


\l 


2 


.851 


\l 


.813 


47 


.78} 


•945 


^8^ 


.847 


.810 


48 


.780 


9 


■9H9 


»9 


Z9 


.841 


J9 


.807 


49 


.778 


10 


•93J 


ao 


.881 


30 


.8J9 


40 


.804 


50 


•775 



Observers cannot be too particular in selecting a position for rain 
gauges, evaporating dishes, or wet bulb thermometers ; unusual currents of 
wind are easily excited or prevented, and if this occurs, what is apparently 
very inappreciable, will cause the results to be more or less abnonnaL 



285 



OH THE TABLES OF XOTJKTAnr BAIKFALL. 

Among the practical applications of Meteorology, one of the most 
nsefnl to an engineer is ^at relating to the fall of rain ; for upon it 
depends the supply of the most necessary of elements, one of the most 
fertilizing, and at the same time one of the most destractive of meteoro- 
logical agents. In these days, when manufactories and populations 
increase so rapidly, rivers are frequently consumed for mill and steam 
power, or spoilt by contaminations ; for these reasons the collection of water 
for artificial distribution has become a great branch of engineering. It 
has been long known that high mountains, especially when exposed to 
a seaward aspect, are watered by an abundant deposit of rain ; but the 
enormous amount of this rain within certain limited belts in such 
districts was not so accurately known until the researches of the 
Swedish meteorologist Schow, and our own acute observer, Colonel 
Sykes, F.R.S., threw a light on the subject. 

Having reference to the variable character of the rainfall in mountain 
districts, we have a development of the same law of decrease of rain as we 
ascend very precipitous elevations, which appears to prevail when we 
elevate the rain gauge directly above the ground ; notwithstanding that, 
ceteris paribus, the rainfall increases as we rise up the slope of a 
mountain. 

For instance, in the rainfall of France will be found records of rain 
kept at Bcsanpon, 1,200 feet above the sea, where the mean rainfall was 
44.2 inches, and at Fort Bregilie,600 feet higher, the quantity was only 25 
inches on three years' average. Very similar anomalies occur in com- 
paring observations on the rock of Edinburgh Castle, with others taken 
at iwints in the locality about 400 feet lower. 

ft is much to be desired that the law could be ascertained which would 
give an approximation to the increr.se of rainfall as we ascend hill 
countiy ; to obtain this it would be necessary to observe at a great 
number of stations thickly placed on given ranges of hills. 

We have placed among the tables the most extensive collections of this 
kind available ; among others wilt be found observations kept by the 
Edinburgh Water Company at several points on the Pentland Hills, 
which have been very kindly supplied by Mr. Bamsay, the able manager 
of the company. See pages 819 to 329. 

Colziimi, the extreme westerly station is 1,080 feet above the sea on 
the north-western slope of hills which rise above it to about from 1,200 to 
1,600 feet above the sea. Glencorse, 735 feet above the sea, is on the 
leeward of the eastern slopes of the same range of hills about 10 miles 
from Cokium. Harelaw, 876 feet above the sea, is situate 5 miles east 
of Colzium on the north-west slopes, but projecting more northerly than 
Colzinm. Swanston, 550 feet above the sea, is about 3 miles due north 
of Glencorsej on a projecting spur of the same hills. With this explanation 
we leave the tables for the examination and analysis of the reader; but 
will take the opportunity of alluding to a remarkable feature of the year 
1852, which was a very wet year in this part of Scotland, as it was in 
the Cumberland mountains, and in the south of England. In this latter 
district, November was pre-eminently the wettest of the five wet 
months from August to December ; but it was in December that the 
extraordinary outpouring of wet was developed in North Britain and the 
Cumberland Moimtains. This will be seen by comparing the table in 
question and those of the mountain rainfall of Cumberland with the 
details of the year 1852 throughout England. This kind of progression 
in the period of greatest rain is not singular, and may be seen on 
comparing the rainfall of other vears for stations placed at great difltances 
apart, as referred to in the article on the Po, Division H. 






236 



S9 



It appears that at Bombay the mean of 83 yean' rain&ll (April to 
November) is 76.8 inches at 20 feet aboTe the sea, while the rain for 
21 years at Mahabukshwur 130 miles inland, and 4,500 feet aboYe 
the sea, is 253 inches ; but this amount is rapidly reduced when passing 
eastward of the Ghats, for within a few miles distance there were only 
from 70 to 80 inches, and finally the Deccan (or diy countiy) has a 
rainfall of from 16 to 20 inches per annum. 

Among the tables will be found the rain&ll for three years, 1858-9-60, 
which gives a kind of section across from east to west of England between 
Manchester and Grimsby ; it has been kindly placed at our disposal by 
Mr. Bobert Smith, the manager of the Sheffield and Lincolnshire canals. 
The relative heights of the stations shew very clearly the influence of 
elevation over the Penine chain, and the gradual reduction of moisture 
as we descend eastward to the low country of Lincolnshire. 

There will also be found a similar kind of rain section from the north 
of the Alps at Geneva to St. Bernard, Turin, Florence, Rome and 
Naples ; this section may be extended into Germany, by referring to the 
rain tables of that country. 

Probably a more just notion of the manner in which rain is collected 
in a hilly countiy will be found in the tables of actual flow from large 
districts, where we have the result of the rain gauge, diminished by 
the amount of evaporation. We may here find a flow of from six to 
nine inches in depth off a low country in a year, and from 51 to 111 
inches off a district entirely mountainous, but of one-sixth the area of 
the former. 

The district of the Bann, which includes both mountain and low- 
land, gave nearly 22 inches in 1856 ; the mean of many years* flow 
of the Tiber, at Rome, is also 21.62 inches. The basin of the Sadne, 
11,557 square miles, gives generally from 20 to 22 inches; one-half of 
this area is the dry countiy of Burgundy, but the higher portion is formed 
by the Jura and Yosges mountains ; if one-half gives six inches of flow per 
annum, the mountainous portion will give 36 inches, so that the maxi- 
mum precipitation at the vapour plane of this area, must be very con- 
siderable. The Rhone, at Geneva, appears to give a mean flow of 48.24 
Inches off its 3,000 square miles of area ; the Arve, which is stiU more 
exclusively mountainous, gave in 1856 about 78.72 inches off 772 square 
miles, an amount nearly accordant with the quantity gauged off the 
Grampians. 

According toYlgnon, the depth of rain is about 60 inches in the basin 
of the Cure at Montsauche, an affluent of the Yonne. The height is 1830 
feet above the sea ; the mean annual flow of the river is .75 of this rainfall. 

Lombardini considers that the mountainous part of the basin of the 
Po gives a mean annual flow equal to 47 inches of rain over the surface ; 
if tUs flow be three-fourths of the annual rainfall, the average rain over 
the mountains must be equal to 63 inches. Ha^vdng relation to the 
discharge of the Alpine rivers, Adda, Ticino, and Dora Baltea, the rain 
on the mountains must be 94 inches, 122 inches, and 138 inches 
respectively; from these results Lombardini concludes that in the 
Alps the rainfall must be four times that on the plains of Lombardy. 

The results are consistent with the elaborate researches on the climate 
of the Alps, by Schow. 
The late Mr. MiUer, of Whitehaven,* made a series of observations on 

* It is not generally known that the expense of lifr. Miller's observationB was 
defirayed by annual BabBcrlptions firom several engineers and other gentlemen, 
interested m the investigation; the fliots devSoped were nrevionsly quite 
unknown. Dr. Dalton certainly does not appear to have bad any idea of the 
immense rainflaU of the seaward valleys of the Comberland Mountains. 



287 



the moimtain districts of Cumberland, which have been reported in great 
detail in the Transactions of the Rojal Society ; his results give about 46 
inches of rain at 250 feet abore the sea ; i .«. from 40 inches for a diyyear 
to 55 inches for a wet one. The deep yalleys up to 1,000 feet above the 
sea had from ISO to 160 inches ; but higher up the precipitation was less ; 
at points 930 to 1,340 feet above the sea level, it was 90 to 130 inches ; 
and again, at 3,000 feet above the sea, the fall was reduced to an 
average of from 76 to 84 inches. 

On the west coast of Scotland, again, we have at Glasgow rainfall 
of from 24 to 86 inches near the level of the sea, while at points of the 
Grampian mountains 1,800 feet above the sea, the records range from 
70 to 109 inches of rainfall. Some of the Western Highlands and 
Islands have a prodigious rainfall ; it is partly due to this, probably, that 
the wild and rocky mountains of the coast have gathered no superficial 
earth on their slopes, in the ages elapsed since uieir elevation irom the 
ocean bed. The rain at Tyndram is indicative of what the precipitation 
may be near the mountains ; at this place 133.2 inches of rain fell in 
1 861 ; and at Fortree in the Isle of Skye, there was a fall of 139 inches in 
the same year. 

These £Eu;t8, which we have here put in a general way, form the basis 
of water supply to our mountain rivers, and it is on such sources that 
the most effective reservoirs must be formed, so as to retain the rain, 
which in high localities is as capricious, and falls if an3rthing in a more 
concentrated form, than in low districts having comparatively small rain- 
faJl. There is one fact, however, apparently inseparable from localities 
near the line of saturation, viz. : that the climate is invariably moist apd 
springs are perennial. 

The tables given under the head of Mountain lUinfall, and on other 
pages, will shew the several facts herein referred to. The point of maximum 
rain depends on the mean height of the plain of condensation, or mean 
cloud level, which may be calculated if the preyailing meteorological 
condition of the locality be properly ascertained. The mountains in 
Cumberland produce great rains at low elevations ; the rainfall at Seath- 
waite, at 368 feet above the sea, is 138.5 inches on an average of seven 
years, aad on the Stfe at 748 feet above the sea, there are only 20.6 
inches more rain, the total being 159.1 inches ; in 1861 the fall amounted 
to 182.6 inches at Seathwaite. 

In the Cumberland mountains the amount of fall in one day is marvel- 
lous for such a high latitude : on seven years the maximum daUy fall of 
each month makes a total average of twenty -eight inches in a year, which 
is, in other words, an average maximum fall in twenty-four hours for each 
month in the year, of 2.33 inches ; the maximum day's rain having been 
6.22 inches. See pages 322 and 324. 

In Devonshire -tne rain on the coast varies from 25 to 40 inches; on 
Dartmoor, say 1,100 to 1,400 feet above the sea, the rainfall is from 58 
to 75 inches ; the following tables give the amount registered at Holne 
Vicarage, about 690 feet alx»ve the sea, on the lee side of Dartmoor ; — 

In l^vember, 1850, 5.59 fell in the week, from the 17th to the 23rd. 
In January, 1851, there fell in the following weeks : — 



1st to the 4th 
5th to the nth 
12th to the 19th 



inches 4.42 
2.96 
3.94 



t» 



$t 



19th to the 25th 
28th to the 31st 
On the 20tfi. 



inches 6.11 
4.45 
4.17 



I) 



»f 



On the 6th Nov., 1852, 3.91 inches fell, in the night ; the fall this 
month was — 



1st to the 6th 
7th to the 13th 
14th to the 20th 



inches 7.36 
2.68 
5.82 



*f 



»» 



2l8t to the 27th ... 
28th to the 30th ... 
12th to the 18th Dec. 



inches 4.94 
0.37 
6.30 



tf 



>» 



288 



BAOTFAIX AT EOLHE, DSVOH. 



Jannaiy ... 
Febraary .. 

March 

April 

May 

June 

July 

August.... 
September. 
October ... 
November 
December 



Inches. 



1861. 



11.88 

3.89 

12.54 

3*63 
1. 32 
5.80 

7.40 
4.17 

2.»4 

5.88 

a. 44 
5-73 



1862. 



77.91 



19.98 

3-97 
1. 70 

1.85 

4-74 
10. 51 

0.65 

6.43 

3»4 
11.58 

11; 17 

15.70 



1863. 



11.41 
5.00 
1. 56 
4.61 
1.15 
5.81 
5.18 
6. 17 
3.78 

11.59 
6.87 
6.69 



xoi. 53 



71.83 



1864. 



14.46 

1-75 

»-73 
0.78 

5.68 

5.18 

1.17 

1.32 

1. 81 

5-33 
4.85 

4.51 



50.67 



1866. 



0.41 

4-54 
5.09 

'•35 
4. 16 

6.44 

4.90 

2.56 

1.17 

8.79 

1.96 

6.81 



48.30 



1856. 



11.15 
7.30 

3-95 

9-35 
6.09 

2.49 

1.67 

3-75 

5-39 
4.89 

1.30 

9.17 

66.60 



XOTIKTAnr BAIR7AIX OE THE IHBIAir PENIHSULA. 

The following is from Col. Sykes^s description of his records of 
Mountain Rainfall in the Indian Peninsula, of which we have printed 
an abstract in the tables of Indian rainfall. 

In the table of rainfall of India, we commence at Bombay, and pass 
over the Ghats into the Deccan. The sanitarium at the summit of the 
Gh&ts is about 180 miles from Bombay, while Sindoht is only one mile 
eastward, Sattarah being about ten miles east of the summit of the Ghats, 
and Phultun forty miles. 

Of the three stations on the Tinneyelly or C(»«maadel Coast, Shen- 
kottah is near Courtal^um, immediately at the east base of the Gh&ts, 
and about uxty miles ftt)m the sea coast of Travonoore ; Palemcottah 
is about thirty miles from the east base of the Gh&ts, is sixty miles from 
the western coast, and in the latitude of Quilon; Vaurioor is only 
three miles north-east of Cape Comorin. The western and eastern 
stations are separated by the Ghats which in some places rise to a 
height of 6,00Q feet, but within ten miles of Cape Comorin they break 
off into separate eroups and peaks of much loss height. Dodabetta 
is part of the Noilgberries and the highest point of the Peninsula 
of India. Mahabuleshwur, Mercara and Uttiay Mullay, at the common 
leyd of 4,500 feet, are nearly in the same meridian, but between 9** and 
IS'' north latitude, and a;re situated near to the western scarp of the Ghats. 

In the district between the sea-shore and the base of Ghats between 
Cape Comorin and Goozerat, and along the western face of the Gh&ts, 
the rain increases with the elevation up to a certain height, afler which 
it again diminishes with increased height. This does not hold good, 
however, on the elevated lands to the eastward of the crest of the Bombay 
and Malabar Ghats. Along the sea-coast the falls vaiy from 28.35 
inches at Cape Comorin to 11S.26 inches at AUepy, but increase at 
stations nearing the Ghats, at different elevations to more than 300 
inches at 4,500 feet, above which height the falls gradually diminish in 
quanti^. 



289 



Mean of 7 stations western coast, at sea level, is... 
At 150 feet, Rutaagbeny, in the Concan 

At 900 feet, Dapolee, Southern Concan 

At 1,740 feet, Knndalla Pass 

At 4,500 feet, Mahabaleshwur, mean of 15 years 
At 4,500 feet, Mercara in Coorg, mean of 3 years 
At 4,500 feet, Uttray MuUay, in Travancore 
At 6,100 feet, Kotergheny, on the Neilgherries ... 
At 8,640 feet, Bodabetta 



81.70 inches. 
114.55 
134.96 
141.59 
254.05 
143.35 
263.21 

81.71 
101.24 



If 



ti 

it 
If 



ff 



it 



tt 



Hence the elevation of the line of maximum fall would appear to be 
about 4,500 feet, and above this level the supply of rain is diminished. 
MahabuleshwTU*, Mercara, and Uttray Mullay, although differing greatly* 
in latitud,e, lie nearly in the same meridian, and are all at the same 
elevation. The comparative small fall at Mercara is accounted for by the 
fact of its not being so near the western scarp of the Ghats as Maha- 
buleshwur and Uttray Mi^Uay. The effect of a station being placed a 
few miles east of the Ghats upon the fall of rain is shewn on comparing 
Mahabuleshwur with Paunchgunny, the latter place being 11 miles 
eastward of the former and at a lower level of only 500 feet ; yet the 
mean fall of 15 years ^t* Mahabuleshwur was 254.05 inches, and of the 
latter 50.69 inches. In 1849, the contrast ^as still greater, the fall at 
Mahabuleshwur amounting to the enormous quantity of 338.38 inches* 
while at Paunchgunny only 58 inches fell. 

The chief stratum of aqueous vapour brought from the equator by 
the south-west monsoon is of a high temperature, and floats at a lower 
level than 4,500 feet ; Col. Sykes speaks of looking over or upon the upper 
surface of the stratum'at 2,000 feet. It is dashed with considerable violence 
against the western mural faces of the Ghats, and is thrown up by these 
barriers in accumulated masses into a colder region than that in which it 
naturally floats ; it is consequently rapidly condensed, and rain falls in 
floods. The uncondensed vapour which escapes up the chasms and over 
the crest of the Gh&ts affords the precarious and scanty supply tp the 
lands to the eastward, shewn by the tables. 



OH THE IHTEN8ITT OF RAINFALL IK HIDIA. 

As might be looked for, the greatest fall of rain in any one day, is met 
with in the records of those station^ whei:e there is the greatest annual fall. 
At Mahabuleshwur the greatest fall in any one day in 15 years was 
13.06 inches on the 2nd September, 1833, but the months of June, 
July and August, have numerous instances of a daily faU of 11.32 
inches, 12.76 inches, and 12.69 inches in those months respectivdy. 
The greatest monthly fall at Mahabuleshwur was 134.42 inches 
in Jufy, 1840. At Uttray Mullay the greatest daily fall ijgi three 
years was 15.1 inches on the 14th October, 1845. On the 11th. 
December, the same year, there was a fall in one day of 11.4 
inches, and on the 9th October, 1844, the fall in one day was 9.0 
inches. In 1846 there was not a daily fall approaching these figures. 
In Bombay, in 1845, the greatest daily fall was 4.71 inches on the 24th 
July, and the next year, on the 16th July, a daily fall occurred oC 
5.16 inches -, but Dr. Buist mentions that on the 1st July, 1844, there 
was a faU of rain in 24 hours of 7.44 inches, 2 inches having fallen in 
70 minutes ; but this was on the flrst burst of the monsoon, which 
set in later than usual by 1;hree weeks.; on the 10th Ji^y 9.43 inches 
fell, the greatest of the yeai:. In the Deccan there is i^arely a greater 
daily fall than 2 inches, but in the Sattarah records, a maximum daily 
fall of 4.40 inches in four years is stated to have occurred in April^ at 
the commencement of the monsoon. 



290 



It is found both on the sea coasts and on the table lands of the 
Dcccan that within Tciylimited areas the differences in the fall erf lain 
may be yeiy great. With nine rain gauges, employed in the small 
island of Bombay, in the months of Jane and July, in the monsoon of 
1849, tiie quantity collected in the different gauges ranged, in July, 
from 46 inches to 102 inches, and in Jane from 19 inches to 
46 inches. At Sattarah, with throe rain-gauges within the dis- 
tance of a mile, they differed in their contents several inches fh)m 
each other, and at Mahabuleshwur and Paunchgnnny, nearly on the 
same level, the latter place being only elcyen nules to the eastward of 
the former, the difference in the annual fall of rain was respectively 254 
inches and 50 inches ! The normal conditions are, that there is a 
much greater fall of rain on the sea coasts than on the table-lands of 
the Deccan, but that the Gh&ts, intervening between the coasts and the 
table-lands, have three times the amount of the fall on the coasts, and 
from ten to fifteen times the amount of the fall on the table-lands of the 
interior. The paucity of the fall of rain at Cape Comorin and the 
mouths of the Indus would also appear to be a normal condition ; this also 
occurs in the Red Sea ; at Aden, for instance, the rain only falls once in 
two or three years, although there is an abundant supply on the hills 
within sight of ^e fort. At Kuirachee, it is well known that the 
moisture is only in the form of dew. Rain certainly does not fall more 
frequently than at Aden. 

Mr. Eaton makes the following remarks on the diatribntaon of rain : — 

The position, height, and direction in which mountain ranges extend, 
materiallv affect the deposition of rain over wide regions. Where 
ranges of mountains trend from north to south in the tropics, the pre- 
vaihng easterly trade winds deposit a large fall of rain on their eastern 
slopes ; to this cause may be attributed the vast rivers in tropical Sou& 
America, which have their origin in the lofty Andes : on ^e western 
side of these mountains, in Peru, rain very rarely fidls. 

In extra-tropical regions the normal direction of the wind is from the 
west, and the prindpu &11 of rain is on the western face of the hills : 
for instance, the Andes of Patagonia, the Rocky Mountains in North 
America, and the Scandinavian chain, are all well watered on their 
western faces ; while the country lying on the other side of these ranges 
is but scantily supplied with water. 

It must not be foigotten, that where great condensation takes place 
the wind has a tendency to blow from all quarters towards that point : 
mountain ranees, however, often modify this law. In India, for example, 
the raius whidi attend a vertical sun are intensified by the action of the 
great barrier of the Himalayas; but as these mountains prevent an 
influx of air from the north towards the area of condensation, and conse- 
quent expansion from the development of latent caloric, the compara- 
tively cool air over the Indian Ocean flows in as a strong monsoon to an 
abnormally high latitude. Among the Polynesian Islands, where the 
mountains occur as isolated peaks, the wind, in the rainy season, is 
invariably found blowing towards the point of greatest condensation. 

On the open ocean the fall of rain is generally much less than it is in 
the vicinity of land, excepting, perhaps, near the equator, and where cold 
and warm currents of water occur in close proximity, as off Newfound- 
land. Two districts, however, have been indicated as regions of nearly 
constant precipitation — the belt of ocean to the south of Cape Horn, and 
the North Pacific, near Behring*s Straits : in both places the excessive 
precipitation keeps the barometer about an inch below the general 
average of the whole ocean. 



291 



OH THE GSABAOIXB 07 BADTFALL IV AirSTBAI.ASIA. 

Australia ia a oonntrj of iiregolar rauiB in every respect. Generally the 
summers are hot and dry, and the evaporation is excessive ; the heaviest 
rains are dried np rapidly, and produce no other effect than to fiU np the 
cracks in the soil or to produce stupendous floods. Bivers in tiuit oountiy , 
with flat open plains for their water-courses, are known to rise 25 feet ; 
and there are places where some of the rivers rise from 60 to 80 feet 
vertically. For example, the year 1801 appears to have produced 
a stupendous flood on the Hawkesbury River; but this was neiuly 
eoualled by one in 1806 (spoken of as the great and memorable flood), 
•mien the water at Windsor rose 97 feet above ordinaiy level. Jevons 
remarks that, considering the banks are about SO feet high, and wide flats 
extend on each side, the statements appear incredible ; but it must be 
true, for repeated testimony speaks of these floods attaining an immense 
height. In 1816, June 2nd, the height was 85 feet, "wiSiin 12 inches 
of the height of August, 1809.'* 

These extreme floods, like the droughts, follow long periods of rest, 
during which the droughts are extreme. Many of the rivers of Australia 
at some periods form a succession of lakes, which last for a considerable 
time, but gradually disappear by the process of evaporation, after which 
the beds remain dry for several years continuously. This fact gives rise 
to the extensive salt plains of the interior, and generally to the desolate 
character of large breadths of the continent. The Murray river, however, 
rises like the Nile, being lowest in July and highest in December, the 
difierence being about 17 feet ; it appears to drain mountains which are 
exposed to periodic rain-winds from the eastern coast. 



XIAjr XOHTHLT RAINFALL OF ATOTBAT.AfirA. 

Mr. W. S. Jevons, of Sydney, has written an interesting sketch of 
the climate of this countiy, from which we quote : — 



LoeaJities. 




Honths of 
ObMrvatian. 



IA 



Jazmaiy .... 
February... 

llarch 

^pril 

Jane 

July 

▲ngoflt 

Beptfember ... 

October 

Noyember ... 
December ... 



.oi 

*.59 

7.71 
4-14 
j.ii 

:«? 

•J9 



I 



IS 



.J7 
•7J 

i.u 
1.7a 
X.39 

*-71 
1. 00 
1.89 

1.0| 

1 1.70 



Total of year i5.)9 



19. AI 



»J4 



1.76 
1.66 

1. 12 
X.85 

1.97 

A. 10 
1.85 
A. 90 

A. 68 

J. 57 
1.9A 



A9.X6 



I 



J6 



1.15 

.54 
J. 30 
1.95 

J. 55 
3.61 
J. 89 

f.AA 
A. 78 
A. CO 
J. 69 
I.7A 



JI.9I 



i 



144 



1.17 
f.07 
I.A4 

1.57 

'•57 

A. CO 
A.A7 

1.89 
I.5A 

3-55 
.90 



AO.30 



5 



^ 



36 



»-57 
J-44 
.01 

■»5 
.11 

■93 
•39 

3.16 
3.00 
4.56 
3.16 



4 
5 
7 
3 
3 
I. 



45-61 



.1 



•s 



OQ 



189 



4.3" 

3*95 
4.35 
6.A9 

$. 10 

3.18 

3.07 

4-33 
A. 34 

3.A8 



50. xo 



'I 



144 



10. JA 

7-39 

8.5A 
8.07 

4-73 
4-34 

tn 

4.17 

is 



70.79 



lA 



.36 
I.AO 

1.55 

4-49 
1.97 
3.10 
4. 8a 

A. 50 

3.70 

.81 



30.64 



A7 



t.8a 
3. A3 
I. 8a 



»3 
9* 



5.00 
3.80 
4.A6 

*-37 
A. 74 

3-3» 



37. «* 



292 



FBEaVEHOT OF BAOTT DAn HT ATSTaALASIA. 



MOHTK* 



January ... 
Pebmaiy . 

March 

April 

Mjjr 

Jane 

July 

An^niAt 

September 
October .... 
November 
December 

Total.. 



4 
I 



4 
4 
5 

10 

lo 
II 
H 
15 
II 

lO 

6 
5 



105 



6 
5 

7 
II 

II 

12 

IX 
IX 
lO 

7 



IIO 



o 






8 
6 

5 

5 
9 

10 

«3 

8 

9 

lA 

II 



109 



10 

II 

IX 
IX 

II 

10 

7 
9 

IX 
lO 
IX 



1X9 



6 
I 

00 



13 

IX 

13 

IX 
IX 
IX 

>3 
II 
II 

IX 

II 
II 



143 




II 
II 

IX 
IX 

II 
9 

I 

9 
lo 

9 
9 



ixo 




6 
8 

7 

IX 

\i 

>3 

"5 

»5 

'3 
II 

lO 



140 






^ 



8 

8 

7 

9 

«4 

16 
14 

n 

IX 

13 

10 



141 



I 



15 

>5 

14 
15 
15 

IX 

14 

«5 
14 
15 

:i 



175 



The number of days oix which an inch of rain or more fell in Sydney 
during three years are altogether 30, being thus distributed : — 



January 2 

February 2 

March 2 

April 3 



May 7 

June 2 

July 4 

August 2 



September 1 

October 1 

November 8 

December 1 



The following is an analyFis of the measurement of rain during the 
same years, shewing the number of days in which showers of rain of each 
intensity fell, with corresponding numbers for the climate of London 
derived from Mr. Howard's obs^ations during the three years 1827-9. 



Depth of 
rmininoiw 


Knmber of dayi. 


Depth of 

ndn. 
InehM. 


Mnmber of days. 


InohaB. 


Number of days. 


day. 














Inohet. 


Sjdney. 


London. 




Sydney. 


London. 




Sydney. 


London. 








.9toi.o 


8 


3 








.0 .0 


708 


746 


i.o — I.l 


6 


I 


x.jtox.i 

X.5 — X.6 


I 




•oto.i 


»53 


1x8 


1. 1 — I.X 




X 


I 




.1 — .X 


77 


7X 


i.x — 1.3 




• •■ 


X.9— J.O 


I 




.X-.J 


37 


li 


i.j — 1.4 




1 


3-» — 3-3 


X 




.3—. 4 


11 


1.4-1.5 
I.C — 1.6 

1.6—1.7 
1.7 — 1.8 




* t • 


3-4-- 35 
6.0 — 6.1 


I 




.4-5 
.5 — .6 

.6 — .7 
.7-. 8 

.8-. 9 


»5 




• *• 


I 




«4 


II 




• • 


I 




13 


i 




• • • 








i 


1.9 — X.O 




• •• 








7 


X.I— X.X 




••• 









It would seem that during the years of which the results are taken, 
rainy days were more frequent in Sydney than in London. But allowing 
for thi^, it may be roughly stated that in Sydney the showers of rain are 
aa follows : — 

15 per cent, falls in showers of between .0 and .2 inch. 

^5 »» »f ^ .2 „ .5 „ 

20 „ „ 5 „ 1.0 „ 

20 „ 1.0 „ 2.0 „ 

20 „ , more than 2.0 ,, 



293 



Whereas we find that in London 

" 20 per cent, falls in showers of hetween .0 and .2 inch. 

*^ »> II 2 ff .6 „ 

*" II II 5 ,y 1,0 ,f 

5 „ „ .more than 1.0 „ 

. < 

" The difference hetween these is rery striking : while moderate showers 
of less than half an inch snpplj 75 per cent, of the total quantity of rain 
in London, we here receive only 40 per cent, in this manner. In Sydney 
60 per cent, of the rain may he said to fall in torrents of between half 
an inch and perhaps 10 inches deep ; the quantity of two inches per day 
is rarely known to occur in London, and only 25 per cent, falls at a 
heavier rate than half an inch per day." 

Hr Jevons gives the following details of the heaviest falls of rain in 
Sydney:— 

" 1855, Hazch 24th to April 5th, total, 22.12 inches. 

" During 24 hours preceding 9 a.m. of April 2nd, 8.056 inches were 
collected in my gauge, which being, however, badly placed, I may state 
that Professor Smith measured at the Sydney University, from March 
29th to April 6th, 28.12 inches, and during one hour of this period fully 
two inches fell. 

'' 1855, May 2nd to 7th, total, 6.68 inches. 

1855, September 15th to 17th, total, 4.50 inches. 

1856, October 30th to November 7th, total, 11.28 inches. 

1856, December 28th to January 1st, 1857, total, 3.31 inches. 

1857, June 16th to I9th, total, 4.46 inches. 
1857, July 26th to SOth, total, 5.18 inches. 

1857, August 20th to 23rd, total, 3.59 inches. 

1858, May 25th, 8 p.m. to 26th 4 p.m., total, 6.10 inches, in 20 hours. 

"Out of 156 weeks, from July, 1855, to June 1858, there were 42 
during which more than one inch of rain fell. Out of every four weeks, 
the rains may be considered excessive during one week at least. The 
total rain of the 156 weeks amounts to 136.82 inches ; that of the 42 
weeks of excessive rain to 101.50 inches. The difference, viz., 35.32 or 
about 12 inches per annum, represents the occasional light and beneficial 
rains. Again, even allowing what is by no means evident, that during a 
week of excessive rain, the first inch is always beneficial, we must subtract 
42 inches fh)m 101.50 and the remainder, 59.50 or about 20 inches per 
annum, is a rough measure of the quantity of water which passes away in 
floods.'* 

In addition to the above, the following instances of excessive rains 
are recorded in old journals. 

1820,December 4th — ^Exceedingly heavy rains are described as occurring 
this day with the wind from south to S.E. Inunense quantities of stones 
were washed off the *' Bocks." 

1834, March SOth — ^During four hours of this day, the torrents of rain 
which fell in Sydney without intermission exceeded anything of the sort 
known before. Pitt Street was like a swollen river, one lad being carried 
away in the water and nearly drowned. Drains were burst and ravines 
cut in the streets. The foundations of a great many houses were greatly 
injured, and some fell in ; £10,000 would not cover the damage done to 
the town by four hours' rain. 

1841, April 20th — ^Most violent storms of rain. Rain fallen on that 
day and night amounting to 20.12 inches. Wind £.N.£. to S.S.E., 
without squalls. 





11144 


3. Q 


3.48 


S.S.E. to Soaih 






S. 


5.40 


Bonth to S.W. by 8. 






6.30 


I.3S 


S.W. br S. to 8.W. 
8.W.,S.W.tcirW. 






8.0 


1.S3 






10.30 


8.68 


S.W. by a., 8. bj W. 


Wth",. 


m. 


7. 


S.BS 


&.W. by S., S. by W. 


The following 


tabls it gir 


o^byMr.Jerons 


it is liable to the remark 



than affbrdiog ftny idea ul 
AXmrAL VJLBUTIOB DF TEE RAUTTALL OT ATTSTKALU. 



Twr. 


Bjdiwr. 




HobBtlown. 


pcrtPhmip. 


i 


si 

«'«4 




M 
11.96 




K 


5S 


.^u 


S^ 


»3 


w 










as 










E 


»« 




|i 




K 




SSI 

























.»I7 


Jo-M 










U^ 


«.« 


7"T9 


».40 


^..a 



295 



LNTKM8IT7 07 RAINFALL Df EtJBOPE. 

ThiB is giren to some extent in the description of floods, pages 137 to 
148 ; in several of the rivers will also be found records of excessive rains 
and their effects. The heaviest falls of rain in this country and in 
France are decidedly from thonder storms, as likewise in South Africa. 
The heaviest within our own knowledge, fell in Westminster, Lambeth, 
and Yauxhall, on the 1st of August, 1846, to the amount of 4 inches 
in three hours ; during half an hour of the time the fall was composed 
of hail ; and in less than one hour flat hollow roads were 2 feet deep fai 
water — ^for neither side drains nor gullies were competent tu cany off 
one-tenth of the water that fell. Another memorable storm, of a 
shnilar character, occurred on the 13th of August, 1857, which caused 
an accident by carrying away the permanent way of the Great Northern 
Railway, on a brook at Carlton, near Newark. Mr. Lowe observed 
the storm at Nottingham, 20 miles west of the accident ; he says that there 
were three distinct thunder storms; between 1 and 2.30 p.m. 1^ inch of 
rain fell ; 7.15 to 9.30 p.m. 1^ inch fell ; 9 to 10 p.m. 3| inches fell ; so 
that the total fall was 5| inches. This storm must have traversed 
a very considerable area, and was probably of circular or crescent 
form; for at Betford, 12 miles north of the accident, the rain was 
2 inches between noon and 6 p.m., and 2 inches more in the four 
hours between 7 and 1 1 p.m. ; the total rain between noon and midnight 
being 4.10 inches. The observer, Mr. S. Piercy, considered the storm 
to be 10 to 11 mOesin width, passing from N.W. to S.E. 

The greatest fall in one day is given in the tables, for several important 
places, especially in the Lake district ; similar information will be found 
in jnxta-position with the greatest and average evaporation and mean 
temperature for several climates, pages 332-5. 

In the Report on supply of water to Manchester, by S. C. Homersham, 
Esq., C.E., he makes a total of falls of .4 inch and upwards in each 
twenty-four hours, fh>m observations between Manchester and Sheffield, 
by which it appears that they are from 40 to 50 per cent, of the total 
ntin. He records the following facts : — " At Waterhouse Lock on the 
Macclesfield Canal, on the night of the 8th May, 1847, a depth of two 
inches of rain fell during twelve hours; and, in the same time, 1.8 inches 
fell at Coomb's reservoir. Dr. Dalton remarks, that on the 22nd April, 
1792, at Kendal, 4.592 inches of rain fell in twenty-four hours. It is not 
an uncommon ciroumstance for .3 inch of rain to foil in hilly districts, in 
one hour ; this quantity was registered at Coomb's reservoir on the 5th 
April, 1847. In 1844, out of 33 inches which fell at Chapel-en-le- 
Erith, one half was registered in the short space of thirty-days." 

At Little Bridy on September 29, 1855, there was a fall of .68 of rain 
in four-and-a-half minutes. At Huntsham Court, near Bampton, 
I>evon, 3.87 inches feU between 3 and 7 p.m. on the Ist of July, 1857. 

We have endeavoured to shew what may be expected in this climate 
during a very wet year (1852) by a table of the greatest fall in 
twenty-four hours, and also in a very short space of time, at various 
peaces, collated by Mr. Glaisher, from observations by members of the 
british Meteorological Society. This table is at pages 310-11, with 
that of the " Distribution of Rain at Greenwich," wherein all the falls 
of rain above half-an-inch in depth, between 1837 and 1858, are ex- 
tracted from the records at the Royal Observatory. Maximum falls of 
rain are also given for Dublin, Limerick, and the lake district, at pages 
318 and 324. 

Further notes on the subject of heavy rains and their effects, will be 
found in Division II., at pages 158-9, 161, 172-4, and at other parts of 
this treatise. 



data 



296 



OK XTAPOSATIOK. 

It is an extrexnelj difficult matter (eren if possible) to arriye at a correct 
knowledge, from the indications of a hygrometerf of the amoont of evapora- 
tion at any moment from a snrfaoe of water or land ; so many disturbing 
elements enter into the question. For instance, the temperature of the 
evaporating surface, the degree of moisture of t^at surface, the force of 
the wind and the aspect of the sky, all contribute to the result. 

It has been noticeid by M. Aime Drian that when the temperature of 
the dew point is higher than that of the evaporating surfieu^e, water is 
deposited on that surface ; this he styles negative evaporation,. (See 
**Annuaire de la Soci^ M^t^rologique de France," 1853). This disturb- 
ing element principally affects bad conductors of heat, those whose specific 
heat is lai^, and above all others a reservoir or lake of water when its 
temperature is below 40° Fahrenheit. Observations shew that near 
London the evaporation from the surface of water in a reservoir is nearly 
equal in a year to the rainfall of the district. 

From land the amount of evaporation must generally be bdow the 
actual rainfall, but it will differ according to the character of the soil, 
its vegetation, the contour of the district, and the character of the 
rainfall during any particular season. After rain, evaporation proceeds 
rapidly from a light soil, where the vegetation is scant and the surface 
exposed to the full action of the sun and wind ; the surface soon becomes 
desiccated, and the amount of evaporation falls off. In a well-wooded 
district, although evaporation from the surface is less active, yet the rain 
which percolates the soil is arrested by the spongioles at the extremity of the 
roots of every plant, passes upwards by the process of endosmose, and is 
finally returned to the atmosphere from the surfaces of the leaves. This 
source of evaporation is much more constant than in the preceding in- 
stance, and is especially active in the spring and early summer months, 
during the period of foliation. 

In the autumnal months the heated earth and water throw vapour into 
the atmosphere, having a tension greater than that which the temperature 
of the air can sustain ; it condenses in fog, which deposits on every leaf 
and blade of grass, lading them with dew drops : this is termed vapor- 
ization by physicists. 

The term evaporation has a double signification ; the engineer regards 
it as much with reference to the quantity lost when the soil is wetted 
by rain or dew, as the mere amount daily evaporated from exposed sur- 
face of water, which is that called evaporation by the meteorologist. 

So far as the first named kind of loss by evaporation is concerned, we 
fear it is hazardous to pronounce that really precise philosophically cor- 
rect observations can be made ; we will therefore refer to the various 
Balton gauge experiments recorded in the second Division of this Treatise, 
pages 121-6, 148, &c. The comparative tables of observed rainfall and of 
actual flow from large districts also throw considerable light on the loss 
which obtains from evaporation and vegetable absorption. 

In using the term evaporation, as applied to this great process which 
is always at work in nature, the engineer has only to deal witii tilie 
resultant facts ; It is quite dear that the amount actually passing off the 
ground in the state of vapour may even exceed that shewn by the rain- 
gauge, if moisture be artificially supplied. As an instance, we have 
drawn up the following statement df evaporation from a surface of water 
in a shallow vessel, as compared with the amount of rain received in an 



296 a 



maoent grage. . The obterystiong were made by Mr. Lake Howaid, at 
Fkuatow, end en STenged from 181S to 1815 1^ 

Jan. ITeb. Mar. Apr. Hay. June. July. Aug. Sept Ott. Noy. Dee. 
Ina. Ina. Ina. Ina. Ina. Ina. Ina. Ixk, Ina. Ina. Ina. Ina. 

BAXV...M.I.9) a.00 1.46 a.4t 1.71 ft.14 ft.19 0.98 a.tf a.05 1.75 1.60 

BKA«;.M...i.ao 1.63 1.41 ft.47 2.67 a.8{ a.99 a.a5 i.|) .49 .44 .39 

ATiB^ei aizv. ariY. 
loohea. Twrihua 
Adopting the ftmr montihif mode of division, 

we have for the Wzvm Pbbiod 7.28 3.66 

„ Branro „ 7.70 10.41 

„ SVMKn „ %.<M 7.06 

Total ayenge fiir the Yeara being 13.15 ^i-i) 

From Daniel's experiments near London, the proportion of evapora- 
tion, taking the whole year as 1.00, is for xToyember to Febmaiy .104, 
March to Jane .434, ZvSj to October .462. 

Valla's experiments at Dijon on evaporation from a dish of four 
square metres area, gaye the following results : — 

1648 1847 1846 1848 1860 1881 1888 Mean. 
Bainftdl in inflhaa ^7 vj.i i6.6 a3'3 >5*i S4*5 3^o ^'9 
Bvaporation ,, 16.7 to.4 as.i x6w4 31.0 ao.7 %$,6 a&i 

He also compared the evaporation from a dish of thirty square metres 
area, which gave 29.16 inches of evaporation for 1851, against 20.7 
inches from the larger vessel. 

Howard's experiments at Tottenham for three years gave 87.85 inches 
per annum when the gaoge was 43 feet above the gronnd ; 38.87 inches 
when lower and less exposed ; and 20.28 inches when the dish was 
placed on the gnnmd. 

The experiments of Bishop Watson on eyaporation went to show that, 
daring the time of bright hot son, when tnere had been no rain for a 
month, the eyaporation from grass was at the rate of .086 inch in 12 hrs. 
In another experiment, after a Sinnder-storm there was .087 „ „ 

The author of the article Fhysieal Oeoffraphy, in the publication 
of the Society for Promoting Useful Knowledge, has the following 
remarks upon this subject : 

''Other things being equal, evaporation is the more abundant, the 
ffreater the warmth of the air above that of the evaporating body, and 
kast of all when their temperature is the same. Neither does much take 
plaee whenever the atmosphere is more than fifteen degrees colder than 
the surface upon which it acts. Winds powerfully promote evaporation, 
because they bring the air into continual, as well as into closer and more 
violent contact with the surface acted upon; and also, in the case of 
Uqnids, increase, by the asitation which they occasion, the number of 
points of contact between the atmosphere and the liquid. 

•' In the temperate zone, with a mean temperature of 52} degrees, the 
annual evaporation lias been found to be between 86 and 87 inches. At 
Cumana, on the coast of South America (N. lat. 10^), irith a mean 
temperature of 81.86 degrees, it was aseertained to be more than 100 
inches in the course of the year ; at Guadeloupe, in the West Indies, it 
has been observed to amount to 97 inches. The degree of evaporation 
very much depends upon the diflbrence between the quantity of vapour 
which the surrounding air is able to contain whm $aiuraUd, and the 

auantity which it a^uallv contains. M. Humboldt found that in 
tie torrid zone, the quantity of vajpoor contained in the air is much 



28* 



296 i 



Dearer to the point of saturation than in the temperate zone. The 
evaporation within the tropics, and in hot weather in temperate zones, is 
on this aocoant less than might have heen supposed from the increase of 
the temperature. 

C0MPAS4TIYB BAnTTALL AKD SYAPORATIOK. 

In order to shew the reUtiye amounts of rain and eyi^Mration with 
the concurrent temperatures, we have placed these phenomena in tahles, 
selected from trustworthy observations : these will be found at pages 325 
and 332 to 335. 

The Little Bridj table has been prepared from his observations by 
H. S. Eaton, M. A., a zealous follower of this branch of natural science ; 
the Oxford table is from the official publications of the late Manuel 
Johnson, M.A., Ratclifle Observer. The tables of tropical rainfall and 
evaporation are prepared from the observatory returns. 

We have had the pleasure of receiving from Mr. A. Golding, State 
engineer at Copenhagen, a paper on rainfall and eyaporation at that 
place; his results are embodied in the pages 296e and 296^. The 
first tabic gives the detail of monthly rainfall for various places in Den- 
mark (see also page 359), and of five stations, all within four miles of 
Copenhagen. There is some difference in the fall, which the writer 
attributes to Vaudlose and Vangede being about three times as far from 
the sea as Emdrup and Peblinge. The second table gives the results of 
careful experiments on evaporation from water, and idso of experiments 
on the quantity of water evaporated from a saturated plot of loog grass 
in a vessel which had no outlet, and from a similar plot on which the 
grass was kept short. 



^ 



The following table of mean temperatures will be useful for indicating 
the depth and quality of springs, and in reference to evaporation. 

KEAH TEKPEBATUBE IE BIFFEBENT LATITUDES. 



Stationi. 



Equator 

Colcunbo 

Ghandemagoro 

Cairo ^ 

Fimchal...^ 

Yo k. W. A., S. Lat 

Sydney „ 

Auckland „ 

Port Phillip... „ 
New Plymouth „ 
Wellington „ 

Launceston ... „ 
Hot)art Town „ 

Rome 

Montpelier 

Bordeaux 



Lat. , Temp. 

K. 



D.M. 

o. o 

6.58 

XX. 5& 
30. ox 

3a-37 
31.53 
33-51 

36.57 
38.18 

39. 4 
41.17 
41.30 

4a. 53 
41 54 
43.3<> 
44.50 



Fab. 
81.50 
80.90 
75.10 

S:l$ 

65. 3 
61. 3 

57. 6 
56. 8 

57- 9 
53. » 
53- 3 
60.66 
59.03 
57. 8x 



Stationi. 



Lat 

V. 



"Milan. 

Nantes 

Paris 

BruftselB .... 

London 

Dublin , 

Kendal 

New Malton 
Copenhagen 
Edinburgh 
Carlscrona , 
Stockholm , 

Upsal 

Abo 

Umeo 

Uleo 



D. M. 
45- »8 

47- «3 
48.50 

50.50 

51.30 

53. »i 

54.17 
54.10 

55.4' 

56.16 
59. xo 

|9-5« 
60.17 

63.50 

65.30 



Temp. 



Fab. 
S8.x8 

55-35 
53.65 

5»-47 
50.74 
48.65 
47- 5« 
47.53 
45-95 
45- 64 
45.46 
41.57 
40.94 
40.28 

35.96 
34.3* 



WATEB SUFPLT AEO BBAIEAOB ABEAS. 

The table nt page 297 is given as a gnide to the relative requirements of 
water for artificial di.stribation : it is not adapted to any theory of demand 
or snpply, bnt merely to shew what the results based on given data will 
afford ; each case most stand on its own merits. 



DEVHABE. 
BAIBFAU. AVO jeVAPOBATIOV. 



■nillirfllilnftmr milea ndini from CopenhagBB. 
H. Lab fiG.41 i B. Long. ia..3«. 





Jul 


F^ 


.u 


», 


Hit 


n„ 


IQIJ 


*w 


fepl 


0... 


Hoi 


D« 


Iml 


ir^-a;-::::::"» 


0.9 

0-9 
'S 

o.« 
1.1, 

'J 


0.; 

1.6 

0.9 

o!6 
t.6 
J- 1 
"■9 


0.. 

i:i 

o!6 


::; 

M 

i'\ 

o!6 
I.B 

t-6 


0,1 

t''. 

H 

0-4 

1:2 

i.S 
I.S 

i;l 


1 
4-» 

0.9 


i:j 
■A 

1-9 
1-4 

i!6 


I' 

'■« 

j:i 

1.9 
1.9 

!:8 

».4 


J- 

t 

i' 

1,6 

j;i 

l.fi 

it 

0.6 
1.6 


to. 

ii; 

t.4 

H 

•■4 
4-9 

tie 


11 

1-9 

r? 

lis 

0.9 

1-6 

ti 

;:1 

1.8 


1.. 
» 5 

'■! 
■■S 


tn. 
16.4 

it; 

in 

ii:i 

Ii 

ii 

ii 

15-6 

iff 

11.9 




Botanie 
eudou, 

feet ■bore 
UiaBea. 

Ho.ofl>^ 

ttVUngo 

Loin. 
l>feM«bora 

Bmtep, 

BoUDlaOcrdu 

S:= 

V»ag»ae 


[1 

.Mean 

T 
Z 
IS 

i 

;k 
z 
z 

i 
i 

Lmo" 

SO ", 







BkiidUl. 


KM 


IMQ 


ISM 


IHl 


IBU 


ists 




isu 


I>«|ui7 


iws 


1B» 


M-n. 














irt.n 






































iJ:i 








5°^ ::::::::::::::.;; 


Ti 


'^1 


ml 


h 






I^t 






I}'! 


I'i'r 




Vtogtam „ 


JO.» 


^9 


n.. 


11- » 


•?■■ 


19- 


■a.s 




•■'( 


»♦.■ 




^ngmOoa. 




























Wrtir „._ 


... 


«9.1 


K,., 


II.4 


:?•« 


IJ! 


>T-V 


S^ 


!tt? 


10. » 


:^s 


R? 






_ 


l»-t 




"■'*■ 


)>-I 


W-f 


"■i- 




... 


*»■■> 





297 



WATER SUPIPLT AST) DBADTAGE AREAS 

Beqidred finr varioiiB amounts of PopvlatloiLi at difEnent rates of Snpply, 
with a Guide to the CnMo Contents of Beservoirs, where that method 
of Supply is adopted. 



BBQUiBmn. 



NuMUB or Poro&AnoH. 



OjnrasBiMs u>oini» 
BaauiBBD. 



RumBroiB 

BB«aXKBD. 



Giibie 






CobkFfeu 

.55.7 
8J.5 
IZI.4 
139. a 
167. 1 
195.0 

11A.8 

450.7 

*7«-5 

3)4*} 
190.0 

445.7 

mi 

668.6 

780.0 

891.4 

1,001.8 

1,114.1 

a,ftx8.6 

8,848.0 

4.457.} 

5.57«.6 
6^686.0 

7.*».I 
8,914.6 

KVOS9.0 

11,148.8 



OaUona 
per 



SOOalkNW 
Mr Dion. 



MUliOBi. 
.a5 
•ifo 

•75 
i.oo 

i.»5 

X.50 

t75 

x.oo 
&.Z5 
2.50 
3.00 
J. 50 
4&00 
6.00 

6.00 

7.00 

8.00 

9.00 

10.00 

ao.oo 

80.00 

40.00 
50.00 

00. CO 
70.00 

80.CO 

90.00 

100.00 



At 

40 Gallons 
|wr Hea^ 
pcrDittk 



Mumboii 

16,666 
15,000 

}3«333 
41.666 

50,000 

58,888 

66,666 
75,000 
S3»n3 

100,000 

116,666 
'33*333 

108,066 

100,000 

X33>333 
166,666 

{OOyOOO 

333>333 
666^666 

1,000,000 

t»333>333 
1,666,666 
1,000.000 

M33»333 

1,666^666 

3,000.000 

3,838,838 



Number. 

6,150 

11,500 

18,750 

15,000 

3i.»5d 
37.500 

48,760 

50,000 
56,150 
61,500 
75,000 
87,500 
100,000 
185,000 

150,000 
175.000 
100,000 
115.000 
150,000 
500.000 
760,000 



▲t 

fOOaUons 
par Bead, 
par Dian. 



With 
ddiveriaf 
8 cnbie faat 
pariq. mfla. 



1.000.000 800.000 
1,150^000 1,000^000 
1.500.000 1,100^000 

x.750,000 
1,000.000 
1.150,000 

8,500,0008,000, 



Nnmbar. 
5,000 
IO.OQO 
15,000 



10,000 



15,000 
30,000 

85,000 

40,000 
45.000 
50,000 
60.000 
70,000 
80.000 
100,000 

110,000 

140.000 
160^000 
180^000 
100,000 
400^000 
600,000 



Bqoara 
XUaa. 
3.48 

6.96 

10.44 

«3.93 
17.41 
10.89 

84.87 

17.85 

31.33 
34.81 
41*78 

48.75 

55.7« 

68.64 

83.57 
97.50 

111.43 
113.11 

139.19 
178.58 

417.87 

557- »6 
696.45 

835.74 

1,400.000 975.04 

1.600,000 1.114.3) 

1.800,000 1,153.6a 

,0001 1,888.81 



With IS is. 
of Rain par 
ano. or iS 
e. feat per 
mlnate, par 
■q. BDue. 



HoldiBf 

Water far 

4inoiitli% 

at 6S a. feet 

permia. 



Bqoare 
Milea. 

•5* 
1.05 

l.XO 

1.63 

3.«5 
8.68 

4.11 

4-73 
5.16 
6.31 
7.36 
8.41 
10.58 

11.61 

14-74 
16.81 
18.91 
11.01 
41.05 
68.07 

84.10 

105.13 
116.15 
147.18 
168.11 
189.13 
810.85 



Cubie Feet. 
Hillione. 
4.88 

9.76 

14.65 

19-53 
14.41 
19.30 

84.18 

39.07 

43-95 
48.84 
58.60 

68.37 
78.14 

87.68 

117.11 
136.75 
156.18 
175.8a 
195.36 
390.71 
586.08 

781.44 

976.80 

1,171.16 

1,367.51 
1,561.88 

I.758.M 
1,858.60 



24 



298 
SYNOPSIS OF RAINFi 



.OoniwaU 



Pwssnoo 

St. Brebck 

Pencarrow 

Pljrmoath . DoTon 

Goodamoor 



•I 



ft 



■• 



Honiton .'., 

Exeter 

Bath Somerset 

Hangerfinrd Berka 

Beading ,• 

Gosport Hampatdre 

Haattnga Suaaex 

Chlswlck 

CobhamLodffe Snrr^ 

Qreenwicb Obaenratory 



Lond<m (Howard'a average) . . 

Tottenham Middlesex 

Epping Essex 

ArlestniTy Backlngham 

WelUngborongh.. Korthampton 

S waffham Balbeck . . Cambridge 

DicUeboroogh NorfoUc 

Felthorp , 

Boston Lincoln 

Nottingham (Highiield Hoose) 

Chapel-en-le-Frith Derb7 

Hyde Lancashire 

Lirerpool 

Manchester 

Fairfield 



n 
n 



Bolton ; „ 

Bury „ 

Sowerby Bridge York 

Stubblns „ 

Moss Lock, near Bochdale .... 



Rochdale 

White Holme, Blackatone Edge 

Summit „ „ 

Whlteharen Comberland 

Ck>ckennoiith 



Keswick Westmoreland 

Grasmere „ 

Seathwaite .... m 

Gatesgarth .... 
Styehead 



»* 



Sparkling Tam „ 

Great Gable.. .. „ 

Neweaatle-npon-Tyne .. 
West Denton, near ditto 
AUenheads 



Applegartfa DnmfHes 

Gihnonrton Lanark 

Glasgow 

Edlnborgh 

Olencowe (Pentland Hills) .... 



Hriiht 
above 



Feet. 
40 



600 



M" 

3x0 

JO 

80 
US 

SO 
160 

ISO 

30 

Iltl 

jao 

310 
300 
300 

500 

500 

laoo 

laoo 

90 

!g 

3a6 
1190 

1900 

III 

X76 
1300 

(&o 
8 

300 

JUL 



Tew 

OOD- 

meneing 
Obwr. 
▼■tioo. 



«*s 

841 
826 
834 

841 
825 
841 
8]8 
83a 

8iS 
838 
8z5 
815 
838 

800 
8ia 
825 

847 
830 

«4« 
840 

84J 
825 

844 

840 
831 
8x6 

813 
840 

831 
83a 
830 
830 
830 

83* 
830 
830 

845 
84s 

845 
84J 
f45 

SI 

846 

846 
845 
843 

838 

848 
8x5 
831 



T«an 
ef 

Obier- 

TEtiOIl. 



Mamber 

9 
IJ 

3 
10 

16 

5 

as 
3 

IX 

«7 
7 

IX 

as 
as 

IX 

xo 

7 
10 

3 

xo 



7 
10 

S 

1 



8 

10 
a3 

AX 

8 



Wiaraa 



IM. 

»7-4 



M.a 
X3.0 

II. 3 
ii.o 



8.x 
10.6 

7-4 

7-7 

8.9 
8.5 
8.1 

7.7 
6.4 

6.5 

7-a 

n.8 

ix.x 

17.7 

9.9 

10.9 

16. 1 
13.0 

10.9 

55.8 
44.8 
xo.o 

xx.o 

lO.O 

S-3 

91 

15.6 

10.4 
18.8 
tS'S 

It. 6 



Sraiwoi. 



Ins. 
IX. a 



9.8 
14.0 



I; 



7-« 

8.5 

6.6 
6.7 

6.7 
7-9 
7-3 

7-7 
7.8 

1:7 

9.8 
io.a 

ia.6 

7-3 
7-5 



9-5 
11,4 

ii.a 

16.0 
a5.3 

31.5 
x8.o 

X7.5 

48.7 

41.0 

6.8 

13.0 

IS.4 
9'1 

II.O 

8.3 

10.% 



lonuaiTani 

lUMI 



13.5 



11.7 
19.8 

la.o 

lO.O 



nx.1 
tt.i 

lO.O 

10. 1 



I:: 

ii.x 

9-$ 
9.6 



9-4 
ii.i 



13.6 
14.9 

«9-a 
lo.o 
11.9 



I4.a 

«9-$ 
ati.a 

M-a 
34-a 

Sa.3 

44.4 
45-3 

2"' 
36.4 

5.5 
10.9 

»4-3 

■7.3 

9.8 

J±JL 



The above Tablea giTB the average mazimam and mtntmgtn^ for periods of 
with the total for each year of the Uiree perloda. 

The Wintsr period ia tot Novmlber, DteemJber, Jmmary and 

The Spring „ JVorcA, Aprils May and /mm. 

The atamm' JtOf, AwgrnaL^ a^ptember and Oelcbm'. 



>» 



299 



IN GBEAT BRITAIN. 





Minimnin, | 


Wisnm. 


Bvmnr*. 


BomnB. 


Tot All 

llBMM. 


Tewof 
Mudm. 


WxvTBm. 


Braxsa. 


SUXMIB. 


TVWAS, 

ISmoi. 


Tear of 
Minimom 


Id*. 


I1M. 


Ina. 


Idi. 


AJ». 


loi. 


Ina. 


IBI. 


Ini. 


A.D. 


12. a 


16.7 


15.0 


53-9 
51.9 

J7.3 


X828 
I84I 


19. J 


4.7 


X0.5 


34.7 
32.0 

37-9 


1826 
1840 
1844 


11.5 


14.3 


19.4 


45-4 


X829 


6.3 


xo.o 


XI.6 


47.9 
41.6 


1830 


27.0 


15.6 


17.5 


70.1 


1839 


19.8 


9-3 


12.5 


1844 


II. 1 


12.4 


18.0 


41.7 


i«4i 


X0.3 


6.3 


8.9 


*5.5 


1844 


14.2 


12.4 


12.7 


J9.2 

37-8 
34.07 


1828 
1842 
X848 


6.9 


8.4 


8.7 


24.0 
19.28 


X830 
1847 


9.0 


II.4 


12.4 


32.8 


1848 


8.X 


3-3 


9.8 


21. 2 


1844 


15.7 


8.7 


9.9 


34.3 
43.53 


X828 


6.9 


8.4 


8.7 


24.0 
22.36 


1830 
1847 


Vi 


7-9 


13. J 


29.7 


X846 


4.8 


4.7 


1-7 


15.2 


1847 


10.6 


12.J 


3«.7 


X848 


5*3 


5.0 


6.5 


16.8 


1847 








33.« 


1841 








16.4 


X840 


S.5 


i:6 


■I-* 


29*1 


x8i6 


6.x 


7.7 


J.5 


19.1 


X814 


S'5 


18. 1 


3*.2 


1829 


5.6 


7.4 


9-5 


22.5 


1832 








34.7 


1848 








22.5 


1847 


S.I 


10.4 


14.8 


33.3 


X848 


5.8 


3-3 


8.7 


X7.8 


I844 


7.0 


10. 1 


12.6 


29.7 


l«43 


3.6 


8.1 


7-9 


10.6 
X8.4 


X842 










X848 








1847 








1843 








ao.o 


184J 


7-1 


6.7 


16.4 


:^ 


S'7 


s.» 


7.* 


16. X 


1834 


9.9 


X2.2 


38.5 


7.2 


4.9 


8.0 


20.1 


1844 








J2.J 


1841 








33.0 


1844 


X}.0 


12.8 


13.8 


39.6 
49.5 


1833 
1841 


9.2 


II.O 


10.4 


30.6 
22.2 


I8]2 

X8a6 


«J.4 


II.2 


20.5 


45.1 
40.7 


1823 
X845 


14.* 


3.9 


X2.2 


30.3 
24.8 


1826 
1842 


16.0 


II.| 


11-3 


58.6 
50.6 


1831 
X833 


19. 1 


7.6 


«5.4 


4t.2 

28.6 


X837 
1844 


11.7 


9*5 


9.6 


30.8 


1833 

1836 


8.8 


xo.o 


7.7 


26. J 


1832 








40.2 








26.1 


l8{2 


20.9 


*.5 


10.} 


37-7 
61. 1 


1834 
1836 


6.8 


8.4 


10.7 


25.9 

34.4 

24.8 


183 1 
1844 








47.4 


X833 








'JW 


3|.6 
X0.2 


9-1 
II.9 


X2.6 

21,9 


55.5 

52.0 


:^^ 


8.4 
X0.3 


8.7 

X0.3 


15.6 
xo.o 


3*7 
35.0 


183 X 

X847 


X6.2 


n.j 


25.9 


55.4 


1846 


9.8 


9.1 


34.9 


X847 


25.7 


19.5 


29.x 


74.3 


1846 


14. X 


13.3 


X9.6 


47.0 


1847 


4.8 


7-; 


7.4 


lO.J 

36.4 


1846 


H 


7-1 

XI.6 


3.6 


If. 8 


1847 


?•/ 


13.6 
16.0 


15. 


1846 


XI. 6 


8.3 


3>.J 


1847 


*}.* 


«9-3 


5«.J 


X848 


13. X 


10. 5 


U'7 


38.3 


1844 


11.4 
26.J 


9-3 
»3.7 


»3.4 
21. 1 


s:; 


1830 
1846 


8.8 


X2.8 


9.6 

U'7 


24.0 
35-3 




16.4 


8.1 


9.4 


33.9 


1849 


14.7 


8.5 


X0.3 


33.5 




, 




32.59 


'!*Z 








XJ.27 


X826 


, I4«$ 


,M-* 


17.1 


li-? 


X836 


J.4 


I^.O 


8.x 


^Vi 


1847 


Wliere 


jeftn ofDlrare gl 
ons are all firom 


ran, fha datalla b 


are not 1 


Men aoee 


edbleto 


the anthfl 


»r. The 


Mbflerratl 


anthentlc data, m 


any kind 


I7 fturnisl 


led from 


prirate 
Comberli 


•OQTcea. 


rhe Laai 


saahin otnerratioi 


18 are from Xr. I 


lomeTBha 


m'8 repoi 


ta; the 


ind and 


reotmor 


eland fto 


m Mr.M 


liter, of 


WUtehav 


en; Not( 


Onffham 


from Mr. 


Lowei y 


¥elllnff- 



^ofoogh from Mr. BeT«a» G.E. ; Gobham Lodge frtnn Xiaa Moleairorth'a dUnmal obeerratkraa. 



y 



300 
DETAIL OP MONTHLY BAIN 



J 



,„ 


Jhwmj. 


TtbnttT. 


lUnh. 


April. 


M^. 


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ToMl 


He«, 


Total 


flU. 


ToUl 


H«j 


ToMl 


... 


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Hem, 


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above ihB Se&. 

StenrkBirt. 

Hdght 391 few. 

Hdght U fwt, 
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Btdflira. 

Hdlghl 100 tea. 


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SAIB7ALL OF GREAT BBITAI5. 

DBIUU OF KOirCZLT TAIL. 




- 


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IEAW8 WATXBWOBKS, eAEXXOCX, WMt of SooUud. 




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„,„ 




70BTASBHIKE, But of ffiwt'^i'i<. 




ArbmUli. Dundee, Blrlckoi, Crftlglon. HtUhekd. 

.___ (i«ntol nit. looit. toon. sooti. aooft. 

•j™" -i ils« r U-Tlbl- »'-9ln- ]>.9»ln- I».Hfn. ii.jiln. 





310 



W 



RElfATnrABT.E FALLS OF RAIV 

IN ONE DAT, AND IN A SHOBT SPACE OF TIME, 

Daring the Year 1862. 



FAUiS IK ONB DAY. 



DATS. 



Juno 9th.. 



i> 



$» 



(ff »» ••• 

,, ZlBt... 

Ji£^5th ... 



fiik::: 



f» 
(ff 
„ itth . 

»i »f ••• 

::2£: 

Aug. nth . 
ffi "7th . 
„ a^th . 
„ Mth . 
»» »• ••• 

Oel ^..! 



>i 



ft ... 



PLAGE. 



\miFo ... ••• ... 
St. John's Wood 
Fdlde'sWeir... 

Oxford 

North Shields... 

Durham > 

A^oro^... ... ••• 

GiieniB6y 

Wakefield 

Feilde'B Weir ... 
Nottingham ... 
North Bhielda... 

Stone 

North Shields... 

Feilde's Weir ..'. 

Durham 

Gaemsciy 

North Shields... 



Depth 



Inches. 

i.o 

«-7 

li 

»-7 
».7 
1.9 

1.2 

a. 1 

1.6 
1-5 

3-9 
i.x 

!:l 

*.4 



DATS. 



Oct 401... 

„ 5th ... 

»» »» ••• 

•I $» •'• 





&5th . 


»9 


a£th": 


ft 


»> ••• 


Not. 


, xnd... 


ffff 


loth . 


ffi 


nth . 


i» 


ixth . 


>( 


13th . 


Iff 


ijth . 
i6th . 


Dec 4th... 


Iff 


17th . 



ff* 



ffff 



PLACE. 



• • • > < 



TTokfield 
Jersej 

Neivport 

Worthinff... .. 
FeUde'B Weir .. 

Worthing 

TTokfield 

ICidhurst 

Feilde'B Weir ., 
Nottingham .. 

Bedfora 

Feilde'B Weir ., 
North Shields.. 
Feilde'B Weir ., 
North Shields., 
Stonvhnrst 
TJoklleld 



Inches. 
1.1 

«.7 

U 

x,6 

*.4 
i.S 

1-5 

X.O 

1-7 
1.5 

1.2 

1.6 

I.? 
1.6 
i.S 
1.0 



FALLS IN A SHORT TDCB. 



DATE. 


PLACE. 


Depth 


Time 
flaiing. 


DATE. 


PLACE. 


Depth 
IhUen. 


Time 
fhlling. 






In. 


H. X. 






In. 


X. u. 


Jnnei4th 




0.3 


9 


Aug. 17th 


Linslade 


0.9 


I 


Dnnino 


U 


ao 


ff >f 


Hartwell Eeo. 


il 


5 


JvSy 5th 




1 


*f Iff 


Grantham ... 


40 


1* M 

:: .&. 

ff* »> 


Gainsborpagh 
North Bhierds 


0.1 
ft. 6 


I 
5 30 


" i&b 


Hawarden ... 
Stone 


i:i 


I 
4 


Byde 

Ajlesbnry ... 
Whitehayen... 


O.S 
"•4 
i'3 


xo 
ft 

1 


Smt «th 

5th ft 6th 

ffff 6(h 


Grantham ... 
Nottingham... 


ti 


ftS 
ft 


„ »5th 


Qreenwioh ... 


0.5 


15 


ff, 8th 


AyleBbnry ... 


I 


. >* " 


»» ••• 


' 1.0 


15 


„ loth 


Sonthampton. 
Greenwicn ... 


0.7 


I 


Ang. ^oth 


Grantham ... 


0.3 


10 


Oct. 4th 


1.0 


ift 


„ nth 


North Shields 


3*1 


19 30 


;:2S 


Lewisham ... 


0.5 


ft 


ff. 14th 


Soathampton. 


1.7 


5 


Grantham ... 

• 


0.5 


6 



The IhU of Bain at North Shidds fimn the ft6ih to fhe ft9th September was 
6.4indMfl» vis. : B6(h,o.7; ft7th,o.9j ftSth, 3.9; ft9th,a9. 



I 



DISTBIBUnOJ OF BADT AT OBEEHTWICH. 



.£ iDch, diiUlbated as Rilttm 



HamberoT dim le 

UunlliudiML.. 

Koniberof dv* "a" 



Thwa lUlh TWre ditribnted btbt tha Urt IS jt»i» m tollaw:- 



AprilJ . 


In., 
.70 

I 

■i 

.JO 

.70 


ri... 

Not. SO !! 


Ins 
■56 

1 


Oot 4 . 

N^.n : 


Id. 
■94 

;i 


ISU. 

OM. n ... 

*ii;r 


1 

1: 


Hot. » !! 
Mom.. 


Jul S ... 
Utr, 17 ... 


* 


Ang.U .. 


■61 


iUr.'u . 

AprilU . 

ssi; 
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WET TEAS I860. 



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1.64 




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3.76 
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32.46 



2.63 



3.66 



31.13 




1.69 
1.71 
1.93 

3.07 
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3.88 
0.20 
1.48 



1.56 

2.10 
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4-54 
2.77 
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1.18 
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2.84 
4.70 

1.96 



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2.17 



4.18 

0.67 
2.24 
2.27 
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4.32 

1. 51 
2.21 

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2.10 

2.12 
2.26 



2.30 



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5.89 
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0.50 
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4.30 



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4.37 
0.99 

1.60 

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2.03 



2.07 



3.70 
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1.60 

2.31 



0.88 
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3! 36 



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3.12 

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3-95 



2.03 



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3.84 



4.16 



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1.76 

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1.87 



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2.80 
2.92 



3.58 



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2.96 
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3.82 
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2.56 

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1.60 

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3.70 
4.77 

1.72 



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3.91 



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Z 

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llu.ll>li.l*jni.i 



BartMHtDM 
OibnllBr 

Cortta 



Hong Kong „ 
Fmnuuls A. „ 
AacMnaM.Z... 



1:2; 



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tv. 



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332 



bbhibh sairall aid bvapobahov. 

LtnCLE BBIDT, 1KIB8K. 

lAtiHadB M* il' Norths Loogitade r ¥f West; Height aboye Bea Stt ftetj 
Surlkoe of ermpoimtlng cUah 4 inches aboye groond. 



1 



1858 
18C9 
i860 



Mean 
IMI7; 



Jan. 



in. 
1.66 

A. 71 

5- 4* 



310 



.106 



Feb. 



in. 
a. 81 
1.66 
i.6x 



1.69 



1 096 



Mar. 



in. 
1. 61 
A. 68 



1.54 



.081 



April. 



in. 

4.*7 
15* 
1-04 



].6i 



.ISO 



May. 



in. 
a. 79 

4. JO 



a. 77 



.089 



Jane. 



in. 
1. 14 

I.O] 

7-47 



1" 



107 



July. 



in. 

1-91 
a. 61 

*'57 



104 



.098 



Aug. 



in. 
i.a8 



I-9« 



iij 



Sept. 



in. 
J- 17 



J-79 



.116 



Oct 



in. 
a. 96 
5.ao 
a. 00 



J- 19 



,109 



Not. 



in. 

M7 
4-41 
3-94 



1.91 



110 



Dec. 



in. 
5-4* 

4-«9 
6.11 



j.a8 



.170 



1858 



GiMteit Fill of Bain in M Bovixi. 



0.)Z 
O.fl 

a 8) 



0.79 
o.8a 
0.48 



0.64 
0.47 



I.O| 

0.80 
0.8a 



0.74 
0.17 
0.92 



0.60 
o.a7 
1.05 



a. 06 
0.64 
0.59 



0.89 
a6a 
0.79 



0.91 

0.74 
ao4 



o.<a 
1. 16 
0.51 



a68 
0.76 
0.75 



0-97 
1.09 

»-49 



VvmlMr of Bftyi oa whloh BaiB FelL 



1858 



16 

2 






16 



w 

18 



16 

«5 



6 
la 
s6 



10 
'4 



n 
II 

»5 



18 
ao 
18 



16 
ao 

»7 



14 



»7 
«7 



Xonthly XvaponttioiL 



t8s8 






0.7a 

o.a6 

I. Of 



a66 



.oai 



i.oa 

i.H 
1. 10 



I. la 



.040 



i.ji 

1.70 
i.ja 



i.ji 



.049 



a. 91 



a. 66 



.089 



3.6» 
3- OS 
a. 80 



|.i6 



105 



4-J> 
3.96 



4-*7 



14a 



5-63 
l.ai 



4-3> 



140 



3-93 
j.6| 

a. 50 



3-35 



.108 



1.87 
a. 69 
1.90 



a, 15 



.07a 



::2 

0-97 



i.ai 



.<Ho 



0.4I 
1.5a 

0.49 



0.81 



.oa7 



o.ai 
1. 10 
0.71 



0.67 



Xean of Wnimum Temperatoro of ateh M Honn. 



deg. 

48.6 
44.0 



1858 

I8<9 
i860 



deg. 
ja.7 
35.8 
14. 6 



deg. 
J 1. 1 
36.1 
29.9 



deg. 
33.0 
39.0 

35-5 



deg. 
38.8 
38. 1 
34. « 



deg. 
4*. 5 
43.9 
45-3 



deg. 
50.6 
48.8 
47.4 



deg. 
49.8 

5$' 4 
490 



deg 
50.5 

53' 
49-4 



deg' 
4a. 6 

44-4 
4».9 



deg* 

37.6 

36.1 



deg. 
36.9 

31.6 



Xeaa of Iffaxliniiin Temperatoro of aaeh M Hoini, 



1858 

.85, 



46. a 
46. a 



43-4 
49-3 
43.5 



J0.0 
51.8 
48.1 



57* 
J5.0 

5a. a 



6z. I 



7»-9 
70.0 

60. a 



68.5 
78.1 
66.9 



70. a 

7».3 
63. a 



67.0 
64.3 
63.3 



57-9 
J9.6 

57.8 



47.* 
51.5 
47.9 



46.S 
43*3 

43-7 



Oompaziaon of Ttoinftilli Xmporatloii, and Temparatan^ 



1858 



aainftOl. 



Annual. 



in. 
36.41 
38.98 
48.93 



Mean 
Daily. 



in. 

• 100 

• 107 
.133 



Kvaporation. 



Annual. 



in. 
a$.86 
29.04 
aa.85 



Mean 
Daily. 



in. 

.071 

.080 

.06a 



Temperature. 



AnnnaL 



Deg. Fah, 

4«-4 
50.1 
46.7 



Daily 



Deg. Fab 

57- » 
98.8 

54.6 



Daily 
Min. 



Deg. Fah. 

41. a 

4a. 8 

40.0 



333 



BBinsH sahfall and evapokatiok. 



IBLLDCUFFE 0B8EBVAT0BY, 0X70BD. 

LfttHade 61* 40' North} Longltade 1* IS' West; Height above Sea 210 fMt 
The evaporatiaii is oaloolated IWmi observations of tJiie di^ and wet bolb thermometers. 



Yesr. 



Jan. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



April. 



May. 



Jane. 



July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Ocb. 



Nov. I Dec. 



i8fi 
i«53 

»«54 
i8j< 
X856 






in. 
M 

a.1 

0.1 
a. 9 



in. 

i.o 

i.x 

0.9 

1. 1 
1.3 



in. 

0.6 

1.0 

0.4 
%,% 

0.9 



in. 
0.6 

»-4 
0.8 



in. 
a.1 

1.8 
4-3 



in. 
7-1 

1.8 
*.4 
a-5 



in. 
1.8 
1-4 
1.5 

0.6 



in. 

4-5 
1.8 
X.8 

1-7 
I* 



m. 
1.1 

A.O 
0.4 



1.6 



X.I 



I.o 



«-4 



*-7 



3*4 



»-7 



a. 8 



A. 2 



in. 
a. 7 
4.0 

J. 6 
»^4 

3>4 



in. 

7' 
1.0 

1.3 
1.0 

I.o 



.084 



.0J9 



,opk 



.047 



.087 



iij 



.087 



.090 



.073 



no 



in. 

3-5 
0-4 
I.x 

1.1 

ft.O 



*-3 I ».6 



.077 .051 



Greatof t Fall of Bain in 24 Honrg. 



i8fi 
l«53 

1854 
185c 

I8s& 



O.J7 
1. 01 
0.18 
0.45 



o.a6 
0.48 
0.36 
0.61 
0.30 



0.51 
aaA 
0.16 
0.51 
0.53 



o.$o 
0.40 
0.48 
ai6 
o.6f 



a64 
0.88 
0.71 
0.49 
1.3* 



1.69 

0.71 

0.59 
0.80 
x.ai7 



1.15 
1.8a 

0.73 
1.65 

0.17 



a 83 

0.81 

0.10 

o. 

o. 



,:j6 

>.87 



a69 

0.37 
a 17 



0.7 J 

0.55 
0.46 

0.83 

o.n 



1.39 

0.70 

0-44 

04? 



0.66 
o. x8 
0.39 

0.20 



Hnmber of Dayi on whioh Bain Fell. 



x8fi 


9X 


14 


4 


s 


«3 


3 


7 


so 


'1 


»5 


XX 


XI 


1853 


\l 


7 


ft 


•1 


XA 


u 


«5 


XX 


X5 


IX 


.1 


1854 


xo 


9 


so 


«3 


'5 


10 


10 


17 


«4 


'!?! 


6 


6 


13 


7 


:i 


•J 


•1 


IX 


7 


xo 


14 


\t 


1856 


xo 


7 


—L. 


'i- 


-Ll- 


IX 


iJ[!^ 


'L. 



Mean Xonthly Bvaporation. 



x8$x 

1853 
X854 
185J 

1856 



M=rr 



X.36 
0.68 
o.6x 
0.16 



0.83 



.037 



"•77 
X.fiX 

1.71 

aaS 
0.64 



».44 



.OfX 



a. 45 

x.36 

«*7 
O.J3 



x.6x 



.05X 



3.00 
3.63 

^^ 
3.30 

1.95 



3-93 
4.00 

3. XX 

3.63 
X.80 



3-5* 3.51 



XI7 I .113 



3$» 

3.78 

X.76 

3-33 



3*39 



113 



J. 85 

5.08 
x.76 
5-45 



4.69 



151 



4.06 

4-53 

4-74 
4. JO 



4>39 



>4» 



X.64 
3.09 
4.6X 
3.66 

x.a4 



3.X1 



107 



X.31 
1.98 

X.JI 

X.08 
0.99 



«.97 



.064 



'•53 

0.78 

i.xo 
X.17 



f.XX 



041 



1.40 

0.74 
1.80 
1. 18 

0.99 



I. XX 



.039 



Xoan of Ww^iwHWi Temperature of eaeh 24 Honn. 



deg. 
56.7 
54.0 
fx.8 

55.9 



deg. 

4«.5 
47.0 

47. « 
50.9 

JZJ. 



185X 
1853 

1854 
i8j< 
18^6 



deg. 

35.0 
36.8 

34.7 
3»^3 
15^7 



deg. 

35-4 
X8.9 

33-3 
X3.X 

37-6 



deg. 
3X.X 
31.0 
36.0 
31.8 

J1& 



deg. 
35.1 
39.9 
3».4 

37.x 

J2JL 



deg. 

43-4 
43.0 

41.3 
41.0 

4*.* 



deg. 
50.0 
ji.i 
49-5 
49- « 
49.9 



54-4 

51.5 

5«'3 
54.0 



deg. 
40.1 

45-3 
4X.I 

45-9 



deg. 
4|.o 
36.1 
3 J. 6 
38.1 
36.1 



deg. 

X9.6 

35.9 
31.9 

14-5 



Mmui of ifit-rfiwwwi Temperature of eaeh 24 Honn. 



185X 

i»53 

1854 

f85j 

180 



» 



39 
Ml 



46.0 
46.7 



49.x 
4f.8 

JX.X 



56.7 

54.7 
59. X 

SS'S 
55.3 



6x.x 
61.x 

59. « 



65.4 
68.3 

68.3 



76.8 
Tai 
70.7 
73.0 
71.9 



69.6 
^5 

69.7 
71. 1 
7«-9 



63.x 

68.4 
66.1 
61X.X 



54.3 

57.1 
57.1 
57^» 
57.0 



53^ 3 

46.0 
46.6 



5X.X 
38.7 
46.9 
4X.X 

JLL 



Compariaon of Bainflil], Bvaporation, lad Temperature. 



RainfUl. 



Awnn^ , 



Mean 
Daily. 



Evaporation. 



Annual. 



Mean 
Daily. 



Temperatore. 



Atmnal. 



Daily 



Daily 
Xin. 



185X 
X8S3 

I8S4 



in. 

40.4 
x6.x 

17.7 
X6.9 



in. 
o.iit 

0.07X 

0.009 

0.073 



in. 

34.79 
3«.«4 
36. xo 
X7.80 
*4.55 



in. 
0.095 
0.078 
0.100 
o. 
o. 



>. 076 

>.o67 



Deg. Fah. 
50.0 

47-5 
49* 



Deg. Fah. 
58.0 

55- » 

'4:. 



Deg. Fsh. 
43.0 

41.6 
41.0 
4*- 3 






334 



TROPICAL SAIHFAIL AID BVAPOBAIIOV. 



eioBenowH obsibvaio&y, bsmxeaba. 

Laftitade 0> W Narthi Longitude 09* IT West; Height abore Bea 10 Ibei. 



Jan. 



1^. 



ICar. 



April. 



MV. 



June. 



July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec 



185ft 
1853 
1854 
1855 
1856 



in. 

6.07 

6.78 

15.88 

ft.18 

ft. Oft 



in. 
8.41 
5.4* 
5.53 
'5.39 
0.96 



in. 
8.76 
i.ft5 
4.68 
lft.8ft 
1.65 



in. 

5.a« 

5.51 

6.58 

6.8ft 

3.05 



in. 
16.50 
15.7ft 

10.86 
xo.ft3 



in. 
IX.67 
I3.ftft 
10.05 
ift.70 
16.70 



in. 

8.83 

9.8ft 

ift.14 

14.00 

i3.ft3 



in. 
10.11 

4-9J 

ti 

7.80 



m. 
1.17 
4.11 

3.84 
i.ift 

5.84 



in. 

0.5* 
i.ft3 
0.30 
4.ft6 
3.«4 



in. 
5.0ft 
ft. 39 

3.59 
a 93 

5.78 



ift.18 
4-45 

»J.57 
5.89 

»7-34 



Mean. 



6.58 



7-14 



5.83 



5-44 



ift.51 



ift.88 



IX.60 



7.78 



3.fti 



1.89 



3-S4 



10.68 



MOMII 



o.fti3 



o.ft87 



ax88 



0.18ft 



0.417 



0.430 



0.374 



aft5i 



0.107 



ao6o 



0.118 



0.344 



Onateit Tall of Bain in M Honxt. 



1854 
185c 

i8f6 



0.88 
0.85 



l.lj 

5-44 
o.ft3 



1.5ft 
ft. 58 
0.81 



3.04 

«.74 
1.31 



ft. 17 
ft. 85 
1.5ft 



ft.ift 

i:2 



4.01 
4.81 
ft. 17 



3*31 

1.97 
ft. 10 



;S 



o.( 
3.45 



0.03 
ft. 90 
1.04 



1.17 



S.83 

l.ft8 
a.65 



Onateat Xvaporatian in M Hioiixa. 



1854 


.155 


.130 


.165 


.188 


.113 


.110 


.115 


.1x8 


.110 


.136 


.»37 


.104 


185| 
1856 


.ifty 


■P 


.140 


.139 


.111 


.100 


.115 


.ftlO 


.150 


•«« 


.«»! 


.«M 


.193 


.187 


.195 


.190 


.148 


.148 


.100 


.10a 


.iftS 


.«53 


.140 


.103 



Monthly Xraporatloii. 



1854 
1856 


ft. 66 

ft. 94 

4. Oft 


3.1ft 

ft. 68 

4.67 


1.60 
ft. 74 
5. '7 


ft. 85 
4.0ft 


ft. 63 

»«9 
ft. 74 


ft.ft5 

ft.ft7 
ft. 30 


ft. 13 

*.43 
ft. 05 


ft.s6 


ft. 8ft 

3.3< 
1.07 


J.6» 
3-3* 
3.07 


3.0ft 
3.11 
ft. 60 


».37 
j.fti 

ft. 36 


Mean. 


l.to 


3-49 


3.83 


3.37 


».33 


ft.ft7 


ft.ftO 


ft.ftft 


3.06 


3-33 


ft. 90 


ft. 64 


Jloul 


.101 


.lift 


.«37 


.lift 


.075 


.076 


.070 


.07X 


.101 


• 107 


.096 


.070 



MOan of Mlirtwain Tomporataro of aaeh M Boiixa. 





deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 
74.1 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


dfig. 


deg. 


deg. 


1854 


73-5 


73. « 


75.0 


74.5 


73.9 


7'1 
73.6 


73.8 


74.9 


74-3 


74.3 


73-9 
74-6 


1855 
1856 


74.6 


74.0 


73.8 


74.8 


74.7 


73.9 
73.6 


74-1 


75- 1 


74.9 


75.4 


74.3 


74.8 


75.7 


74.4 


7ft. 8 


73-4 


74.5 


74.* 


73.$ 


73.6 



Mten of Kaadmnm Tflnparatoxo of oaoh 84 Hoon. 



1854 
1855 
1856 



81.6 

84-5 

83.1 


81.7 
83. ft 

83.4 


8ft. 8 
83.0 
83.8 


83.4 
84-4 
84-3 


85.6 
83,1 


84.1 
84.1 
83.ft 


85.3 
8ft.9 


85.6 
85.5 


86.4 

8f.ft 
86.0 


86! 
85.7 


86.ft 

86.1 
84-6 



{1.5 

84.4 

8ft. 8 



Oompaziion of 'RafatMl, Xvaporatlon, and Temperatan. 



185ft 

1853 
1854 



BalnfkJl. 



Annual. 



in. 

94- 5» 
74.85 
05.16 
87.36 
«7«74 



Xean 
Daily. 



in. 
0.303 
o.fto5 
o.ft6i 
o.ft54 
asA4 



Animal. 



in. 



33.74 
33. 7« 
37. 9« 



ICean 
DaUy. 



In« 



.181 
.aft4 

.«9* 



Mean ^Tamperatore. 



Annual. 



Deg. Fah, 

• •• 

• •• 

79." 



Dailj 



Deg. FalL 



72!ft 
74.1 



Daily 



Deg. Fah. 



84^* 
85.0 
84.0 






335 



TROPICAL SAISPALL AND EVAPORATIOV. 



BOKBAT. 

Latftode 18* & Nortlx; Longitade 73* 31' West; Hoi«ht above Sea 86 ftet 

TUInfMl. 



Year. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


AprlL 


May. 


Jnne. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Deo. 


1849 
1850 
X851 
X851 
1853 


in. 
0.34 

••• 
• •• 

••• 
■ •• 


in. 

• •• 

• ■• 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 


in. 

• •• 

• t> 

• •• 

o.ox 
0.01 


in. 

• •• 

• •• 

• •• 

• am 
■ • • 


in. 

• •• 

• •• 

a5X 
0.30 

• • • 


in. 

»3-4i 
14.80 

14.50 
21.76 

3J-70 


in. 
50.99 
10.15 
47.01 
11.17 
13.06 


in. 
ti.66 

5.38 
10.01 
11.16 

5.95 


in. 
16.13 

11.67 
9.83 


in. 

0.04 
0.19 

• •• 


in. 
0.61 
0.15 
ao7 

• •• 

• •• 


in. 
•«• 
... 

... 

I.OI 

• • • 


Heaa 


0.07 


••■ 


• 0« 


• •a 


o.x6 


13.63 


30.68 


11.04 


11.4S 


1. 17 


0.X9 


0.10 


MOMl 

Dotty) 


.002 


• •• 


• •• 


• •• 


.005 


.788 


.990 


.J56 


.381 


.038 


.006 


.007 









GiMtett noi of Bain in 84 Hoon. 






ft 


1849 


0.30 




• •• 




• •• 


5. ox 


6.35 


i.»5 


4-55 


^JH 


0.60 


• •• 


X850 


•«• 




• •• 




• •• 


4.08 


4.61 


»-39 


X.U 


0.15 


• •• 


1851 


• •■ 




• «• 




0.30 


5-53 


^n 


6.41 


1.11 


1. 01 


0.07 


• •a 


1851 


••• 




0.01 




0.15 


i:3 


4-78 


X.49 


3.X6 


0.X7 


• •• 


0.83 


1853 


•«o 




0.01 




9.89 


X.51 


3.60 


3.60 


• ■• 


■ •• 


■ •0 



GiMtett Xmportttloii in 24 Hovn. 



1849 


0.31 


0.37 
a 38 


0.46 


0.14 


a 37 


ai9 


0. 19 


0.14 


0.10 


0.31 


0.41 


0.37 


1850 


a 33 


0.38 


0.4! 
0.36 


0.34 


0.35 


0.13 


0.11 


0.11 


0.51 


0.43 


0.34 


1851 


0.30 


0.39 


0.56 


0.4; 


0.31 


0.10 


0.10 


0.18 


a3i 


0.39 


0.8X 


1851 


0.38 


0.40 


0.49 


0.39 


0.46 


0.41 


0.17 


0.H 


0.14 


0.33 


0.35 
0. 38 


0.38 


185! 


0.35 


0.40 


0-44 


a 39 


0.4a 


0.40 


0.17 


0.13 


0.15 


0.37 


0.37 



XonUkly Xvftpontloiu 



1849 

1850 
I85I 
1851 

1853 


6.98 
6.77 
7.10 

u 


6.07 

n 

7.»5 
7-77 


9-}o 
X0.63 


8.16 
9.10 
9.04 


8.17 

9.40 

IX. 71 

10.89 


1.30 
5.70 

4.79 
6.51 
6.3X 


1.81 

3.08 

3.70 
3.40 


3.5» 

4-37 
3.4" 

5.16 


4.73 

4.10 
5.13 


6.49 

5-95 
6.59 

9.01 


7.10 
8.64 
7.6X 
7.X7 
9.40 


9.18 
8.15 

7.74 

9-59 


Mean. 


7.41 


6.99 


8.79 


8.57 


10.00 


5. XI 


3.36 


4.18 


4.53 


6.73 


8.00 


8.37 


Mmn\ 


.140 


.150 


.183 


.185 


.3** 


•174 


.X08 


•135 


.151 


.1x7 


.166 


.170 



Xean of Ww^iwuiw Temperatoro of each 24 Hovn. 





deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


deg. 


^' 


deg. 


deg. 


?f% 


deg. 


^' 


X851 


65.7 


69.1 


73.9 


77-9 


80,4 


?•' 


78.1 


77.8 
78.0 


77.0 


76.8 


74.3 


70.8 


1851 


65.4 


69.4 


73.9 


78.0 


81.1 


?-7 


79.8 


77.8 


?2:l 


74-7 


1853 


65.1 


70.1 


74.7 


81.7 


81.0 


79.0 


77.9 


77.7 


74.5 


70.6 



of Kudmoa TeBoqpvmtiiza of eaeh 24 Hoon. 



X851 
X851 
1853 



79-4 
80.3 

79-9 



81.7 
83.1 
84.* 



86.6 
86.9 
88.4 



89.5 
90.0 
90. X 



90.1 
91*8 
93.1 



86.0 
87.7 
87.x 



81.0 
85.4 
83.1 



83.3 
83.7 
84.8 



84.9 
84.9 
85.0 



87-4 
87.6 

89.x 



86.1 
88.1 
87.9 



83.8 
81.8 
86.0 



ComparitOB of Tlaiiiflill, XvapomtloiL, and Tomperataro. 



I 



X849 
X850 
X85X 
X851 

1853 



RainfMI 



Annnai 



in. 
X14.89 

g-H 
.07 
.17 
61.55 



Mean 
DaUy. 



in. 

0.315 
0.138 
0.163 
0.190 
o. 171 



Bvapoxation. 



Annnal 



in. 

^^ 

86.07 

95-33 



Mean 
Daily. 



in. 

•197 
.119 

.136 
.158 



Mean Temperature. 



Annnal. 



Deg. Fbh. 
80.1 
80.4 
80.1 
81.3 
81. X 



Daily 



Deg. Fab. 
84.0 
85.6 
85.1 
86.1 
86.6 



Daily 
Min. 



Deg. Fab. 

75- J 
75.1 
75.0 

75.6 



336 



to 



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I 






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h 

I 






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^ 



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346 



EADI7AII. AX FEILDE'8 WED, HEBI8. 

Height abore Sea 00 teet 



TIABS. 



JaanAiy .. 
Fobrnaty 
ICaroh 



Jtrne 

July .., 

August 

September 
October ... 
Norember 
Beoember , 



Total. 



i8$o. 



3.» 
0.8 

O.A 

J.O 

0.8 
>.| 

1.0 

1.8 
1.8 
1.9 



11.3 



1851. 



1851. 



in. 


in. 


3-5 


4.6 


I.O 


«.s 


4.1 


t.l 


1.8 


0.6 


1.8 


"4 


3* 


M 


1.7 


1.1 


J- 7 


0.6 
1.8 


Vo 


I.I 


7.« 


0.6 


».J 



1853. 



1854. 



in. 
3-4 
1-4 

U 

1.5 

|.0 

4.0 
».4 

1.8 
0.4 



in. 

».7 
0.9 
0.5 

0.7 

0.8 
«-5 

0.0 
«-9 



11.9 J9.5 18.7 



17.9 



1855. 



15.0 



1856. 



in. 


in. 


0.5 


».3 


1.0 


"•3 


1.8 


1.0 


o.t 


1.0 


».4 


1.6 


i.i 


0.7 


5-3 


1.1 


1.0 


1.6 


1.8 


1.8 


5» 


1.9 


1.9 


1.4 


«-7 


».s 



H-3 



i8n. 



in. 

3*5 
0.1 
1.6 

».3 

1:1 

1.5 
1.1 

3.8 

1.6 

a7 



»5.4 



1858. 



in. 

1.0 

1.8 

ti 

1.6 
0.9 

3-3 

1.9 
I.I 

it 

1.7 



10.8 



1859. 



in. 
1-3 
1.4 
1.0 

».4 
I.I 

3* 
3» 

1.1 

3.7 
».7 
3" 
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19.1 



of 10 



in. 

^5 

I.I 

1.4 
1.9 
%.% 

3.0 

»•! 

i.a 

3.* 
».7 



»5-5 



HeanofSyears 



26.1 



24.9 



wnmB. 



7.8 



8.1 7.8 14.9 4.8 



5.0 



7.» 



7.6 



5- 1 



5.0 



Mean of 6 years 



8.7 



6.0 



6.3 



7.9 



6.9 



10.0 



5-4 



5.6 7.3 I 6.8 



7.0 



8.7 



OfS 



7.3 



7.1 



8.3 I 7.8 |i6.4 I11.7 



<5.4 



»4-3 [ 9-5 [1^6 I 8.7 |ii.8 



Mean of 6 years 



10.1 



1L4 



EAIH7ALL AT HTTCHDr, HEBTS. 

Height above Sea 400 tK^ 



7-4 



7.* 



laS 



TEAB8. 



January ... 
Febmary 

Match 

April. 

May 

June 

July 

August «... 
September 
October ... 
November 
December 



• •••••«•■••••• I 



Total 



Mean of 6 years 



1850. 



in. 

0.8 
0.1 
1.1 
1.1 
0.8 

4.4 
I.I 

;:i 

i.i 

1.0 



11.1 



1851. 



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1.5 

1.7 

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1.1 
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H-S 



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in. 
4-5 

«.4 
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4.0 
3.» 

1.6 

5.6 

»-4 



34-1 



1853. 



in. 
1.0 

"•5 

II 

1.1 

».$ 
3-7 
3.0 
1.6 
3.0 

1.4 

0.9 



16.3 



1854. 



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1-4 
0-3 

0.7 

3.7 

tl 

1.0 
0.6 
a. 4 
1.4 
"•5 



17.1 



24.9 



1855. 



in. 
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1.0 
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0.1 

i:l 

1.3 

1.6 

0.7 



^•3 



1856. 



in. 
1.1 

0.8 
0.8 
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4-4 

1.8 

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1.1 
1.6 



ij.i 



I8S7. 



in. 

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0.1 

1.1 

1.8 

0.9 

1.^ 

1.6 

4.8 

6.3 
1.1 
0.4 



1S.9 



1858. 



in. 
0.8 

«-3 

0.7 

3.« 

*.3 

0.7 

4-3 
a. 3 
1.4 

0.6 
1.8 



«x8 17.1 



1859. 



in. 
I.I 

1.7 
0.3 

*.4 
1.9 
3.0 

11 

1.6 

30 
».7 
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25.2 



1I«M 

«rio 



in. 
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1.1 
1.0 
1.8 

».3 
1.9 

3.* 

»-7 
1.9 

3.1 
1.1 

1.4 



15.0 



7.ojio.i [ 7.9 [11. 5 [4.6 



6.0 



6.3 



6.5 



4.7 



5* 



Mean of 6 years 



8.2 



6.7 



sPBnro. 



5-4 



»'* I 7-3 I 



9.1 



5-4 



5-3 



9.0 I 6.1 16.8 I 7.6 



MeanofSyears 



7.1 



7.0 



8.7 8. J 11.9 In. 3 I 6.6 



1.6 [ 9.4 [17.4 



9-5 



11.8 



MeanofSyears 



e.6 



12.1 



7.0 



7.1 



10.9 



1 



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1 

1 

1 

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1 
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348 



BAIHFAZX OF SELGIUX, 
ITALY, TRASCE & 



GEKHAVT, HW nvBft.T.Aim ^ 
VSXSCR C0L0VIE8. 



\u 



CH. St. Beraanl is 



i> '4- 'I 
♦»'J-44 



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Chtlona 

Lons-la-Blnler 



'■ 17- " =;: 
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9 19.0 ' 

4 ii.lL . 



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KAIHPALL 09 
lABLi or KIAS 

Abwbf Ofir lofUodf , IntUad; and li 







!!;« 



»: 



Him^Bij. 



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17.69 

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IJ.JO 

to- 57 

sS 

17. rt 

SI 




„ No. of Dm^ Beta 




■Mrtrioht..- {l-^ 
r i»« 

liSS 


1.77 
i.iji 

1.99 

3 


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1.9; 




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374 



XAIHFAIX OF HOBTH AMEBICA. 



TABLE 07 MSAH ANSVAL 7ALL OV &AIV, 



on whiek fke flMoa hat been taken. 



qfjfean 



Place. 



Hancock Bamcks . 
Fort Snlliyan 

„ Preble 

Constipation .. 
watertown Arsenal 
Fort Trumbull 

„ Hamilton 

„ Columbus .... 
Bt.lCartin(Montreal) 
Plattabur^ 



Toronto 

Fort Ontario 

..Niagara 

BuflUo 

▲lleffhanv Arsenal 
Cai&le Barracks .. 
ForCMiflin 

f, McHenxy 

„ Bevem 

Washington 



FortlConroe 

,, Moultrie ...,».... 
Oglethorpe Bamdcs 

Fort Shannon 

KqrWest 

Fort Brooke. 

Cedar Keys 

Fort Barranoas .... 
Mount Yem. Arsenal 
New Orleans 



M 

M 



Baton Bouge 

FortJesup 

Towson 

Washita 

Gibson...., 

Smith 

Boott 

Jelftrson Barracks 

St Louis Arsenal .. 

Detroit 



Fort Mackinac . 

Brady 

Howard .... 
Winnebago 
dtKwfbnl . 
Bnelling .... 



M 
tt 
»• 

", Bipley 

ff Leavenworth 

„ Kearney 

„ Laramie .« 






Arbuokle 

Chadboume 
Brown, 



Bingffold Bairacks 
Fort Clark 



Pro?iBoe. 



Maine 
»• 

N. Hampshire 

Massaohnsette 

Conneoticat 

New York 

Canada B. 
H^ewTock 

Canada W 

New York 

*> 

Peonsylrania 
»$ 

Maiylaad 
$$ 



Virginia 

8. Carolina 

Geonoa 

Florida 



*» 



» 



Alaiiama 



Ind.Tar. 
«* 

Arkansas 
Miflsonzi 

V<i;^tg^ 



Il]£oiS 

Wisoonabi 
»> 

Minnesota 

KttQsas 

Nebraska 

» 

IndTerr. 

Texas 

»» 

f» 

>* 



Lat. 

N. 



dee.m 
46.07 

44.54 
43-39 
43.04 
41.11 
41.11 

40.37 
40.41 
45.3* 
44.41 

43.39 
41. M> 

43. i« 

4»-5f 
40.31 
40.11 
39-53 

ItM 

3«.5S 

37.00 

3*45 
JI.05 

»9-34 
14. ji 

is.oo 

19.07 

30.18 
31.11 
*9-f7 

JO. 16 
3>-33 
34-00 

34. «4 
35-47 

35. »5 
37-45 
3t.ilt 

38-40 
41.10 

45- 5« 

46.30 

44.30 
43- 3» 
43.0s 

44.53 
46.19 

39-" 
40.38 
41.11 



i 



34-* 
31.3 

10.13 
19.17 



Long. 
W. 



deg.m 

tin 

70.10 
70,49 

71.00 
74.0a 
74.01 
73-36 

73- »5 




76.18 

??.5i 
i'07, 
81.48 
81.48 
81.1b 
83-03 
87.17 
88. Oft 
90.00 

91.18 
93. 3* 

95-33 
96.38 
9J.10 
9419 

94-35 
90.15 

e.05 
.58 



84. 
84. 
88. 

89. 
91. 

93- 
94. 

^. 

«<H. 



33 
43 
05 
18 
00 
10 

»9 
44 

57 
47 



97 
100.40 

97.16 

99. oz 

100.15 



I 

n 



09 1000 



1110 

50 
100 
1000 



Fah 

40.5^ 
41.0 

45.* 
45.8 

47.1 
49.6 

5i.5 

51.7 
43- o 

44-0 

47-9 
46.1 
50.8 

53.8 
54.1 

56.1 

68.7 
65.8 
69.8 

68.1 
66.3 
61.7 
6a. 1 
60.8 
60.0 

54-5 

55-4 

54-5 

47.1 

40.6 
40.4 

44.8 

47.6 

44.5 

39-3 
51.8 

47-7 
50.1 

60.8 
61.4 

73.7 

07.1 



Bain. 



^f 



inches 
16.97 

19. 39 

45.*5 

15-57 
41.07 

45.69 
43-65 
41.13 

44-46 
13-39 

31.50] 
|0.88 

38.80 

34-96 
34.01 

45-1 
41.00 
48.61 
4t>M 

50,89 
44.9* 

53. U 

48.68 
47-65 
55-47 
48.50 
56.98 
63.50 
p. 90 

61.10 
45.85 
51.08 
41.66 

36.46 
41.10 
41.11 
37-83 

4«.95| 
30.07 

13.87 

31-35 
34.65 

»7.49 
31.40 

»5.43 
19.48 
30,10 
17.98 
18.15 

Its 

33-65 
10.05 

11.80 



yrs. 

I 

8 

"3 

7 

.1 

18 
3 

9 

6 

8 

10 

i 

6 

3 
5 

11 
5 
3 

9 

14 

3 

9 
10 

15 

11 

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II 
18 
16 
10 

«7 
11 

10 
16 

7 
9 

.1 

5 

»9 
5 
3 

4 
I 
5 
5 
3 



St. John's R. 



If 



Atlantic. 



M 



LoQgLfloiind 

Atlantic 

Bay. 



L.Ontaxio. 



M 



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keB. 



»$ 



k al^Ht^ 



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4-7> 


+ 4 


I.* 


S.J, 




i-i 




77.16 








IP 


1-0 


Ii 




Ir 


7.1: 

J-97 
J.07 


«■+ 




Ii 


II 





379 



BAIH7AKL OF HOBTH AHXBICA. 



JUXTAnS OF XOnHLT J ALL 
Ji mm$ qfAt p H m lp ai SMiom rgf^mtd toJmHf iaXU ^ Atumal J B aln^bg. 



Hon.— ^Tbe Means am those of the 
RefaftJl, not of the more Bmited 



of yean named In the table of Anmial 
of whioh the detail is here glTen. 




380 



BAIHFALL OF HOBTH AKBBICA. 



BKCAXia OF XORHLT VA£L 

Hon.— The Heaas are thoM ofllie zmmber of yeBn mtned In the tidde of Anmd 
BainflOl* not of ttie mora Ifmiled ymn, of which the detail is hare given. 



Period. 



ICean 




^Mean 



Mean 



J 1851 

J 185* 

i 185} 

" S 1854 

^Ifeas 




4ir««4S 
S] 1850 



* V 



n ^Mean 




OCean 



i 



in 
1.89 

9- 49 
3.89 

1.92 
6.80 

0.97 
1.56 
ft. 85 

5.a6 

4.0} 
1. 7% 

1.40 
0.50 
1.58 
0.82 
0.30 

.i.8j 

1-59 
0.14 

ft.ftZ 

1.9a 

1.65 

0.40 

M4 
1.91 

1.81 
1.58 

1.18 

1.83 

».74 
0.92 
ft. 49 

>.«4 

Klft 
1. 19 

1.67 
o.fto 
0.06 
0.00 
0.7ft 

0.7 J 



I 



in. 

a. 44 
4.81 

7.16 

1.95 

6.04 

6.75 
5.50 

4.91 

4.07 
ft. 90 

ft. 97 

J- 17 
10.^ 

5.07 
ft. 27 

ft.ft6 

1.5ft 
3.60 

O.II 

1.18 

3.fta 

5.0J 

«-7J 
ft,04| 

C.63 
1. 01 
1.56 

1.38 

a 83 
i.ftk 
1. 19 
1. 18 

1. 13 

1.50 

0.87 

0.83 
0.13 
0.14 
0.01 
0.03 

0.5ft 



I 



in. 
1.36 
ft. 09 
0.77 
1.5ft 

4*59 

ft. 19 
6.15 

4.68 

ft. 85 
3.8b 

4.}8 

4.91 
1.50 

1.06 
7.83 

ft. 54 

ft. 40 
0.4b 
0.9& 

1.79 

4.66> 
1.86 

7.19 

1.89 

»-57 
3.84 

ft. 86 

1.83 
0.84 
0.4b 
"•J4 

«I7 

0.78 
1.70 

ft.ft3 
i.ft3 
ft. 04 

O.Oft 

1.03 
1.30 



I 



in. 
3.06 
4. ft* 

6.ft4 
4.»» 
ft.ft6 

8.2^ 

3.5k 
5.ftft 

4-79 
4-99 

JJ3 

4.73 
0.5c 

ft. 95 

3.16 
4.19 

0,75 
ft. 17 

3.70 

5.0ft 
ft. 80 
1.39 

3.06 

J*9 

ft. 90 

ft. 00 
ft. 9ft 

ft. 15 
ft.ft3 
0.73 
ft. 14 

1.83 

1.58 

{•33 

ft. 60 
ft. 68 
ft. 49 
0.73 
ft. 51 

».I4| 



^ 

» 



in. 
6. II 
6.7ft 

6.75 
4.6ft 

1.4ft 
6.08 
8.05 

5.18 

ft. 04 
9-09 

5.84 



I 



0.37 

.ftO 

6.65 

7.67 

4.65 

ft. 19 

4-39 
10.74 

7.08 

3.46 

3.97 
8.1ft 

4.18 

1.03 
ft. 10 

0.29 

»«73 

0.70 
3.11 

0.74 
3.61 

*.»4 

8.50 

3.97 

0.57 
3.96 
4.7ft 
4.08 
4.30 

3-»7 



I 



in. 
9.ft5 

ft. Of 

1.50 
6.14 

ft. 06 

1-33 

4.00 

5.06 
0.90 

5.78 

4.58 
6.45 
5. 8$ 
1.60 
ft. 80 

4.30 
4.80 

III 

8.13 

\x 

11.85 

5.07 

ft. 30 
ft. 65 

3.91 

ft. 9ft 
ft. 91 

3.94 

i.ft3 
ft. 83 

3.15 
4-93 

4.6ft 
ft. 15 

0.08 

7-59 
3»3i 

3.63 



• 



in. 
IA,56 

1.84 
1.9ft 

.6.30 
ft.6S 

6.55 

7.41 

3*9 
5-3t 

4.6ft 

1. 00 

6.12 

0.76 

0.ftl 

*-75 

o.ft7 
ft. 74 

4-45 
4-55 

ft. 05 
4.65 
ft. 7ft 

3.67 

1.9ft 
ft. 35 

ft. 85 

3.fto 

8.15 

5-99 

3.»7 
3.fti 

3-75 

5.07 
5'5» 

6.15 

ft. 60 

ft. 74 
1.65 
3.9ft 

4.I1 



5 



in. 
11.15 

5.13 
8.69 

9.64 
6.40 

7.96 
ft. 26 

7.4" 

6.fte 

4-39 

0,49 

3.96 

3.00 
I. IS 

4-99 

4.7a 
0.33 

ft. 63 



•45 
89 



S 
3 
ft. 90 

3.69 



5.20 
7.06 

3.M 
4-«4 

1.3ft 

4-35 
3.56 

ft. 18 

4.09 
3.67 

I'd 

3-39 
ft. 67 
4.01 

ft. 97 

3-*9 
0.89 

».57 
>-75 

3.18 



f 






in. 

0.65 

0.15 

4-4* 
0.70 

3.05 

0.59 
3.30 
9.88 

3.91 

ft. 66 
6.11 

3-41 

0.35 

3»4 

4.38 

0.0b 
ft. 30 

0.5ft 
0.15 
ft. 40 

ft. 30 

0.81 
ft. 97 

ft. 88 

3.8ft 

3.*5 
ft. II 

3.3' 

4.00 
4.8ft 
2.61 
3.18 

4-33 

3.26 
3. II 

1. 8ft 

3.64 

0.7ft 

ft. 14 
6.55 



3.9ft 



4-59 



8.85 



ft. 04 



3*35 



«J5 



5-90 



3.10 



3*43 



ft.l» 



9' 48.7 
.I55«.4 

.ft5 63.50 



ft. 06 

6.12 



3.06 



T.30 



2.21 



1.31 



a67 



1 



10 



0035.00 



70*5. 
7718, 

ft. 06 

|O.OI 

3ft. 41 
46.52 

6942.12 

3Q.61 
36.11 

55- >J 
2.4ft 37. 8} 



49*5 



30.07 



5545- 



"74 

|Ll6 



o.04ft5.5O 
ftl.4ft 

15.07 
po.47 

o.64ft6>59 



»5-43 



381 





BAIHFALL 07 HOBTE AKEBICA. 






9XIAII8 OF XOITHLT FAIL 


Ji$9m»^^pi4tutpal StoHont rtfmr^dtohk iU tatU tfAaamA SaiufbU, 


Kon.— The Ifesu sre those of the number otjem named in the taUe of Anmuil 
TtolnftJI, not of the more limited yean, of which the detail ia here giyen. 


Period. 


4 


i 


1 


1 


1 


• 


J 


1 


1 

in. 
a 7a 

T.tO 
I.61 

"•47 
a. XI 


t 


1 


i 


1 


w i 1854 

i-i liCeaD 


in. 
1. 10 

0.96 
0.01 
0.04 


in. 
ft.ai 

0.96 
o.ft8 
0. fO 
1.78 


in. 

3-64 
1.03 

Clf 


in. 
1.74 

I.OO 

J. 50 
a. 36 

il5 


in. 

6.40 

4 7« 
1-39 
5-55 


in. 

6.53 

5.95 
4.50 


in. 
1.63 

4.00 
3.ai 
0.16 


in. 

a. a? 

5.01 

4.aa 

5.0T 

1.07 


in, 

X.85 

i.6b 

a. 64 

0.5a 

3.ao 


in. 

3.18 

3-53 
a. 07 

I.ao 


in. 
0.76 

It 

a76 
ao5 


in. 

38.81 

36.53 
a5.ao 

14.40 


0.7X 


t.OI 


1. 61 


».74 


3.6» 


5.80 


J.'S 


3-»9 


3.aa 


X.84 


a. 17 


x.oz 


30. a9 


£ 5/ ** 


0.71 
0.08 
0.18 


x.to 

0.57 
0.^ 


f.78 

aw 


I.X5 
4*53 
3.9k 


7.19 


4.08 
3.67 


f.88 
X.86 
i't6 


1.46 
a 55 

I. a; 


i:K 

1.60 


1.70 

0.& 

1.86 


6.4a 
0.06 
a 78 


1*3 

0.71 
0.05 


jx.4a 

30.7* 
ia.a6 


d^Mean 


0.33 


0.69 


«-J7 


J- 1* 


7.9« 


4.»3 


1.34 


1.09 


a. 38 


1.4a 


a. 41 


0.66 


a8.aa 


r i8$o 

£ II ■!" 


4. JO 

0-9$ 
0.50 

0.00 
0.45 


3.80 
1.10 
0.60 
1.60 
1.90 


a. 30 
0.40 
0.35 
0.00 
1. 16 


0.05 
1.15 
0.00 
a. 10 
0.05 


a.ao 
0.90 
4.05 
0.10 
4.10 


0.06 

*.3S 
5.05 

;:5 


X.I6 
3.65 

aTO 
aoc 

4.»5 


0.01 
1.80 
3.9c 
3.10 
5.00 


5.60 

8.50 

8.00 

11.31 


5-79 
4.X0 

4-95 
7-75 
5.79 


0.69 
3.00 
0.90 
X.30 

7-47 


0.15 
4.7c 
0.00 
0.65 
x.8b 


10.76 
19.30 
10.50 
26.^ 
50.00 


llCean 


1.61 


x.*5 


i.ao 


0.56 


a. at 


4-55 


1.95 


a. 76 


6.73 


5. 68 


a.67 


x.48 


33-^5 


III 


r 1850 
t8;i 
list 
18JJ 
1854 


J. 14 
0.84 

I.OO 

0.70 
0.70 


0.61 

tn 


1.93 
0.03 
65 
0.00 
o.a& 


0.79 
1. 11 
a6b 

1-79 
0.09 


4-55 

o.ao 

a.a8 
a. §3 


a. 76 
t.ai 
0.96 

t.45 
XI. 00 


a 17 
a.ao 
0.8a 

4.00 


an 

O.Ql 

1.44 
4-34 
1.5b 


0.06 
5.ai 

4.M 
a. 3a 

3.0a 


0.58 
I.ao 

4.7*» 
a. 40 
0.9a 


a. 91 
aia 
0.01 
0.19 
a. 10 


0.01 
X.15 
o.ofc 
0.91 
o.6i 


17.64 
14.08 
17.81 
ia.58 
x^.05 


^Mean 


I.X4 


1. 18 


o.7» 


i.oe 


a. 69 


3-47 


a. 13 


1.50 


3.aa 


a. 15 


0.94 


a 63 


10.95 


£g( ««S4 


0.8S 

aocM 


t.i8 
0.94 


0.65 
1.48 


0.60 


t.t6 
a. 65 


10. ai 
o.ii 


1:2 


».75 
0.95 


a 13 
3-49 


4.00 
0.55 


a ax 
3.aa 


1.6c 

0.35 


«9*X4 
14.4a 


Sll««54 


0.04 
0.00 


0.10 
0.00 


0.03 
0.65 


0.01 
0.10 


0.05 
0.86 


o.a8 
0.05 


a. 80 
a87 


1.83 
1.38 


x.ai 
0.95 


0.90 
a 39 


X.X5 

ao7 


0.64 
0.X5 


0.64 

ao7 


l*^{;iu 


o.»3 

ObOO 


0,39 
aoo 


a 38 
0.05 


O.OM 

0.01 


0.35 
0.6a 


0.74 
0.01 


a. 78 
0.41 


i.ao 
x.ox 


0.53 
a.13 


aoo 
0.34 


0.59 
X.09 


tU 


7.86 
5.76 


i^l! -s 


0.00 
0.30 


aoo 
0.00 


0.01 
0.43 


0.00 

0.39 


0.04 
1.19 


0.00 
o.a8 


a. 59 


3.80 
1.19 


ao7 
a. 67 


aoo 
I-37 


a3x 
«.35 


0.30 
a9i 


7.X0 
ia.51 


^^Mean 


0.48 

0.19 
0.07 


0.59 
0.08 
0.0a 


0.00 
0.63 


O.M 
0.46 


0.73 
0.91 
0.50 


7.05 
0.11 
0.69 


a. 73 
4.10 
3.98 


5-49 
3- 4a 

1.75 


3- 04 
1.59 

a. 99 


3*44 
aw 


a. 83 


aoa 
a 18 

0.60 


26.64 
13.43 
'4-37 


0.19 


0.99 


0.37 


0-53 


>.J7 


a. 00 


4.07 


J. 55 


»-45 


i.a5 


1.4* 


a 85 


19. a4 


gf 1 1854 


0.40 

S.00 


0.08 
0.15 


1.19 
0.45 


0.10 
0.93 


t-44 
0.51 


0.4J 


1-43 
3-94 


4.65 


».64 
3-47 


0.04 
am 


o.aa 
»-49 


o.a5 
I.ao 


i3-t7 
10.84 


^•"8 Mean 

£^( 1854 


T.08 


0.65 


1.68 


0.51 


0.7* 


1. II 


».J7 


1.73 


a. 64 


1.05 


0.98 


a9a 


X6.64 


o.cx> 
0.00 


0.00 
o.x8 


0.01 
0.80 


0.00 
0.00 


0.00 
0.00 


0.00 
0.00 


aa5 
0.01 


a69 
*-37 


a 13 

0.17 


0.00 
a 30 


a 18 
0.00 


a5a 

0.57 


1.78 
4. JO 


U4 :i^ 


O.CO 

t.46 


0.10 
a. 56 


1.51 
1.14 


0.t5 
0.75 


a. 10 

o.ai 


0.05 
o.Qa 


aoo 
a07 


aai 
"•35 


0.00 
an 


0.00 
0.01 


i.a8 
aoa 


1.77 
3-34 


ia.o6 


« ^ ( 1851 

^ a i«54 


a4a 
i.ao 
%.a6 


a6f 

»-JS 
»-4* 


'yf9 

$'54 
0.85 


a.59 

%.%s 

a. 08 


a6o 

4-79 
ao4 


0.00 
aoo 
0.01 


aoo 
0.01 
0.00 


aoo 
0.00 
o.ao 


0.07 
0.00 
0.11 


ao7 
0.00 
a 68 


8.80 
x.a6 

0.00 


aa6o 

I.OO 

x.a5 


49-15 

18.40 

aoo 



V«l.-Tb«lfM»« 


n ehoM or Ibe nnmbw of T«ni ui 


Ofldb) 


tha 


■UaofAia 


ul 1 


HiinilLiiiil of Uis nun Umltsd jtm, of which Um d(MD U btn gtwo. 1 


Mmu-eighlhoftliMBUuani. |. 


r^ 


J_ 


i 


i 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


± 


1 


1 


1 






in. 


in. 


in. 




In. 


In. 






in. 








iii{i 


!:^ 


(■8; 




1.1: 


3. Pi 






0.0) 


0.11 

0.0( 


::2 

..,6 


0.40 


0.60 


17.00 


u»{i 


1.90 


t^s 


xlo 


I.I7 

4-s: 


1.40 


I.0« 


0.00 


o-M 


^u 


0.4* 


■■4* 


1.11 

'■4^ 


•J^ij 
rj.91 


UUiZ 


»i' 


4-77 


t->6 


6.si 


1-49 


■-77 








;:s 


7. ,7 


'I- 17 




9.10 


♦.». 


•-47 


1.7. 


»-» 


0.90 


O.|0 


0^)9 




■'-S7 




tiiii? 


l^{i!;i 


1.79 


J 


t.^1 


i.ii 


i.,61 


^n 


0.0I 


o.e. 

a.tS 


ifi 


o-H 


4.9= 
.-4. 


0.91 

I. JO 


It** 


d ritfo 


«.5i 


«■■: 


1L70 




n.io 


0.40 








..*> 


f-<« 






8 <■)■ 


Tlipj 




J. II 


iin 


iff 


:g 


o,t6 


t.-fi 


t-til 


1-71 


1? 


h 


SS 


t.14 

t.69 


7-i' 


1.19 


11,10 


I. OS 

3.a 


!:S 


0.00 


1.19 


ti 


4,9) 


7-17 


.t8 


e:; 


■ UlMn 


9-14 


f,l6 


4-16 


4.77 


i.W 


'■« 


0-14 


'14 


•.67 


4.11 


»..5 


6.1. 


II- TJ 


r><50 


..91 


M! 


1 '4 




0.(4 


■I 


J 17 


4-j6 


].6l 


».o8 


1.96 


i*? 


!7-»» 




1 


rtSl 


J:S 




l.Sj 


B 


I" 


j.S, 


1. 16 
1.70 


1.71 
(-■9 


4-71 


SJi 


i;:a 








!!«o 




I'l' 


t£ 


::2 




12 




0,87 


i.7« 




IS. 41 




I8i4 






•-77 






I-J7 




ti 


1*74 




g 


1 


;Sfi 


J't^ 


li° 


I-7- 


u 


1% 


!"» 


!:« 


::|j 


ss» 

4.10 


t1 


HI 




H 


1 


:s;s 


s 


UM 


P-9: 


!:i 


t\^ 


•■« 


1.07 


i-S 


1.64 

0.7) 


::£ 


ti 


t!| 


S£ 


O 


.in 


ISO 


■■« 


(■'« 


i.ai 




4.01 


1.61 


j» 


JJ* 


o-W 






»!:!» 


e 


Uiwo 


l-I* 


|.U 


L.4I 


1-7- 


jf 


•1] 


171 


!.« 


..&4 


•■4« 


l-C 


iT 


(7. It 




tfSS 


jot 


i|.i 


II. 1 


1. 01 
















•9-S 


JO. 01 




7.c« 




a.t 




0.0 J 






::: 






i'i? 




l*.04 




(0.09 


\u 


■9-f 

?■' 
9.» 


9.04 
fc09 












o!oi 




It.4 


»-09 




Oil 




y^ 


•■41 


J-77 




).>I 




«.9S 




iE 


S.4« 




St.tl 


■r , 


i«H 




M4 


4.4) 


(.}9 


1-19 


l.|8 






6.16 


» 






1 "i 


1 

1«59 


)-94 




t-4> 




0.7) 


1.4" 




*'■ 




9.01 


S<{1 


ft:«l 


11 




li 


::S 


,:i 


ti'is 


t.i\ 


«-17 




>-(T 


ai'ii 


&« 


4.'70 




It s 


t^ 




Jill 


t.lS 
4-9> 


1:^ 


6.7i 


•■41 


i^ 


i"i4 
■t.,1 


'■9» 


1-»9 


4^4^ 


S:il 




Lutu. 


v»9 


i." 


u,. 


i-40 


t-oi 


«-II 


4-6> 


1.49 


*.74 


S-6S 


5-5* 


(■7' 


PS-H 


a (i 


IJS 


!:!r 


.Ito 


ils 


uri 


^9' 


*." 


V9» 


7.06 


1^ 


li 


S-IO 


S7:*i' 


IMi 


i.p 




•■4' 


o.» 


4.04 


1.t4 


4. SI 


K 


l.IO 


;:H 


ts 


0.I1 


iiS 


•-■1 


1.40 


•-•4 


1.11 


rot 


t.41 


1.71 


|.B> 


»-»9 


I.SO 


..7t 


I.M. 


•7-9) 


B»llffc» 


^ 


L» 


^ 


jyz 


y? 


|J« 


Ms 


±^ 


±fZ 


+46 


iJ» 


12* 


^ 



383 



IVDEZ TO FIAIES. 



Tide Ohart of the Irish Channel, ihewing lines of eqaal range at 
new and fbll moon 



• •• •• 



• • t •• 



■• ••• ••• 



Tide Ohart of the Irish Channel, shewing the set and rate of the 
flood stream 



••• ••• ••• 



••• ••• 



Sketoh of the ooQxse of the 7 o*dook stream of tide in the English 
Channel, at new and ftiU moon 



•4e ••• aia ••• ••• 



Do. 



do* 



do. 



Irish Ohannd 



Sketoh of English Channel, shewing direotion and velooitj of tidal 
currents, with rising tide at 1, 8, and 6 hoort hefbre high- 



Sketoh of do., with iUling tide, do. ; also in each plate a diagram of 
the fbna of tidal wave between the HcSOj Islands and the 
Bomber, at each hoar belbre and afl«r low water 

Map of the World, shewing ootidal and isothermal lines 

"BXyer Meney— Longitadinal Section, with diagram of tidal wave 
from simnltaneotu obseryatians, shewing snrftboe of water when 
high and low water at varions pohits, between Formby Point 
and Warrington, with croes sections of the bed in 1822 and 18S7 

Blvar Sevem— Boction shewing line of high and low water, and 
flood levels, also croes sections, with borings in the bed of the 
liver to ascertain the sab-starata. 

Blyer Avon— Flan and section, shewing bed and smrlhce lines of 
high and low waters at spring and neap tides 

BlTer Tyiie^Diagram of sorlhce of river when high and low water 
dozing a spring tide, at Newborn, Newcastle, and l^xiemoath ... 



vo. 
i 



u 



m 



!▼« 



▼ 



Tii 



Tiii 




3M 



TMXaX TO PULTIS. 



BlVer Nene—Diagtrnm ihowiaff nuihoe <»f riT«r when U^^ and low 
water aft Wiabeoh, during a spring tide 

BITOT ThamCNI— Seottoa of Biver shewing snrfltee of high and low 
water, and xiver beds of 1822 and 1867, wtth Captain Bnxstaa'a 
cross seotioDs of 1667 ... ... ... ... ... ... ... 

Blyer Olyde— Seetion shewing bed in 1768, 18H 1868, and 188S, 
with tidal linea 



••• ••• ••• ••• 



••• ••• 



••• ••• 



BlT«n Seine, Ooroxme and Gironde— Diagrams ahewtng 

simoltaneoos sorftoe lines of the qnring tides 

Biver Fo-— liap and section, with detailed plan of dykea and 
also section of river firam the Alps to the Adriatio ... 



••• ••• 



vo. 



xi 



BlrerB Adige, Beao, a&d Po— Longitadinal sections with smftMse 
lines in high floods, level of plain, banks, and bed; also diagrsms 
of discharge, rainihtt and temperature for the Po, Adda^ Beine^ 

SUU XXOQF ■•• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• 9m9 

Blver NUe— Diagram of rise and flJl at the NUomefcer, Oairo, and 
at Khartonm, with rainlUl of parallel latltodes; also seetjons 
of the Nile in the Delta and near Sioat, with flood and low water 
levels ; also borings shewing strata of Mile deposits, and level 
of underground water ••• ••« »• ... ••• •«• •.• 

BiTer HooglT— Diagram of one year's spring and neap tides, shew- 
ing eflbcts of floods on the tides ; also sketches of shoals in the 
Ganges, snd sections of the river ; also corves of spring and 
neap tides of the Thames, taken simnltsneonsly at various point* 
between and ..• ... •.. ... 



Tidfl^ Onrvea of spring and neap tides, of the ^^e, Hmnber, 

Wavenez, Dow, Seine, Bevem, Avon, and liars^ xftt 

Tldll Ouxreg of stmomal tides at BoaChamptca, Oardigan aiid 
Portland, shewing how abey are ailteted by their embayed 

postBon ••< ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• >•. ••• zvitt 



i""» ^ ' 




t w 



i 



WaiPTlowA: Sons.litli London 






3 



'^ 



'^. 




Sotu v dr 

dw tiat 

nere 



TIDE CHART 

of the 

IRISH CHANKEL 

Shewing the Set * Rate 
of 
The Flood Stream 

RetdiLced from the Chart of 
Capt* F.W.Beechey RN. F.RS 



Pum/Hes 



Ifydic 
Platel 



dXabh'J, 



^>. K 



■<*• 



*> ■■ 



rlif^jiUfai/. 



JtMut< 



Sto-ani 



\ewrv 



Xo tide ^trMm 
perceptihU 



,Di 





^^Jl9y"r 






I>ro5l 


keJa 






W 


i 


■■ ■ , 


: 


IkiHbijpQ 






A 


>Ca DVBLIi' 


»Ai 


Ei^i 


WW^ , 


% 




A 


Y 


9 


■ 


B3r 


k 


• , 


■' 


r— • 


wicia^ 


/ 4 





0' 



i'/dSr' 






Isle 






,i»%u0^nii)fr 



^£antS0rfJ^ 






wV 



V 



Li^ 



«r_-: 




n/^v<rv 



52" 






': 



4 9 



Not e 7%« xnthorr - imtrted anvwt denote Btat thar is an 

<ddr tide flote in there fivtn 2 to 4 hours after the 
omnp strtatn htymu ft* the end iff the tide- Ihe tiyures 
a4fauixt the atnres shew the veloeitv in feet per minute 



Pembroke 



__?r 



WaT.-^'-iy^ riv-n-; bui .ondon 



1 



HYO TABLES PLATCltt 



S RETCH 
of the 

Cours*' of the 7 o'clock strMun of Tide 
inthe 

ENGLISH CHAHVEL 

Ufdiwodfirom a pirn made by 

Capt"Beechcy KN. 
in 1848 



Ditppe 




<^ 



4-1 ftei nsf or 
ide attpnnps 



'A 



Etui 



SCALE 



loo Milrs 



'A'.tfslov S. .' .ri- ' i^j Lcniv-n 



» * « 



n 



V k, 



HYD TABLE SPIATE IV 




vi 



yT 



^■■"^r", 



l.of Man 



S K E T C H 

Cours« of the 7 o'clock stxoam of Tide 
ill the 

IRISH CHANNEL 

Afidiuxd from apian made fy' 

Capt!'B«-«.che;>- RN. 
m 184fi. 



ItH't' 



rourtowri dL 
nftulr ; 



nsr 




^5w Tns^ir 




/ [47feftruf af 
f itiiif nt spnntfs 




L*ttu1s Knd 



a (Char 



• S.ith 



Mil 



*■ 



Wajf.r sJ '..p.- .bt> I'-ndon 



» • 









( 



HTD. ZAMIES, PlATt IT A 
RISnrG TIDE 



1 



■•■sS 










/ / • Vi 'v' 
^ / I V 







F THE ENGLISH CHANlJfEL 

me directian' of mfi .tidal currentf 
us himrs heArv JBSg^ Wxter atJkver. 

vent ^ IhOfurs Itefiype K^. shewn iSuut 



:hartt ty ihe late Jdnand Seetfy FJIS. 



'£S t> Jpum&ad/ 



feet lo 



lfeaaW«ta> Iin« — »> 




Houn 



biefoi AaEnffHtk tndfrenth ooatt 



GXaOuNrid* 



En^nyedfyJUCWidk^ 






- \'^^ 

^v^^.^^^^' 




^r THE ENGUSH CHANSEL 

W Atrnnr bi£ire Bgh DbOr otAmr. 

rait b hsurf i^rreSKiharn Butt 





Fn^rwrndfyJACWalker 




.' .. I Wnlkrr .\rt.l^ 



Ptrt 




r*<i 



aKJOHva-dd* 



J.AC.U'aUxr^mip 



i 

\ 



\ 



4 



Dia^am 



Q.Shj 



Feet 




Dia^a 






P«et 



cl 



ighft ■ ■ r'.n" ir.fif 




.ATE X 




^ 




lO 



20, 



30 1 



40 



60 



Feet 



rJ«(*.V«AMr 



1 



\ 



\ 




65 



IVet 



£iufrs»ej byJjU'.WtiBtm' 



r 



HY1>. TABLES PLATE XI 



i 



CLYDE 



1 Section 

iLhs of the Channel 

IP 

iyftLtmr Lines 
1824.1853. 



r 



;.«• 






""^'.^k/ / 



/■ 



v-^,y -9 



/a 






4^1- rA-—//-^ /.^,^ 



fe«i 




-T 1 



m'D. TABLES PLATE Xfl 






.*• 






X^S 









.rC>- 




"^^^^^^ 



7^7.? 



l/», _. 



^-^^ 



,ft».. 



loL 



n- 



L 

I 

h 



t r 

o : I i > 



-i 



1— il 1 















-r.^^ 



80 



I' I I I 



J 1 L 









^ '^^^rnirf 



M 



00 



06 



I I 



-20 



-^ 



-16 



JlO 



i' 



,L I 1,0 



lOOlflLu 



1^ 2.'*Z<«rW&fcr«>/'l 



Feet 22^ 



^ ., — > ., . ;, ^ — - . g ,.., a 




L..JL 



S 



J L._L 



i: F 



J 1 I ! J_ 



J__J L_ 



75 



BO 



8.^ 



891Ma«> 






R CJK dd*. 



Etiarcnrd hn- JjcC.WaVeer 



1 



J 



1 



A 



\ 




/ 



f 



>ioo 



'60 



HYD. TABLES PLATE XIV 
Fiff 4. 

•my nuan mcmAfy I>uSt4ar^» of th» P6. ike A3da, A. Ae Smis. 
A t^ mean. ramfall,n^ttpartuiifn imd tempcroftire m Lambardy: 





/ 






fSL 



En^noffd byJJtC Wallet' 







AT* 












X 








MAN of HYP. PLAirEJi 




«B 


r 

1 




















' 














u 








1 j\\\ 


' j 


L 


> 








Jm ft\ 


- 


] 


















































-- 


-- 






111 


*, 






























\ i 


• 










u 






"4 
















































in 










^ 


^ 




^. 








1 1 






-\^ 


Ti '-- 


\ 


\- 


"/ 


-* 


- 




\-'i 


1^--^- 


\ 




J. 








\'^?. T 








u/^ 






\ •* /; 


1 


\-4 






\t\/ L 


; 


V 


V ' 




^ 


y> 


JULY W* 

























MAN HYD. PLATE IVlll 



^ iAU45 



koL'lldt 



^s 



J 





3/^ 






' I' 



j/ 



X/ ffOOf/ I 



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Practical Silo Construction. 18 illus., 69 pp., cr. 8vo. 

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CIVIL ENGINEERING 

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River and Canal Engineering. By E. S. Bellasis. 72 

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SCnfiKTlFIC BOOKS. 11 



Surveying and Levelling Instruments. Theoretically and 
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Handbook on Tacheometrical Surveying. By C. Xydis. 

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SdENTIFIO BOOKS. 18 



DRAWING 

The Oraamental Penman's, Engraver's and Sign Writer's 
Pocket Book of Alphabets. By B. Alexander. New 
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Slide Valve Diagrams : a French Method for their Construc- 
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A System of Easy Lettering. By J.H.Cromwell. Twelfth 
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Key to the Theory and Methods of Linear Perspective. 
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Plane Geometrical Drawing. By R. G. Fawdry. lUus* 
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Hints on Architectural Draughtsmanship. By G. W. T. 
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A First Course of Mechanical Drawing (Tracing). By G. 
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A Text-Book of Graphic Statics. By C. W. Malcolm. 

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Drawings for Medium-sized Repetition Work. By R. D. 
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